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Religion
There is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.[1][2] It may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophesies, ethics, or organizations, that relate humanity to the supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine,[3] sacred things,[4] faith,[5] a supernatural being or supernatural beings[6] or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life".[7] Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a
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Jakob Böhme
Jakob Böhme
Jakob Böhme
(/ˈbeɪmə, ˈboʊ-/;[2] 1575 – 17 November 1624) was a German philosopher, Christian mystic, and Lutheran
Lutheran
Protestant theologian. He was considered an original thinker by many of his contemporaries[3] within the Lutheran
Lutheran
tradition, and his first book, commonly known as Aurora, caused a great scandal
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Catholic Spirituality
Catholic spirituality
Catholic spirituality
includes the various ways in which Catholics live out their Baptismal promise, through prayer and action
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Self-actualization
Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways. The term was originally introduced by the organismic theorist Kurt Goldstein for the motive to realize one's full potential. Expressing one's creativity, quest for spiritual enlightenment, pursuit of knowledge, and the desire to give to and/or positively transform society are examples of self-actualization. In Goldstein's view, it is the organism's master motive, the only real motive: "the tendency to actualize itself as fully as possible is the basic drive... the drive of self-actualization."[1] Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers
similarly wrote of "the curative force in psychotherapy – man's tendency to actualize himself, to become his potentialities..
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Romanticism
Romanticism
Romanticism
(also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism
Romanticism
was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical
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Liberal Christianity
Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity
Christianity
from the late 18th century onward. Liberal does not refer to Progressive Christianity
Christianity
or to a political philosophy but to the philosophical and religious thought that developed and grew as a consequence of the Enlightenment. Liberal Christianity, broadly speaking, is a method of biblical hermeneutics, an undogmatic method of understanding God through the use of scripture by applying the same modern hermeneutics used to understand any ancient writings, symbols and scriptures. Liberal Christianity
Christianity
did not originate as a belief structure, and as such was not dependent upon any Church dogma or creedal doctrine. Unlike conservative varieties of Christianity, liberalism has no unified set of propositional beliefs
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Anthroposophy
Waldorf education Biodynamic agriculture Anthroposophical medicine Camphill Movement · EurythmyPhilosophyThe Philosophy
Philosophy
of Freedom · Social threefoldingv t e Anthroposophy
Anthroposophy
is the philosophy founded by Rudolf Steiner
Rudolf Steiner
that postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world, accessible to human experience through inner development. More specifically, it aims to develop faculties of perceptive imagination, inspiration and intuition through the cultivation of a form of thinking independent of sensory experience,[1][2] and to present the results thus derived in a manner subject to rational verification
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Divine Illumination
According to divine illumination, the process of human thought needs to be aided by divine grace. It is the oldest and most influential alternative to naturalism in the theory of mind and epistemology.[1] It was an important feature of ancient Greek philosophy, Neoplatonism, medieval philosophy, and the Illuminationist school of Islamic philosophy.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]Socrates Socrates
Socrates
says in The Apology that he had a divine or spiritual sign that began when he was a child. It was a voice that turned him away from something he was about to do, although it never encouraged him to do anything
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Esoteric Christianity
Esoteric Christianity
Christianity
(also known as Hermetic Christianity
Christianity
or Mystic Christianity) is an ensemble of spiritual currents which regard
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German Idealism
German idealism
German idealism
(also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism)[1] was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany
Germany
in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It began as a reaction to Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. German idealism was closely linked with both Romanticism
Romanticism
and the revolutionary politics of the Enlightenment
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Individuation
The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis,[1] describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things.[2] The concept appears in numerous fields and is encountered in works of Carl Gustav Jung, Gilbert Simondon, Alan Watts, Bernard Stiegler, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, David Bohm, Henri Bergson, Gilles Deleuze, and Manuel De Landa.Contents1 Usage1.1 In philosophy 1.2 In Jungian psychology 1.3 In the media industry 1.4 In physics2 Arthur Schopenhauer 3 Carl Jung 4 Gilbert Simondon 5 Bernard Stiegler 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyUsage[edit] The word individuation occurs with different meanings and connotations in different fields. In philosophy[edit] Philosophically, "individuation" expresses the general idea of how a thing is identified as an individual thing that "is not something else"
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Pietism
Pietism
Pietism
(/ˈpaɪ.ɪtɪsm/, from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism
Lutheranism
that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.[1] Although the movement was active exclusively within Lutheranism, it had a tremendous impact on Protestantism
Protestantism
worldwide, particularly in North America and Europe. Pietism
Pietism
originated in modern Germany
Germany
in the late 17th century with the work of Philipp Spener, a Lutheran theologian whose emphasis on personal transformation through spiritual rebirth and renewal, individual devotion and piety laid the foundations for the movement
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Christian Spirituality
Christian mysticism
Christian mysticism
refers to the development of mystical practices and theory within Christianity. It has often been connected to mystical theology, especially in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
(both the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox traditions). The attributes and means by which Christian mysticism
Christian mysticism
is studied and practiced are varied
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Spiritual Practice
A spiritual practice or spiritual discipline (often including spiritual exercises) is the regular or full-time performance of actions and activities undertaken for the purpose of inducing spiritual experiences and cultivating spiritual development. A common metaphor used in the spiritual traditions of the world's great religions is that of walking a path.[1] Therefore, a spiritual practice moves a person along a path towards a goal. The goal is variously referred to as salvation, liberation or union (with God)
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Theosophy
Theosophy, also known as Christian theosophy
Christian theosophy
and Boehmian theosophy, refers to a range of positions within Christianity
Christianity
which focus on the attainment of direct, unmediated knowledge of the nature of divinity and the origin and purpose of the universe. They have been characterized as mystical and occultist philosophies.[1] Theosophy
Theosophy
is considered part of Western esotericism, which believes that hidden knowledge or wisdom from the ancient past offers a path to enlightenment and salvation. The foundation of Christian theosophy
Christian theosophy
is usually attributed to the German philosopher Jakob Bohme. In 1875, the term "theosophy" was adopted by the Theosophical Society, a largely unrelated esoteric organisation which spawned a religious movement also called Theosophy
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Theosophical Society
Traditional and Christian Theosophy
Theosophy
contributorsWilliam Walker Atkinson · Franz von Baader Nikolai Berdyaev · Jakob Boehme Johann Jakob Brucker · Sergei Bulgakov Henry Corbin · Karl von Eckartshausen Florence Farr · Wassily Kandinsky G. R. S
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