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Renminbi
The renminbi (abbreviated RMB; simplified Chinese: 人民币; traditional Chinese: 人民幣; pinyin: rénmínbì; literally: 'people's currency'; symbol: 元/¥; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China, and one of the world's major reserve currencies. The yuan (Chinese: 元; pinyin: yuán) is the basic unit of the renminbi, but is also used to refer to the Chinese currency
Chinese currency
generally, especially in international contexts where "Chinese yuan" is widely used to refer to the renminbi. The distinction between renminbi and yuan is that renminbi is the name of the currency and yuan refers to its primary unit. One yuan is subdivided into 10 jiao (Chinese: 角; pinyin: jiǎo), and a jiao in turn is subdivided into 10 fen (Chinese: 分; pinyin: fēn)
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Market Economy
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand. The major characteristic of a market economy is the existence of factor markets that play a dominant role in the allocation of capital and the factors of production.[1][2] Market economies range from minimally regulated free market and laissez-faire systems where state activity is restricted to providing public goods and services and safeguarding private ownership,[3] to interventionist forms where the government plays an active role in correcting market failures and promoting social welfare
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century. Wade-Giles is based on Beijing dialect, whereas Nanking dialect-based romanization systems were in common use until the late 19th century. Both were used in postal romanizations (romanized place-names standardized for postal uses). In mainland China it has been mostly replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system, with exceptions for the romanized forms of some locations, persons and other proper nouns
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Monetary Inflation
Monetary inflation is a sustained increase in the money supply of a country (or currency area). Depending on many factors, especially public expectations, the fundamental state and development of the economy, and the transmission mechanism, it is likely to result in price inflation, which is usually just called "inflation", which is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services.[1][2] There is general agreement among economists that there is a causal relationship between monetary inflation and price inflation. But there is neither a common view about the exact theoretical mechanisms and relationships, nor about how to accurately measure it. This relationship is also constantly changing, within a larger complex economic system
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Consumer Price Index
A Consumer Price Index measures changes in the price level of a weighted average market basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households.[1] It is usually calculated and reported by the Bureau of Economic Analysis and Statistics of a country on a monthly and annual basis. [2][3][4][5] International organizations like the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report statistical figures like the Consumer Price Index for many of its member countries. [6] The CPI is a statistical estimate constructed using the prices of a sample of representative items whose prices are collected periodically
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Fixed Exchange Rate
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. There are benefits and risks to using a fixed exchange rate. A fixed exchange rate is typically used in order to stabilize the value of a currency by directly fixing its value in a predetermined ratio to a different, more stable or more internationally prevalent currency (or currencies), to which the value is pegged. In doing so, the exchange rate between the currency and its peg does not change based on market conditions, the way floating currencies do
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with subsets Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
China
in mainland China
China
has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan)
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字, Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.[dubious – discuss] They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
(MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is one of the official languages of China. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. The similar Taiwanese Mandarin
Taiwanese Mandarin
is a national language of Taiwan. Standard Singaporean Mandarin
Singaporean Mandarin
is one of the four official languages of Singapore. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese
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Bopomofo
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Printer (publisher)
In publishing, printers are both companies providing printing services and individuals who directly operate printing presses.[1] Printers include: Newspaper
Newspaper
printers, often owned by newspaper publishers Magazine
Magazine
printers, usually independent of magazine publishers Book
Book
printers, often not directly connected with book publishers Stationery
Stationery
printers Packaging
Packaging
printers Trade printers, who offer wholesale rates within the printing industryAn artist who operates a printing press to execute their own works of printing press such as, hand in limited runs. That is usually distinguished from other printers by the term printmaker. References[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Printers (publishers).^ "Printer". Merriam-Webster. This publishing-related article is a stub
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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Silver Coin
Silver
Silver
coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage. Silver
Silver
has been used as a coinage metal since the times of the Greeks; their silver drachmas were popular trade coins. The ancient Persians used silver coins between 612-330 BC. Before 1797, British pennies were made of silver. As with all collectible coins, many factors determine the value of a silver coin, such as its rarity, demand, condition and the number originally minted. Ancient silver coins coveted by collectors include the Denarius
Denarius
and Miliarense, while more recent collectible silver coins include the Morgan Dollar
Morgan Dollar
and the Spanish Milled Dollar. Other than collector's silver coins, silver bullion coins are popular among people who desire a "hedge" against currency inflation or store of value
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