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RISHABHANATHA (also ṚṣABHADEVA, RISHABHADEVA, or ṚṣABHA which literally means "bull") is the first _ Tirthankara _ (ford maker) in Jainism . A mythical leader, he is believed in Jainism to have lived millions of years ago. He was the first of twenty four teachers in the present half cycle of time in Jain cosmology, and called a ford maker because his teachings helped one across the sea of interminable rebirths and deaths (_saṃsāra _). He is also known as ĀDINāTHA of Jainism which translates into "First (_Adi_) Lord (_nātha_)", as well as ADISHVARA (first ishvara ), YUGADIDEVA (deva of yuga), PRATHAMARAJA (first king), and NEBHEYA (son of Nabhi). Along with Mahavira , Parshvanatha and Neminatha , Rishabhanatha is one of the four Tirthankaras that attract the most devotional worship among the Jains.

According to Jain traditional accounts, he was born to King Nabhi and Queen Marudevi in north Indian city of Ayodhya , also called Vinita. He had two wives, Sunanda and Sumangala. Sumangala is described as the mother of his ninety-nine sons (including Bharata ) and one daughter, Brahmi. Sunanda is depicted as the mother of Bahubali and Sundari. The sudden death of Nilanjana, one of the dancers of Indra , reminded him of the world's transitory nature and he developed a desire for renunciation. After renouncing, the Jain legends state he wandered without food for a whole year. The day on which he got his first _ahara_ (food), is celebrated as _Akshaya Tritiya _ by Jains. He is said to have attained _Moksha _ on Mount Kailash . The text _Adi Purana _ by Jinasena is an account of the events of his life. His iconography includes colossal statues such as Statue of Ahimsa , Bawangaja and those erected in Gopachal hill . His icons include the eponymous bull as his emblem, the Nyagrodha tree, Gomukha (bull-faced) Yaksha , and Chakreshvari Yakshi .

CONTENTS

* 1 Introduction

* 2 Historicity

* 2.1 Vedic literature

* 3 Biography per Jain traditions

* 3.1 Birth * 3.2 Marriage and children * 3.3 Renunciation * 3.4 Akshaya Tritiya * 3.5 Omniscience * 3.6 Nirvana kalyanaka, death

* 4 In literature

* 5 Iconography

* 5.1 Idols * 5.2 Colossal statues

* 6 Temples * 7 See also * 8 Notes

* 9 References

* 9.1 Citations * 9.2 Sources

INTRODUCTION

According to Jain cosmology , the universe does not have a temporal beginning or end. Its "Universal History" divides the cycle of time into two halves (_avasarpiṇī _ and _utsarpiṇī_) with six _aras_ (spokes) in each half, and the cycles keep repeating perpetually. Twenty-four _Tirthankaras _ appear in every _ara_, the first Tirthankara founding Jainism each time. In the present time cycle, Rishabhanatha is credited as being the first _tīrthaṅkara_, born at the end of the third _ara_ (known as _suṣama-duṣamā_).

According to Jain texts, Rishabhanatha was born in a king's family in the age when there was happiness all around with no one needing to do any work because of _ Kalpavriksha _ (miraculous wish-fulfilling trees). Gradually as the cycle progressed, the efficacy of these trees decreased, people rushed to their king for help. Rishabhanatha is then said to have taught the men six main professions. These were: (1) _Asi_ (swordsmanship for protection), (2) _Masi_ (writing skills), (3) _Krishi_ (agriculture), (4) _Vidya_ (knowledge), (5) _Vanijya_ (trade and commerce) and (6) _Shilp_ (crafts). In other words, he is credited with introducing _karma-bhumi_ (the age of action) by founding arts and professions to enable householders to sustain themselves. He is, in the Jain belief, the one who organized a social system that created the varna based on professions.

Rishabhanatha is credited in Jainism to have invented and taught fire, cooking, and all skills needed for human beings to live. In total, Rishabhanatha is said to have taught seventy-two sciences to men, and sixty-four to women. According to Paul Dundas, Rishabhanatha in Jain mythology is thus not merely a spiritual teacher but one who founded knowledge in its various forms and a form of culture hero for the current cosmological cycle.

The institution of marriage is stated to have come into existence after he married to set an example for other humans to follow. His life is also credited by Jains with starting the institution of charity (_daana _) from layperson to mendicants, when he received surgarcane juice in his hand from king Sreyamsa, to break his fast. This is accepted in the Jain tradition as what started the tradition of alms giving in its various forms, and one that has continued since ancient times in India .

