The Info List - Rishabhanatha

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Rushabhanatha or Rishabhanatha
(also Ṛṣabhadeva, Rushabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, or Ṛṣabha which literally means "bull") is the first Tirthankara
(ford maker) in Jainism.[5][6] Jain legends depict him as having lived millions of years ago.[7][4] He was the first of twenty four lords in the present half cycle of time in Jain cosmology, and called a ford maker because his teachings helped one across the sea of interminable rebirths and deaths (saṃsāra). He is also known as Ādinātha of Jainism
which translates into "First (Adi) Lord (nātha)",[7] as well as Adishvara (first ishvara), Yugadideva (deva of yuga), Prathamaraja (first king), and Nebheya (son of Nabhi).[8][9] Along with Mahavira, Parshvanatha
and Neminatha, Rishabhanatha
is one of the four Tirthankaras that attract the most devotional worship among the Jains.[10] According to Jain traditional accounts, he was born to King Nabhi
and Queen Marudevi
in north Indian city of Ayodhya, also called Vinita.[4] He had two wives, Sunanda and Sumangala. Sumangala is described as the mother of his ninety-nine sons (including Bharata) and one daughter, Brahmi. Sunanda is depicted as the mother of Bahubali
and Sundari. The sudden death of Nilanjana, one of the dancers of Indra, reminded him of the world's transitory nature and he developed a desire for renunciation. After renouncing, the Jain legends state he wandered without food for a whole year. The day on which he got his first ahara (food), is celebrated as Akshaya Tritiya by Jains. He is said to have attained Moksha on Mount Kailash. The text Adi Purana
Adi Purana
by Jinasena
is an account of the events of his life. His iconography includes colossal statues such as Statue of Ahimsa, Bawangaja
and those erected in Gopachal hill. His icons include the eponymous bull as his emblem, the Nyagrodha
tree, Gomukha (bull-faced) Yaksha, and Chakreshvari Yakshi.


