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Bahubali
Bahubali
(English: One With Strong Arms), a much revered figure among Jains, was the son of Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara of Jainism, and the younger brother of Bharata Chakravartin. He is said to have meditated motionless for one year in a standing posture (kayotsarga) and that during this time, climbing plants grew around his legs. After his year of meditation, Bahubali
Bahubali
is said to have attained omniscience (Kevala Gyana). According to Jain texts, Bahubali
Bahubali
attained liberation from the cycle of births and deaths (moksha) at Mount Kailash
Mount Kailash
and is revered as a liberated soul (Siddha) by the Jains. Bahubali
Bahubali
is also called Gommateshwara because of the Gommateshwara statue dedicated to him and as lord Kammateshwara from the ancient temple inscriptions located in states of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka[1][2]. The statue was built by the Ganga dynasty minister and commander Chavundaraya; it is a 57-foot (17 m) monolith (statue carved from a single piece of rock) situated above a hill in Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
in the Hassan district, Karnataka
Karnataka
state, India. It was built circa 981 A.D. and is one of the largest free-standing statues in the world.

Contents

1 Legends

1.1 Family life 1.2 Renunciation

2 Statues

2.1 Shravanabelagola 2.2 Karkala 2.3 Dharmastala 2.4 Venur 2.5 Gommatagiri 2.6 Kumbhoj 2.7 Aretipur

3 In literature

3.1 Sanskrit 3.2 Kannada 3.3 Rajasthani

4 Images 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Sources

7 External links

Legends[edit] The Ādi purāṇa, a 9th-century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poem, deals with the ten lives of the first tirthankara, Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
and his two sons Bharata and Bahubali. It was composed by Jinasena, a Digambara
Digambara
monk.[3] Family life[edit] According to Jain texts, Bahubali
Bahubali
was born to Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
and Sunanda during the Ikshvaku dynasty
Ikshvaku dynasty
in Ayodhya.[4][5][6][7] He is said to have excelled in studying medicine, archery, floriculture, and the knowledge of precious gems. Bahubali
Bahubali
had a son named Somakirti (also known as Mahabala).[8] When Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
decided to become a monk, he distributed his kingdom among his 100 sons. Bharata was gifted the kingdom of Vinita (Ayodhya) and Bahubali
Bahubali
got the kingdom of Asmaka from South India, having Podanapur as its capital.[9] After winning six divisions of earth in all directions (digvijaya), Bharata proceeded to his capital Ayodhyapuri with a huge army and divine chakra-ratna—spinning, disk-like super weapon with serrated edges.[9] But the chakra-ratna stopped on its own at the entrance of Ayodhyapuri, signalling to the emperor that his 99 brothers have yet not submitted to his authority.[10] Bharata's 98 brothers became Jain monks' and submitted their kingdoms to him. Bahubali
Bahubali
was endowed with the final and superior body of extraordinary sturdiness and strength (vajra-ṛṣabhanārācasaṃhanana) like Bharata.[11] He hurled open defiance at the chakravartin and challenged him to a fight.[12] The ministers on both sides gave the following argument to prevent war; "The brothers themselves, cannot be killed by any means; they are in their last incarnations in transmigration, and possess bodies which no weapon may mortally wound in warfare! Let them fight out the issue by themselves in other ways."[13] It was then decided that to settle the dispute, three kinds of contests between Bharata and Bahubali would be held. These were eye-fight (staring at each other), water-fight (jala-yuddha), and wrestling (malla-yuddha). Bahubali
Bahubali
won all the three contests over his elder brother, Bharata.[9][14] Renunciation[edit]

Sculpture depicting Bahubali's meditation in Kayotsarga
Kayotsarga
posture with vines enveloped around his body (Photo: Badami caves)

After the fight, Bahubali
Bahubali
was filled with disgust at the world and developed a desire for renunciation. Bahubali
Bahubali
abandoned his clothes and kingdom to become a Digambara
Digambara
monk and began meditating with great resolve to attain omniscience (Kevala Gyana).[15] He is said to have meditated motionless in a standing posture (kayotsarga) for a year, during which time climbing plants grew around his legs.[16] However, he was adamant and continued his practice unmindful of the vines, ants, and dust that enveloped his body. According to Jain text Ādi purāṇa, on the last day of Bahubali's one year long fast, Bharata came in all humility to Bahubali
Bahubali
and worshiped him with veneration and respect. A painful regret that he had been the cause of his elder brother's humiliation had been disturbing Bahubali's meditation; this was dispersed when Bharata worshipped him.[17] Bahubali
Bahubali
was then able to destroy the four kinds of inimical karmas, including the knowledge obscuring karma, and he attained omniscience (kevala gyana). He was now revered as an omniscient being (Kevali).[16] Bahubali
Bahubali
finally attained liberation (moksha) and became a pure, liberated soul (siddha).[18] He is said to be the first Digambara
Digambara
monk to have attained moksha in the present half-cycle of time (Avasarpiṇī).[4] Statues[edit] There are five monolithic statues of Bahubali
Bahubali
measuring more than 6 m (20 feet) in height in Karnataka:

17.4 m (57 feet) at Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
in Hassan District
Hassan District
in 981 AD[4][19][20] 12.8 m (42 feet) at Karkala
Karkala
in Udupi District
Udupi District
in 1430 AD[20] 11.9 m (39 feet) at Dharmasthala
Dharmasthala
in Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
District in 1973 AD[20] 10.7 m (35 feet) at Venur
Venur
in Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
District in 1604 AD[20] 6 m (20 feet) at Gommatagiri
Gommatagiri
in Mysore District
Mysore District
in 12th Century AD[21]

Shravanabelagola[edit] Main article: Gommateshwara statue The monolithic statue of Bahubali
Bahubali
at Shravanabelagola, located 158 km (98 mi) from Bangalore, was carved from a single block of granite. The statue was commissioned by the Ganga dynasty minister and commander Chavundaraya; it is 57-foot (17 m) tall and is situated above a hill in Shravanabelagola, in the Hassan district of Karnataka. It was built in and around 981 A.D. and is one of the largest free-standing statues in the world.[4][5][22] The statue is visible from 25 kilometres (16 mi) away. Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
has remained a centre of pilgrimage (tirtha) for the Jains.[23] Karkala[edit] Main article: Karkala

Bahubali
Bahubali
monolith of Karkala

Karkala
Karkala
is known for its 42 ft (13 m) monolithic statue of Gomateshwara Bahubali, which is believed to have been built around 1432 and is the second-tallest statue in the State.[24][20] The statue is built on an elevated platform on top of a rocky hill. It was consecrated on 13 February 1432 by Veera Pandya Bhairarasa Wodeyar, scion of the Bhairarasa Dynasty, feudatory of the Vijayanagar Ruler.[20][25] Dharmastala[edit]

Bahubali
Bahubali
monolith of Halebidu
Halebidu
(12th CE)

Main article: Dharmastala A 39-foot (12 m) high statue with a 13-foot (4.0 m) pedestal that weighs about 175 t (175,000 kg) is installed at Dharmasthala
Dharmasthala
in Karnataka.[26][20] Venur[edit]

Bahubali
Bahubali
monolith of Venur

Main article: Venur Venur
Venur
is a small town in Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
district, Karnataka
Karnataka
state, situated on the bank of the Gurupura River. Thimmanna Ajila built a 38-foot (12 m) colossus of Gommateshwara there in 1604 AD.[24][20][27] The staue at Venur
Venur
is the shortest of the three Gommateshwaras within 250 km (160 mi) around it. It stands in an enclosure on the same pattern as that of the statue at Shravanabelagola. The Kings of Ajila Dynasty ruled here from 1154 to 1786.[28] Gommatagiri[edit] Main article: Gommatagiri

Bahubali
Bahubali
monolith of Gommatagiri, Mysore

Gommatagiri
Gommatagiri
is an acclaimed Jain centre. The 12th-century granite statue of Bahubali, also known as Gomateshwara, is erected atop a 50-metre (160 ft) tall hillock called 'Shravana Gudda'.[21] The Jain centre attracts many pilgrims during the annual Mahamastakabhisheka
Mahamastakabhisheka
in September.[24][21] The statue at Gommatagiri
Gommatagiri
is very similar to the 58-foot (18 m) Gommateshwara statue
Gommateshwara statue
in Shravanabelagola, except that it is smaller. Historians attribute the statue to an early Vijayanagar period.[21] Kumbhoj[edit]

28-foot (8.5 m)-high monolith of Bahubali
Bahubali
at Kumbhoj

Main article: Kumbhoj Kumbhoj
Kumbhoj
is the name of an ancient town located in Kolhapur district, Maharashtra. The town is about eight kilometers from Hatkanangale, about twenty seven kilometers from Kolhapur. The famous Jain pilgrimage centre where a 28-foot (8.5 m)-high statue of Bahubali is installed is 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the Kumbhoj
Kumbhoj
city.[29] Aretipur[edit] There is a 10-foot (3.0 m)-high statue of Bahubali
Bahubali
at Aretipur, Near Kokrebellur Village of Madur Taluk Mandya district.[30] In 2016, the Archaeological Survey of India
India
(ASI) excavated another 13 ft (4.0 m)-high statue of Bahubali
Bahubali
made in the 3rd – 9th centuries in Aretipur.[31] ASI has also excavated an 8th-century statue of Bahubali
Bahubali
in Aretipur, Maddur, Mandya, Karnataka, that is 3 feet (0.91 m) wide and 3.5 ft (1.1 m) tall.[32] In literature[edit]

Poem by Boppanna

The life-story of Bahubali
Bahubali
has been discussed in many works. Sanskrit[edit]

The Ādi purāṇa
Ādi purāṇa
composed by Āchārya Jinasena. The Gommateshvara statue built by Chavundaraya
Chavundaraya
was influenced by description in this book.[33][34] Bahubali
Bahubali
charitra written in the 9th century A.D.[35]

Kannada[edit]

A 10th-century Kannada
Kannada
text based on the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text was written by the poet Adikavi Pampa.[36][37] A poem dated 1180 was composed by a Jain poet named Boppanna (also known as Sujanottamsa), in praise of Bahubali.[38]

Rajasthani[edit]

Bharateshwara Bahubali
Bahubali
Ghora composed by Vajrasena Suri in 1168, is a poem with 48 verses describing the battle between Bharata and Bahubali.[39]

Images[edit] Pictured below are some of the images depiciting Bahubali
Bahubali
that are located at various places in India.