HISTORICITY

Rishabhanatha is said to be the founder of Jainism by the different Jain sub-traditions. Jain chronology places Rishabhanatha in ahistorical terms, as someone who lived millions of years ago. He is stated to have lived for 8,400,000 purva years. His height is described in the Jain texts to be 500 arc lengths (800 ells ), or about 1,200 feet. Such descriptions of non-human heights and age are also found for the next 21 Tirthankaras in Jain texts, and according to Kristi Wiley – a scholar at University of California Berkeley known for her publications in Jainism, most Indologists and scholars consider all the first 22 of 24 Tirthankaras to be prehistorical, or ahistorical and a part of Jain mythology. However, among Jain writers and some Indian scholars, some of the first 22 Tirthankaras are considered to reflect historical figures, with a few conceding that the inflated biographical statistics as mythical.

According to Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , a professor of comparative religions and philosophy at Oxford who later became the second President of India, there is evidence to show that Ṛṣabhadeva, the first tīrthaṅkara, was being worshipped by the first century BC. The _ Yajurveda _ mentions the name of three Tīrthaṅkaras – Ṛṣabha, Ajitanatha and Arishtanemi , states Radhakrishnan, and "the _ Bhāgavata Purāṇa _ endorses the view that Ṛṣabha was the founder of Jainism".

VEDIC LITERATURE

The Vedas mention the name Rishabha. However, the context in the _ Rigveda _, _ Atharvaveda _ and the _Upanishads _ suggests that it means the bull , sometimes "any male animal" or "most excellent of any kind", or "a kind of medicinal plant". Elsewhere it is an epithet for the Hindu god Shiva (Rudra). Later Hindu mythical texts such as the _ Bhagavata Purana _ include Rishabha Jina as an avatar of Vishnu .

BIOGRAPHY PER JAIN TRADITIONS

Rishabhanatha is known by many names among Jains including Adinatha, Adisvara, Yugadeva and Nabheya. _ Ādi purāṇa _, a major Jain text records the life accounts of Rishabhanatha as well as ten previous incarnations.

BIRTH

Main article: Marudevi § Birth of Rishabhanatha See also: Panch Kalyanaka _ Janma kalyāṇaka_ from the Kalpa Sutra , c. 14th–15th Century CE

Rishabhanatha was born to King Nabhi and Queen Marudevi in Ayodhya , on the ninth day of the dark half of the month of _ Chaitra _-_caitra krişna navamĩ_. This is the second auspicious event and is known as _Janma Kalyanaka_. The association of Rishabhanatha to Ayodhya makes it a sacred town for Jains, as it is in Hinduism for the birth of mythical god Rama .

In Jain tradition, the birth of a Tirthankara is marked by auspicious signs such as certain dreams. _Garbha kalyanaka_ is the first auspicious event out of five auspicious events (_ Panch Kalyanaka _). It means enlivening of the embryo through the descent of the life (soul) in the mortal body. On the second day of _ Ashadha _ (a month of the Hindu calendar ) _Krishna_ (dark fortnight), Queen Marudevi is said to have seen sixteen auspicious dreams . King Nabhi explained these dreams to her as a sign of _Tirthankara's_ birth. Rishabhanatha, according to Jain mythology, was born after these dreams.

MARRIAGE AND CHILDREN

Rishabhanatha had two wives, Sunanda and Sumangala. Sumangala was the mother of ninety-nine sons (including Bharata ) and one daughter, Brahmi. Sunanda was the mother of Bahubali and Sundari.

Rishabhanatha is stated in Jain texts to have taught his daughters Brahmi and Sundari, the Brahmi lipi (ancient Brahmi script ) and the science of numbers (_Ank-Vidya_) respectively. The _Pannavana Sutra_ (2nd century BCE) and the _Samavayanga Sutra_ (3rd century BCE) list many other writing scripts known to the ancient Jaina tradition, of which the Brahmi script named after Rishabha's daughter tops the list.

His eldest son Bharata Chakravartin is stated as one who ruled ancient India from an ancient capital of Ayodhya. Bharata is described in Jain texts as a just and kind ruler, who was not attached to wealth or vices.