1 Introduction 2 Historicity

2.1 Vedic literature

3 Biography per Jain traditions

3.1 Birth 3.2 Marriage and children 3.3 Renunciation 3.4 Akshaya Tritiya 3.5 Omniscience 3.6 Nirvana kalyanaka, death

4 In literature 5 Iconography

5.1 Idols 5.2 Colossal statues

6 Temples 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

Introduction[edit] According to Jain cosmology, the universe does not have a temporal beginning or end. Its "Universal History"[11] divides the cycle of time into two halves (avasarpiṇī and utsarpiṇī) with six aras (spokes) in each half, and the cycles keep repeating perpetually. Twenty-four Tirthankaras appear in every ara, the first Tirthankara founding Jainism
each time. In the present time cycle, Rishabhanatha is credited as being the first tīrthaṅkara, born at the end of the third ara (known as suṣama-duṣamā).[12][13][14] According to Jain texts, Rishabhanatha
was born in a king's family in the age when there was happiness all around with no one needing to do any work because of Kalpavriksha
(miraculous wish-fulfilling trees).[12][15][11] Gradually as the cycle progressed, the efficacy of these trees decreased,[11] people rushed to their king for help.[12][16] Rishabhanatha
is then said to have taught the men six main professions. These were: (1) Asi (swordsmanship for protection), (2) Masi (writing skills), (3) Krishi (agriculture), (4) Vidya (knowledge), (5) Vanijya (trade and commerce) and (6) Shilp (crafts).[17][18] In other words, he is credited with introducing karma-bhumi (the age of action) by founding arts and professions to enable householders to sustain themselves.[11][19][20] He is, in the Jain belief, the one who organized a social system that created the varna based on professions.[11][21] Rishabhanatha
is credited in Jainism
to have invented and taught fire, cooking, and all skills needed for human beings to live. In total, Rishabhanatha
is said to have taught seventy-two sciences to men, and sixty-four to women.[4] According to Paul Dundas, Rishabhanatha
in Jain mythology is thus not merely a spiritual teacher but one who founded knowledge in its various forms and a form of culture hero for the current cosmological cycle.[11] The institution of marriage is stated to have come into existence after he married to set an example for other humans to follow.[12][19] His life is also credited by Jains with starting the institution of charity (daana) from layperson to mendicants, when he received surgarcane juice in his hand from king Sreyamsa, to break his fast. This is accepted in the Jain tradition as what started the tradition of alms giving in its various forms, and one that has continued since ancient times in India.[11] Historicity[edit] Rishabhanatha
is said to be the founder of Jainism
by the different Jain sub-traditions.[12][6] Jain chronology places Rishabhanatha
in ahistorical terms, as someone who lived millions of years ago.[7][22] He is stated to have lived for 8,400,000 purva years.[1][2] His height is described in the Jain texts to be 500 arc lengths (800 ells), or about 1,200 feet.[1] Such descriptions of non-human heights and age are also found for the next 21 Tirthankaras in Jain texts, and according to Kristi Wiley – a scholar at University of California Berkeley known for her publications in Jainism, most Indologists and scholars consider all the first 22 of 24 Tirthankaras to be prehistorical,[23] or ahistorical and a part of Jain mythology.[1][24] However, among Jain writers and some Indian scholars, some of the first 22 Tirthankaras are considered to reflect historical figures, with a few conceding that the inflated biographical statistics as mythical.[25] According to Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, a professor of comparative religions and philosophy at Oxford who later became the second President of India, there is evidence to show that Ṛṣabhadeva, the first tīrthaṅkara, was being worshipped by the first century BC. The Yajurveda[note 1] mentions the name of three Tīrthaṅkaras – Ṛṣabha, Ajitanatha
and Arishtanemi, states Radhakrishnan, and "the Bhāgavata Purāṇa
Bhāgavata Purāṇa
endorses the view that Ṛṣabha was the founder of Jainism".[26] Vedic literature[edit] The Vedas mention the name Rishabha.[27] However, the context in the Rigveda, Atharvaveda
and the Upanishads suggests that it means the bull, sometimes "any male animal" or "most excellent of any kind", or "a kind of medicinal plant".[28][note 2] Elsewhere it is an epithet for the Hindu god Shiva
(Rudra).[31] Later Hindu mythical texts such as the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
include Rishabha Jina as an avatar of Vishnu.[32] Biography per Jain traditions[edit] Rishabhanatha
is known by many names among Jains including Adinatha, Adisvara, Yugadeva and Nabheya.[8] Ādi purāṇa, a major Jain text records the life accounts of Rishabhanatha
as well as ten previous incarnations.[33] Birth[edit] Main article: Marudevi
§ Birth of Rishabhanatha See also: Panch Kalyanaka

Janma kalyāṇaka from the Kalpa Sutra, c. 14th–15th Century CE

was born to King Nabhi
and Queen Marudevi
in Ayodhya, on the ninth day of the dark half of the month of Chaitra-caitra krişna navamĩ.[12][34][35] This is the second auspicious event and is known as Janma Kalyanaka.[36] The association of Rishabhanatha
to Ayodhya makes it a sacred town for Jains, as it is in Hinduism for the birth of Lord Rama.[4] In Jain tradition, the birth of a Tirthankara
is marked by auspicious signs such as certain dreams. Garbha kalyanaka is the first auspicious event out of five auspicious events (Panch Kalyanaka). It means enlivening of the embryo through the descent of the life (soul) in the mortal body. [37] On the second day of Ashadha (a month of the Hindu calendar) Krishna (dark fortnight), Queen Marudevi
is said to have seen fourteen auspicious dreams. King Nabhi
explained these dreams to her as a sign of Tirthankara's birth. Rishabhanatha, according to Jain mythology, was born after these dreams.[38] Marriage and children[edit] Rishabhanatha
had two wives, Sunanda and Sumangala.[12][39] Sumangala was the mother of ninety-nine sons (including Bharata) and one daughter, Brahmi.[12][40] Sunanda was the mother of Bahubali
and Sundari.[8] Rishabhanatha
is stated in Jain texts to have taught his daughters Brahmi and Sundari, the Brahmi lipi (ancient Brahmi script) and the science of numbers (Ank-Vidya) respectively.[12] The Pannavana Sutra (2nd century BCE) and the Samavayanga Sutra (3rd century BCE) list many other writing scripts known to the ancient Jaina tradition, of which the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
named after Rishabha's daughter tops the list.[41] His eldest son Bharata Chakravartin
Bharata Chakravartin
is stated as one who ruled ancient India
from an ancient capital of Ayodhya.[42] Bharata is described in Jain texts as a just and kind ruler, who was not attached to wealth or vices.[43] Renunciation[edit]