Bahubali
Bahubali
statue at YSR state Archaeology Museum, Hyderabad, 12th century

Bahubali
Bahubali
monolith of Halebidu

28-foot (8.5 m)-high statue of Bahubali
Bahubali
at Teenmurti Temple, Mumbai

Gomateshwara at Kalugumalai Jain Beds, 8th century

Bahubali
Bahubali
at Andimalai Caves, 10th century

Bahubali
Bahubali
at Aretipur

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bahubali.

God in Jainism Jain cosmology Jainism
Jainism
in Karnataka Statue of Ahimsa Bawangaja

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Sri Krishna Deva Rayala vamsa mulalu, 2018, by Muthevi Ravindranath, Savithri Publications, Guntur ^ https://books.google.co.in/books?id=d5RPAQAAMAAJ&q=kammateswara&dq=kammateswara&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi54ev1irfZAhVDzLwKHQsaAR4Q6AEIHTAA ^ Granoff 1993, p. 208. ^ a b c d Sangave 1981, p. 66. ^ a b Zimmer 1953, p. 212. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. xv. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 120. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 106. ^ a b c Sangave 1981, p. 67. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2013, p. x. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2013, p. xi. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 143. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 144. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 105. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 145. ^ a b Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 145–146. ^ Āchārya Jinasena. Ādipurāṇa. Bharatiya Jnanpith. p. 217. ISBN 978-81-263-1844-5.  ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 146. ^ Sangave 1981, p. 25. ^ a b c d e f g h Pinto, Stanley (21 January 2015), "12-year wait ends, all eyes on 42-ft-tall Karkala
Karkala
Bahubali", The Times of India, Mangaluru, Times News Network  ^ a b c d " Gommatagiri
Gommatagiri
statue crying for attention", The Hindu, 22 January 2006  ^ Rice 1889, p. 53. ^ March of Mysore, 3, University of California, 1966, p. 56  ^ a b c Sangave 1981, p. 90. ^ " Bahubali
Bahubali
abhisheka from today", The Hindu, 21 January 2015  ^ herenow4u. " Karnataka
Karnataka
Dharmasthala
Dharmasthala
►Shri Chandranatha Swamy Basadi and Bahubali
Bahubali
Sculpture". HereNow4u: Portal
Portal
on Jainism
Jainism
and next level consciousness.  ^ Titze 1998, p. 48. ^ Pinto, Stanley (21 January 2015), "10-day Mahamastakabhisheka
Mahamastakabhisheka
at Karkala
Karkala
from today", The Times of India, Mangaluru, TNN  ^ Sangave 1981, p. 91. ^ " Bahubali
Bahubali
of Aretipur", Frontline, 29 April 2016  ^ Girish, M. B. (23 February 2016) [4 December 2015], "Another Jain centre under excavation in Mandya district", Deccan Chronicle  ^ "Eighth Century Jain Temple Discovered in Maddur", The New Indian Express, Express News Service, 7 January 2015  ^ Sangave 2001, p. 215. ^ Sangave 1981, p. 72. ^ Sangave 1981, p. 51. ^ "History of Kannada
Kannada
literature", kamat.com  ^ Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1–5, Popular Prakashan, p. 78, ISBN 0-85229-760-2  ^ Sangave 1981, p. 84. ^ Datta 1987, p. 454.

Sources[edit]

Dundas, Paul (2002) [1992], The Jains (Second ed.), London
London
and New York City: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X  Granoff, Phyllis (1993) [1990], The Clever Adulteress and Other Stories: A Treasury of Jaina Literature, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1150-X  Jain, Champat Rai (1929), Risabha Deva – The Founder of Jainism, Allahabad: The Indian Press Limited, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jain, Vijay K. (2013), Ācārya Nemichandra's Dravyasaṃgraha, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-5-2, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Rice, Benjamin Lewis (1889), Inscriptions at Sravana Belgola: a chief seat of the Jains, (Archaeological Survey of Mysore), Bangalore: Mysore Govt. Central Press  Sangave, Vilas Adinath (1981), The Sacred Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
(A Socio-Religious Study) (1st ed.), Bharatiya Jnanpith  Titze, Kurt (1998), Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence (2 ed.), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1534-3  Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) [April 1952], Campbell, Joseph, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge
Routledge
& Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6  Sangave, Vilas Adinath (2001), Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture, Popular Prakashan, ISBN 9788171548392  Sangave, Vilas Adinath (1981), The Sacred ʹSravaṇa-Beḷagoḷa: A Socio-religious Study, Bhartiya Jnanpith  Datta, Amaresh (1987), Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 9788126018031 

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