RENUNCIATION

_ Statuary representing meditation by Rishabhanatha in Kayotsarga _ posture. (Photo: Ajmer Jain temple )

One day god Indra of the first heaven arranged a dance by celestial dancers in the assembly hall of Rishabhanatha. One of the dancers was Nilanjana. While in the midst of a series of vigorous dance movements, she died. The sudden death of Nilanjana reminded Rishabhanatha of the world's transitory nature, triggering him to renounce his kingdom along with his family and material wealth. He gave his kingdom to his hundred sons, of whom Bharata got the city of Vinita (Ayodhya) and Bahubali got the city of Podanapur ( Taxila ). He became an ascetic on the ninth day of the month of _ Chaitra Krishna_ (Hindu calendar). According to Jain mythologies, he practiced severe austerities for 1,000 years, then gained enlightenment, became a Jina.

AKSHAYA TRITIYA

Main article: Akshaya Tritiya § In Jainism

Akshaya Tritya is considered holy and supremely auspicious by Jains. It is believed that Rishabhanatha took his first _ahara_ (alms) after becoming an ascetic on this day. Rishabhanatha, Jains believe, was the first monk of the present half cycle of time (_avasarpini_). Therefore, people did not know how to offer food (_ahara_) to monks. King Shreyansa of Hastinapur offered sugarcane juice (_ikshu-rasa_) to Rishabhanatha. Jains attach great importance to this day as it was only after one year that Rishabhanatha was offered food. The day is celebrated in the Jain tradition on the third day of the bright fortnight of the month _Vaishaka_ (usually April).

OMNISCIENCE

Rishabhanatha's moving over lotus after attaining omniscience

Rishabhanatha spent a thousand years performing austerities and then attained _ Kevala Jnana _ (omniscience) on the 11th day of _Falgun Krishna_ (Hindu calendar) under a banyan tree. The _Devas _ (heavenly beings) created a divine preaching hall known as _samavasarana _. This is the fourth of _Panch Kalyanaka_ and is known as _Kevala Jnāna Kalyanaka_. Rishabhanatha attracted a large community of followers that included Sramanas , male and female mendicants, sages and disciples.

NIRVANA KALYANAKA, DEATH

Rishabhanatha is said to have preached Jainism far and wide. At his death, he attained _Nirvana kalyanaka_ (also called _Moksha _), all four of his _ghati_ karma where destroyed, his soul was liberated from the endless cycle of rebirths, to stay eternally at _siddhaloka_. His death is believed in Jainism to have occurred on _Ashtapada_ (also known as Mount Kailash ) on the fourteenth day of _Magha _ Krishna (Hindu Calendar) at the age of 84 lakh _purva_ years, with three years and eight and a half months remaining of the third _ara_.

According to medieval era Jain text, Rishabha (Adinatha) performed asceticism for millions of years, then returned to Ashtapada where he fasted to his death (moksha) and then god Indra came, with his fellow gods from the heavens, to cremate his body with sandalwood, camphor, butter, honey and other fire offerings.

IN LITERATURE

_ The Rishabhanatha iconography is identified by the bull stamped or carved below his feet. On the center of his chest is a shrivatsa mark identifier of Jain statues.

* The Ādi purāṇa _, a 9th-century Sanskrit poem, and a 10th-century Kannada commentary on it by the poet Adikavi Pampa (fl. 941 CE), written in Champu style, a mix of prose and verse and spread over sixteen cantos, deals with the ten lives of Rishabhanatha and his two sons. The life of Rishabhanatha is also detailed in _Mahapurana _ of Jinasena , _Trisasti-salaka-purusa-caritra_ by the scholar Hemachandra , _ Kalpa Sutra _ a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, and _Jambudvipa-prajnapti_.

* _ Bhaktamara Stotra _ by _ Acharya _ Manatunga is one of the most prominent prayers mentioning Rishabhanatha.

* There is mention of Rishabha in Hindu texts , such as in the _ Rigveda _, _ Vishnu Purana _ and _ Bhagavata Purana _ (in 5th canto). In the ancient Hindu texts, the term means "bull" and not the Rishabhanatha. In later texts, such as the _Bhagavatapurana_, he is described as an _avatar_ of Vishnu , a great sage, known for his learning and austerities.

* Rishabhanatha is also mentioned in Buddhist literature . It speaks of several _tirthankara_ and includes Rishabhanatha along with: Padmaprabha , Chandraprabha , Pushpadanta , Vimalanatha , Dharmanatha , and Neminatha . A Buddhist scripture named _Dharmottarapradipa_ mentions Rishabhanatha as an Apta (Tirthankara).