Statuary representing meditation by Rishabhanatha
in Kayotsarga posture. (Photo: Ajmer
Jain temple)

One day god Indra
of the first heaven arranged a dance by celestial dancers in the assembly hall of Rishabhanatha.[44] One of the dancers was Nilanjana.[34][45] While in the midst of a series of vigorous dance movements, she died.[46] The sudden death of Nilanjana reminded Rishabhanatha
of the world's transitory nature, triggering him to renounce his kingdom along with his family and material wealth.[44][46] He gave his kingdom to his hundred sons, of whom Bharata got the city of Vinita (Ayodhya) and Bahubali
got the city of Podanapur (Taxila).[45] He became an ascetic on the ninth day of the month of Chaitra
Krishna (Hindu calendar). According to Jain mythologies, he practiced severe austerities for 1,000 years, then gained enlightenment, became a Jina.[4] Akshaya Tritiya[edit] Main article: Akshaya Tritiya § In Jainism Akshaya Tritya is considered holy and supremely auspicious by Jains. It is believed that Rishabhanatha
took his first ahara (alms) after becoming an ascetic on this day. Rishabhanatha, Jains believe, was the first monk of the present half cycle of time (avasarpini).[47] Therefore, people did not know how to offer food (ahara) to monks. King Shreyansa of Hastinapur
offered sugarcane juice (ikshu-rasa) to Rishabhanatha. Jains attach great importance to this day as it was only after one year that Rishabhanatha
was offered food.[48] The day is celebrated in the Jain tradition on the third day of the bright fortnight of the month Vaishaka (usually April).[49] Omniscience[edit]

Rishabhanatha's moving over lotus after attaining omniscience

spent a thousand years performing austerities and then attained Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
(omniscience) on the 11th day of Falgun
Krishna (Hindu calendar) under a banyan tree.[50] The Devas (heavenly beings) created a divine preaching hall known as samavasarana. This is the fourth of Panch Kalyanaka
Panch Kalyanaka
and is known as Kevala Jnāna Kalyanaka. Rishabhanatha
attracted a large community of followers that included Sramanas, male and female mendicants, sages and disciples.[2] Nirvana kalyanaka, death[edit] Rishabhanatha
is said to have preached Jainism
far and wide.[51] At his death, he attained Nirvana kalyanaka[52] (also called Moksha), all four of his ghati karma were destroyed, his soul was liberated from the endless cycle of rebirths, to stay eternally at siddhaloka. His death is believed in Jainism
to have occurred on Ashtapada (also known as Mount Kailash)[53] on the fourteenth day of Magha Krishna (Hindu Calendar) at the age of 84 lakh purva years, with three years and eight and a half months remaining of the third ara.[46] According to medieval era Jain text, Rishabha (Adinatha) performed asceticism for millions of years, then returned to Ashtapada where he fasted to his death (moksha) and then god Indra
came, with his fellow gods from the heavens, to cremate his body with sandalwood, camphor, butter, and other fire offerings.[54] In literature[edit]

The Rishabhanatha
iconography is identified by the bull stamped or carved below his feet. On the center of his chest is a shrivatsa mark identifier of Jain statues.