ICONOGRAPHY

Rishabhanatha is usually depicted in the _lotus position _ or _kayotsarga _, a standing posture of meditation. The distinguishing features of Rishabhanatha are his long locks of hair which fall on his shoulders, and an image of a bull in sculptures of him. Paintings of him usually depict legendary events of his life. Some of these include his marriage, and Indra performing a ritual known as _abhisheka _ (consecration). He is sometimes shown presenting a bowl to his followers and teaching them the art of pottery, painting a house, or weaving textiles. The visit of his mother Marudevi is also shown extensively in painting. He is also associated with his Bull emblem, the Nyagrodha tree, Gomukha (bull-faced) Yaksha , and Chakreshvari Yakshi .

IDOLS

*

Shrine with Four Jinas Rishabhanatha, Parshvanatha, Neminatha, and Mahavira at LACMA , 6th century *

Idol of Rishabhanatha at Mathura Museum , Uttar Pradesh (Circa 6th Century CE) *

Image depicting Rishabhanatha, Victoria and Albert Museum , London, 7th century *

8th century, Ethnological Museum of Berlin *

Image depicting Rishabhanatha ( Maharaja Chhatrasal Museum ) dated 10th century *

Rishabhanatha, sandstone, Chandela period, Guimet Museum , 10th-11th century *

Rishabhanatha idol from Gurupura at Shivappa Nayaka palace , Shivamogga , 12th century *

Rishabhanatha with 23 additional Jinas, Ethnological Museum of Berlin , 12th century

COLOSSAL STATUES

Statue of Ahimsa , carved out of a single rock, is a 108 feet (33 m) tall (121 feet (37 m) including pedestal) statue of Rishabhanatha and is 1,840 sq feet in size. It is said to be the world's tallest Jain idol. It is located 4,343 feet (1,324 m) above from sea level, near Mangi-Tungi hills near Nashik (Maharashtra). Officials from the Guinness Book of World Records visited Mangi Tungi and awarded the engineer of the 108 ft tall _Rishabhdeva_ statue, C R Patil, the official certificate for the world's tallest Jain idol.

In Madhya Pradesh , there is the Bawangaja (meaning 52 yards (156 ft)) hill, near Barwani with a Gommateshvara figure covered on the top of it. This site is important to Jain pilgrims particularly on the full moon day in January. The site has a Rishabanatha statue carved from a volcanic rock.

The 58.4 feet (17.8 m) Rishabhanatha Statue at Gopachal Hill , Gwalior Fort , Madhya Pradesh . Thousands of Jain idols including 58.4 foot idol of Rishabhanatha were carved in the Gopachal Hill idol from 1398 A.D. to 1536 A.D. by rulers of Tomar dynasty rulers — _Viramdev, Dungar Singh and Kirti Singh_.

*

Statue of Ahimsa , Maharashtra , 108 feet (33 m) *

Bawangaja , Madhya Pradesh , 84 feet (26 m) *

Siddhachal Jain Temple, Gopachal Hill , Madhya Pradesh, 58.4 feet (17.8 m)

TEMPLES

Rishabhanatha is one of the four most devotionally revered Tirthankaras, along with Mahavira, Parshvanatha and Neminatha. Various Jain temple complexes across India feature him, and these are important pilgrimage sites in Jainism. Mount Shatrunjaya , for example, is a hilly part of southern Gujarat , which is believed to have been a place where 23 out of 24 Tirthankaras preached, along with Rishabha. Numerous monks are believed to have attained their liberation from cycles of rebirth there, and a large temple within the complex is dedicated to Rishabha commemorating his enlightenment in Ayodhya . The central Rishabha icon of this complex is called Adinatha or simply _Dada_ (grandfather). This icon is the most revered of all the _murtipujaka_ icons, believed by some in the Jain tradition to have miracle making powers, according to John Cort. In Jain texts, Kunti and the five Pandava brothers of the Hindu Epic _ Mahabharata _ came to the hill top to pay respects, and consecrated an icon of Rishabha at Shatrunjaya.

Important Rishabha temple complexes include:

* Palitana temples * Kulpakji * Kundalpur * Bibrod Tirth * Paporaji

*

Ranakpur Jain temple , Ranakpur , Rajasthan *

Adinatha temple, Khajuraho *

Dilwara Temples , Mount Abu , Rajasthan *

Sanghiji Jain temple, Sanganer , Rajasthan *

Nasiyan Ji Jain temple, Ajmer *

Nareli Jain Temple , Ajmer *

Adishwar Temple, Palitana

SEE ALSO

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to RISHABHANATHA _.

* Jainism portal

* List of Jain Tirthankaras * God in Jainism * History of Jainism * Siddha

NOTES

* ^ a non-Jain, Hindu text * ^ For example: ऋषभं मा समानानां सपत्नानां विषासहिम् । हन्तारं शत्रूणां कृधि विराजं गोपतिं गवाम् ॥१॥ – Rigveda 10.166.1 Other examples of Rishabha appearing in the Vedic literature include verses 6.16.47 of Rigveda, 9.4.14-15 of Atharvaveda, 3.7.5.13 and 4.7.10.1 of Taittiriya Brahmana, etc.

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ von Glasenapp 1925 , p. 16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Jacobi 1968 , pp. 284–285. * ^ Saraswati 1908 , p. 444. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Dalal 2010 , p. 311. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 208-09. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sangave 2001 , p. 131. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Britannica 2000 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Umakant P. Shah 1987 , p. 112. * ^ Varadpande 1983 , pp. 26–27. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dundas 2002 , p. 40. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Dundas 2002 , p. 21. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Jaini 2000 , p. 327. * ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929 , p. xiv. * ^ Dalal 2010 , p. 27. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2015 , p. 78. * ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929 , p. 88. * ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929 , p. x. * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 103. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kailash Chand Jain 1991 , p. 5. * ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929 , p. 89. * ^ Jaini 2000 , pp. 340–341. * ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929 , p. xv. * ^ Wiley 2004 , p. xxix. * ^ Jestice 2004 , p. 419. * ^ Sangave 2001 , pp. 103-104. * ^ Radhakrishnan 1923 , p. 287. * ^ Prioreschi 1996 , p. 205. * ^ Rishabha, Monier Monier-Williams, Sanskrit English Dictionary and Etymology, Oxford University Press, page 226, 3rd column * ^ ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं १०.१६६, Rigveda, Wikisource * ^ Bloomfield 1906 , p. 293. * ^ Dalal 2010 , p. 88. * ^ Hudson 2008 , pp. 19–22. * ^ _A_ _B_ Upinder Singh 2016 , p. 26. * ^ _A_ _B_ Vijay K. Jain 2015 , p. 181. * ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929 , p. 83. * ^ Jaini 1998 , p. 7. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 195. * ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929 , p. 76-79. * ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929 , p. 64–66. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sangave 2001 , p. 105. * ^ Salomon 1998 , p. 9 with footnotes. * ^ Dalal 2010 , p. 42. * ^ Wiley 2004 , p. 54. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cort 2010 , p. 25. * ^ _A_ _B_ Titze 1998 , p. 8. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Vijay K. Jain 2015 , p. 182. * ^ B.K. Jain 2013 , p. 31. * ^ Jestice 2004 , p. 738. * ^ Titze 1998 , p. 138. * ^ Krishna & Amirthalingam 2014 , p. 46. * ^ Cort 2010 , p. 115. * ^ Dalal 2010 , pp. 183, 368. * ^ Cort 2010 , pp. 115, 135. * ^ Cort 2010 , pp. 121-122. * ^ Popular Prakashan 2000 , p. 78. * ^ "Kamat\'s Potpourri: History of the Kannada Literature -II". _kamat.com_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jaini 2000 , p. 326. * ^ Gupta 1999 , p. 133. * ^ "Shri Bhaktamara Mantra (भक्तामर स्त्रोत)", _digambarjainonline.com_ * ^ Rao 1989 , p. 13. * ^ Doniger 1999 , p. 549. * ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987 , p. 113. * ^ Jain & Fischer 1978 , p. 16. * ^ Tandon 2002 , p. 44. * ^ "Amit Shah felicitated by Jain community", _ The Statesman _, Nashik , PTI , 14 February 2016 * ^ "Guinness Book to certify Mangi Tungi idol", _The Times of India _, 6 March 2016 * ^ "108-feet Jain Teerthankar idol enters "Guinness book of records"", _ The Hindu _, 7 March 2016 * ^ Bhattacharyya 1977 , p. 269. * ^ Sengupta 1996 , pp. 596–600. * ^ "On a spiritual quest", _ Deccan Herald _, 29 March 2015 * ^ _A_ _B_ Cort 2010 , pp. 143-144. * ^ Cort 2010 , pp. 144-145.