The Ādi purāṇa, a 9th-century Sanskrit
poem,[33] and a 10th-century Kannada commentary on it by the poet Adikavi Pampa (fl. 941 CE), written in Champu style, a mix of prose and verse and spread over sixteen cantos, deals with the ten lives of Rishabhanatha
and his two sons.[55][56] The life of Rishabhanatha
is also detailed in Mahapurana of Jinasena, Trisasti-salaka-purusa-caritra by the scholar Hemachandra, Kalpa Sutra
Kalpa Sutra
a Jain text
Jain text
containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, and Jambudvipa-prajnapti.[57][58] Bhaktamara Stotra
Bhaktamara Stotra
by Acharya
is one of the most prominent prayers mentioning Rishabhanatha.[59] There is mention of Rishabha in Hindu texts, such as in the Rigveda, Vishnu
Purana and Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
(in 5th canto).[60][61] In the ancient Hindu texts, the term means "bull" and not the Rishabhanatha. In later texts, such as the Bhagavatapurana, he is described as an avatar of Vishnu, a great sage, known for his learning and austerities.[57] Rishabhanatha
is also mentioned in Buddhist literature. It speaks of several tirthankara and includes Rishabhanatha
along with: Padmaprabha, Chandraprabha, Pushpadanta, Vimalanatha, Dharmanatha, and Neminatha. A Buddhist scripture
Buddhist scripture
named Dharmottarapradipa mentions Rishabhanatha
as an Apta (Tirthankara).[40]

Iconography[edit] Rishabhanatha
is usually depicted in the lotus position or kayotsarga, a standing posture of meditation. The distinguishing features of Rishabhanatha
are his long locks of hair which fall on his shoulders, and an image of a bull in sculptures of him.[62] Paintings of him usually depict legendary events of his life. Some of these include his marriage, and Indra
performing a ritual known as abhisheka (consecration). He is sometimes shown presenting a bowl to his followers and teaching them the art of pottery, painting a house, or weaving textiles. The visit of his mother Marudevi
is also shown extensively in painting.[63] He is also associated with his Bull emblem, the Nyagrodha
tree, Gomukha (bull-faced) Yaksha, and Chakreshvari
Yakshi.[64] Idols[edit]

Shrine with Four Jinas Rishabhanatha, Parshvanatha, Neminatha, and Mahavira
at LACMA, 6th century

Idol of Rishabhanatha
at Mathura Museum, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(circa 6th century CE)

Image depicting Rishabhanatha, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 7th century

8th century, Ethnological Museum of Berlin

Image depicting Rishabhanatha
(Maharaja Chhatrasal Museum) dated 10th century

Rishabhanatha, sandstone, Chandela
period, Guimet Museum, 10th-11th century

idol from Gurupura at Shivappa Nayaka palace, Shivamogga, 12th century

with 23 additional Jinas, Ethnological Museum of Berlin, 12th century

Colossal statues[edit] Statue of Ahimsa, carved out of a single rock, is a 108 feet (33 m) tall (121 feet (37 m) including pedestal) statue of Rishabhanatha
and is 1,840 sq feet in size. It is said to be the world's tallest Jain idol.[65] It is located 4,343 feet (1,324 m) above from sea level, near Mangi-Tungi
hills near Nashik (Maharashtra). Officials from the Guinness Book of World Records visited Mangi Tungi and awarded the engineer of the 108 ft tall Rishabhdeva statue, C R Patil, the official certificate for the world's tallest Jain idol.[66][67] In Madhya Pradesh, there is the Bawangaja
(meaning 52 yards (156 ft)) hill, near Barwani
with a Gommateshvara figure covered on the top of it. This site is important to Jain pilgrims particularly on the full moon day in January.[68] The site has a Rishabanatha statue carved from a volcanic rock.[69] The 58.4 feet (17.8 m) Rishabhanatha
Statue at Gopachal Hill, Gwalior Fort, Madhya Pradesh. Thousands of Jain idols including 58.4 foot idol of Rishabhanatha
were carved in the Gopachal Hill
Gopachal Hill
idol from 1398 A.D. to 1536 A.D. by rulers of Tomar dynasty rulers — Viramdev, Dungar Singh and Kirti Singh.[70]

Statue of Ahimsa, Maharashtra, 108 feet (33 m)

Bawangaja, Madhya Pradesh, 84 feet (26 m)

Siddhachal Jain Temple, Gopachal Hill, Madhya Pradesh, 58.4 feet (17.8 m)