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Arihant ; Siddha ; Pañca-Parameṣṭhi

_TIRTHANKARA _

* Rishabhanatha * Ajitanatha * Sambhavanatha * Abhinandananatha * Sumatinatha * Padmaprabha * Suparshvanatha * Chandraprabha * Pushpadanta * Shitalanatha * Shreyansanatha * Vasupujya * Vimalanatha * Anantanatha * Dharmanatha * Shantinatha * Kunthunatha * Aranatha * Māllīnātha * Munisuvrata * Naminatha * Neminatha * Pārśvanātha * Mahavira * Simandhar Swami (other world)

_SAMANYA_

* Bahubali * Bharata Chakravartin

* Ganadhara

* Indrabhuti Gautama * Sudharmaswami

* Jambuswami * Nabhi * Samudravijaya

* v * t * e

Jainism topics

GODS

* Tirthankara * Ganadhara * Arihant

PHILOSOPHY

* Ethics

* Ahimsa

* Epistemology

* Kevala Jñāna

* Jaina logic

* Anekāntavāda

* Jain cosmology

* Siddhashila * Naraka * Heavenly beings

* Karma

* Types * Causes

* Gunasthana

* Dravya

* Jīva

* Ajiva

* Pudgala * Dharma

* Tattva

* Asrava * Bandha * Samvara * Nirjara * Mokṣa

* Death * Saṃsāra * Ratnatraya * Kashaya

BRANCHES

DIGAMBARA

* Mula Sangh

* Balatkara Gana * Kashtha Sangh

* Taran Panth * Bispanthi * Terapanth * Yapaniya

ŚVēTāMBARA

* Murtipujaka

* Gaccha

* Kharatara * Tapa * Tristutik

* Sthānakavāsī * Terapanth

PRACTICES

* Sallekhana

* Meditation

* Sāmāyika

* Monasticism * Vegetarianism * Fasting * Rituals

* Festivals

* Paryushana * Kshamavani * Mahamastakabhisheka

* Upadhan * Tapas * Pratikramana

LITERATURE

* Agama

* Satkhandagama * Kasayapahuda

* Mantra

* Namokar Mantra * Bhaktamara Stotra

* Tattvartha Sutra * Samayasara * Aptamimamsa * Kalpa Sūtra

SYMBOLS

* Jain flag * Siddhachakra

* Ashtamangala

* Srivatsa * Nandavarta

* Auspicious dreams * Swastika

ASCETICS

* Digambara monk * Aryika * Kshullak * Pattavali * Acharya

SCHOLARS

* Nalini Balbir * Colette Caillat * Chandabai * John E. Cort * Paul Dundas * Virchand Gandhi * Hermann Jacobi * Champat Rai Jain * Padmanabh Jaini * Jeffery D. Long * Hampa Nagarajaiah * Claudia Pastorino * Bal Patil * Jinendra Varni * Robert J. Zydenbos

COMMUNITY

* Śrāvaka * Sarak * Tamil

* Organisations

* Digambar Jain Mahasabha * Vishwa Jain Sangathan * JAINA

JAINISM IN

INDIA

* Bundelkhand * Delhi * Goa * Gujarat * Haryana

* Karnataka

* North

* Kerala

* Maharashtra

* Mumbai

* Rajasthan * Uttar Pradesh

OVERSEAS

* Canada * Europe * United States * Japan * Singapore * Hong Kong * Pakistan * Belgium * Africa * Southeast Asia * Australia

JAINISM AND

* Buddhism * Hinduism * Islam * Sikhism * Non-creationism

DYNASTIES AND EMPIRES

* Ikshvaku * Maurya * Kalinga * Kadamba * Ganga * Chalukya * Rashtrakuta * Hoysala * Pandayan

RELATED

* History

* Timeline

* Pañca-Parameṣṭhi * Pratima * Śalākāpuruṣa * Tirtha * Samavasarana

* Jain calendar

* Samvatsari

* Panch Kalyanaka * Statue of Ahimsa * Temple * Sculpture * Art * Law * Nigoda * Jain terms and concepts * Sexual differences

LISTS

* List of Jains * List of Jain temples * List of Jain ascetics * List of Digambar Jain ascetics * Topics List (index)

NAVBOXES

* Gods * Literature * Monks ">

* PORTAL * COMMONS * WIKIQUOTE * WIKISOURCE

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