Temples[edit] Rishabhanatha
is one of the four most devotionally revered Tirthankaras, along with Mahavira, Parshvanatha
and Neminatha.[10] Various Jain temple
Jain temple
complexes across India
feature him, and these are important pilgrimage sites in Jainism. Mount Shatrunjaya, for example, is a hilly part of southern Gujarat, which is believed to have been a place where 23 out of 24 Tirthankaras preached, along with Rishabha.[71] Numerous monks are believed to have attained their liberation from cycles of rebirth there, and a large temple within the complex is dedicated to Rishabha commemorating his enlightenment in Ayodhya. The central Rishabha icon of this complex is called Adinatha or simply Dada (grandfather). This icon is the most revered of all the murtipujaka icons, believed by some in the Jain tradition to have miracle making powers, according to John Cort.[71] In Jain texts, Kunti and the five Pandava brothers of the Hindu Epic Mahabharata
came to the hill top to pay respects, and consecrated an icon of Rishabha at Shatrunjaya.[72] Important Rishabha temple complexes include:

temples Kulpakji Kundalpur Bibrod Tirth Paporaji Panchakuta Basadi

Jain temple, Ranakpur, Rajasthan

Adinatha temple, Khajuraho

Dilwara Temples, Mount Abu, Rajasthan

Jain temple, Sanganer, Rajasthan

Nasiyan Ji Jain temple, Ajmer

Nareli Jain Temple, Ajmer

Adishwar Temple, Palitana

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rishabhanatha.


List of Jain Tirthankaras God in Jainism History of Jainism Siddha


^ a non-Jain, Hindu text ^ For example: ऋषभं मा समानानां सपत्नानां विषासहिम् । हन्तारं शत्रूणां कृधि विराजं गोपतिं गवाम् ॥१॥ – Rigveda
10.166.1[29] Other examples of Rishabha appearing in the Vedic literature include verses 6.16.47 of Rigveda, 9.4.14-15 of Atharvaveda, and of Taittiriya Brahmana, etc.[30]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c d e von Glasenapp 1925, p. 16. ^ a b c Jacobi 1968, pp. 284–285. ^ Saraswati 1908, p. 444. ^ a b c d e f Dalal 2010, p. 311. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 208-09. ^ a b Sangave 2001, p. 131. ^ a b c Britannica 2000. ^ a b c Umakant P. Shah 1987, p. 112. ^ Varadpande 1983, pp. 26–27. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 40. ^ a b c d e f g Dundas 2002, p. 21. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jaini 2000, p. 327. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. xiv. ^ Dalal 2010, p. 27. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2015, p. 78. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 88. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. x. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 103. ^ a b Kailash Chand Jain 1991, p. 5. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 89. ^ Jaini 2000, pp. 340–341. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. xv. ^ Wiley 2004, p. xxix. ^ Jestice 2004, p. 419. ^ Sangave 2001, pp. 103-104. ^ Radhakrishnan 1923, p. 287. ^ Prioreschi 1996, p. 205. ^ Rishabha, Monier Monier-Williams, Sanskrit
English Dictionary and Etymology, Oxford University Press, page 226, 3rd column ^ ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं १०.१६६, Rigveda, Wikisource ^ Bloomfield 1906, p. 293. ^ Dalal 2010, p. 88. ^ Hudson 2008, pp. 19–22. ^ a b Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2016, p. 26. ^ a b Vijay K. Jain 2015, p. 181. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 83. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 7. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 195. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 76-79. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 64–66. ^ a b Sangave 2001, p. 105. ^ Salomon 1998, p. 9 with footnotes. ^ Dalal 2010, p. 42. ^ Wiley 2004, p. 54. ^ a b Cort 2010, p. 25. ^ a b Titze 1998, p. 8. ^ a b c Vijay K. Jain 2015, p. 182. ^ B.K. Jain 2013, p. 31. ^ Jestice 2004, p. 738. ^ Titze 1998, p. 138. ^ Krishna & Amirthalingam 2014, p. 46. ^ Cort 2010, p. 115. ^ Dalal 2010, pp. 183, 368. ^ Cort 2010, pp. 115, 135. ^ Cort 2010, pp. 121-122. ^ Popular Prakashan
Popular Prakashan
2000, p. 78. ^ "Kamat's Potpourri: History of the Kannada Literature -II". kamat.com.  ^ a b Jaini 2000, p. 326. ^ Gupta 1999, p. 133. ^ "Shri Bhaktamara Mantra (भक्तामर स्त्रोत)", digambarjainonline.com  ^ Rao 1989, p. 13. ^ Doniger 1999, p. 549. ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987, p. 113. ^ Jain & Fischer 1978, p. 16. ^ Tandon 2002, p. 44. ^ "Amit Shah felicitated by Jain community", The Statesman, Nashik, PTI, 14 February 2016  ^ "Guinness Book to certify Mangi Tungi idol", The Times of India, 6 March 2016  ^ "108-feet Jain Teerthankar idol enters "Guinness book of records"", The Hindu, 7 March 2016  ^ Bhattacharyya 1977, p. 269. ^ Sengupta 1996, pp. 596–600. ^ "On a spiritual quest", Deccan Herald, 29 March 2015  ^ a b Cort 2010, pp. 143-144. ^ Cort 2010, pp. 144-145.


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(Reprinted 1999), ISBN 81-208-1376-6  Wiley, Kristi L. (2004), Historical Dictionary of Jainism, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 978-0-8108-6558-7  Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) [April 1952], Joseph Campbell, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge
& Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. 

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God in Jainism

Arihant ; Siddha ; Pañca-Parameṣṭhi


Rishabhanatha Ajitanatha Sambhavanatha Abhinandananatha Sumatinatha Padmaprabha Suparshvanatha Chandraprabha Pushpadanta Shitalanatha Shreyansanatha Vasupujya Vimalanatha Anantanatha Dharmanatha Shantinatha Kunthunatha Aranatha Māllīnātha Munisuvrata Naminatha Neminatha Pārśvanātha Mahavira Simandhar Swami
Simandhar Swami
(other world)


Bahubali Bharata Chakravartin Ganadhara

Indrabhuti Gautama Sudharmaswami

Jambuswami Nabhi Samudravijaya

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Tirthankara Ganadhara Arihant





Kevala Jñāna

Jaina logic


Jain cosmology

Siddhashila Naraka Heavenly beings


Types Causes

Gunasthana Dravya

Jīva Ajiva

Pudgala Dharma


Asrava Bandha Samvara Nirjara Mokṣa

Death Saṃsāra Ratnatraya Kashaya



Mula Sangha

Balatkara Gana Kashtha Sangha

Taran Panth Bispanthi Terapanth Yapaniya Kanji Panth




Kharatara Tapa Tristutik

Sthānakavāsī Terapanth


Sallekhana Meditation


Monasticism Vegetarianism Fasting Rituals Festivals

Paryushana Kshamavani Mahamastakabhisheka

Upadhan Tapas Pratikramana



Shatkhandagama Kasayapahuda


Namokar Mantra Bhaktamara Stotra

Tattvartha Sutra Samayasāra Aptamimamsa Kalpa Sūtra


Jain flag Siddhachakra Ashtamangala

Shrivatsa Nandavarta

Auspicious dreams Swastika


monk Aryika Kshullak Pattavali Acharya


Nalini Balbir Colette Caillat Chandabai John E. Cort Paul Dundas Virchand Gandhi Hermann Jacobi Champat Rai Jain Padmanabh Jaini Jeffery D. Long Hampa Nagarajaiah Claudia Pastorino Bal Patil Jinendra Varni


Śrāvaka Sarak Tamil Organisations

Digambar Jain Mahasabha Vishwa Jain Sangathan JAINA



Bundelkhand Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Karnataka


Kerala Maharashtra


Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh


Canada Europe United States Japan Singapore Hong Kong Pakistan Belgium Africa Southeast Asia Australia


Buddhism Hinduism Islam Sikhism Non-creationism

Dynasties and empires

Ikshvaku Maurya Kalinga Kadamba Ganga Chalukya Rashtrakuta Hoysala Pandayan




Pañca-Parameṣṭhi Pratima Śalākāpuruṣa Tirtha Samavasarana Jain calendar


Panch Kalyanaka Statue of Ahimsa Temple Sculpture Art Law Nigoda Jain terms and concepts Sexual differences


List of Jains List of Jain temples List of Jain ascetics List of Digambar Jain ascetics Topics List (index)


Gods Literature Monks & nuns Scholars Temples

America Bengal

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