Faith is confidence or trust in a particular system of religious
belief, in which faith may equate to confidence based on some
perceived degree of warrant. According to Rudolf Bultmann, faith
must be a determined vital act of will, not a culling and extolling of
2 Stages of faith development
2.1 Stages of faith
4 Religious views
4.1 Bahá'í Faith
4.3.1 Christian apologetic views
7 See also
10 Further reading
10.1 Classic reflections on the nature of faith
10.2 The Reformation view of faith
11 External links
The English word faith is thought to date from 1200–1250, from the
Middle English feith, via Anglo-French fed, Old French feid, feit from
Latin fidem, accusative of fidēs (trust), akin to fīdere (to
Stages of faith development
James W. Fowler § Stages of Faith
James W. Fowler (1940–2015) proposes a series of stages of
faith-development (or spiritual development) across the human
life-span. His stages relate closely to the work of Piaget, Erikson,
and Kohlberg regarding aspects of psychological development in
children and adults. Fowler defines faith as an activity of trusting,
committing, and relating to the world based on a set of assumptions of
how one is related to others and the world.
Stages of faith
Intuitive-Projective: a stage of confusion and of high
impressionability through stories and rituals (pre-school period).
Mythic-Literal: a stage where provided information is accepted in
order to conform with social norms (school-going period).
Synthetic-Conventional: in this stage the faith acquired is concreted
in the belief system with the forgoing of personification and
replacement with authority in individuals or groups that represent
one's beliefs (early-late adolescence).
Individuative-Reflective: in this stage the individual critically
analyzes adopted and accepted faith with existing systems of faith.
Disillusion or strengthening of faith happens in this stage. Based on
needs, experiences and paradoxes (early adulthood).
Conjunctive faith: in this stage people realize the limits of logic
and, facing the paradoxes or transcendence of life, accept the
"mystery of life" and often return to the sacred stories and symbols
of the pre-acquired or re-adopted faith system. This stage is called
negotiated settling in life (mid-life).
Universalizing faith: this is the "enlightenment" stage where the
individual comes out of all the existing systems of faith and lives
life with universal principles of compassion and love and in service
to others for upliftment, without worries and doubt (middle-late
adulthood (45–65 years old and plus).[full citation needed]
No hard-and-fast rule requires individuals pursuing faith to go
through all six stages. There is a high probability for individuals to
be content and fixed in a particular stage for a lifetime; stages from
2-5 are such stages. Stage 6 is the summit of faith development. This
state is often[quantify] considered as "not fully" attainable.
There is a wide spectrum of opinion with respect to the
epistemological validity of faith.
Main article: Fideism
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is
independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each
other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see
Fideism is not a synonym for religious belief, but
describes a particular philosophical proposition in regard to the
relationship between faith's appropriate jurisdiction at arriving at
truths, contrasted against reason. It states that faith is needed to
determine some philosophical and religious truths, and it questions
the ability of reason to arrive at all truth. The word and concept had
its origin in the mid- to late-19th century by way of Catholic
thought, in a movement called Traditionalism. The Roman Catholic
Magisterium has, however, repeatedly condemned fideism.
See also: Role of faith in the Baha'i Faith
In the Bahá'í Faith, faith is meant, first, conscious knowledge, and
second, the practice of good deeds, ultimately the acceptance of
the divine authority of the Manifestations of God. In the
religion's view, faith and knowledge are both required for spiritual
Faith involves more than outward obedience to this
authority, but also must be based on a deep personal understanding of
Faith in Buddhism
Faith in Buddhism
Faith in Buddhism (Pali: saddhā, Sanskrit: śraddhā) refers to a
serene commitment in the practice of the Buddha's teaching and trust
in enlightened or highly developed beings, such as Buddhas or
bodhisattvas (those aiming to become a Buddha). Buddhists
usually recognize multiple objects of faith, but many are especially
devoted to one particular object of faith, such as one particular
In early Buddhism, faith was focused on the Triple Gem, that is,
Gautama Buddha, his teaching (the Dhamma), and the community of
spiritually developed followers, or the monastic community seeking
enlightenment (the Sangha). Although offerings to the monastic
community were valued highest, early
Buddhism did not morally condemn
peaceful offerings to deities. A faithful devotee was called
upāsaka or upāsika, for which no formal declaration was
required. In early Buddhism, personal verification was valued
highest in attaining the truth, and sacred scriptures, reason or faith
in a teacher were considered less valuable sources of authority.
As important as faith was, it was a mere initial step to the path to
wisdom and enlightenment, and was obsolete or redefined at the final
stage of that path.
While faith in
Buddhism does not imply "blind faith", Buddhist
practice nevertheless requires a degree of trust, primarily in the
spiritual attainment of Gautama Buddha.
Faith in Buddhism
Faith in Buddhism centers on
the understanding that the Buddha is an Awakened being, on his
superior role as teacher, in the truth of his
teachings), and in his
Sangha (community of spiritually developed
Faith in Buddhism
Faith in Buddhism can be summarised as faith in the Three
Jewels: the Buddha,
Dharma and Sangha. It is intended to lead to the
goal of enlightenment, or bodhi, and Nirvana. Volitionally, faith
implies a resolute and courageous act of will. It combines the
steadfast resolution that one will do a thing with the self-confidence
that one can do it.
In the later stratum of Buddhist history, especially Mahāyāna
Buddhism, faith was given a much more important role. The
concept of the
Buddha Nature was developed, as devotion to Buddhas and
bodhisattvas residing in Pure Lands became commonplace. With
the arising of the cult of the Lotus Sūtra, faith gained a central
role in Buddhist practice, which was further amplified with the
development of devotion to the
Amitabha Buddha in Pure Land
Buddhism. In the Japanese form of
Pure Land Buddhism, under
Hōnen and Shinran, only entrusting faith toward the
Amitabha Buddha was believed to be a fruitful form of practice, as the
practice of celibacy, morality and other Buddhist disciplines were
dismissed as no longer effective in this day and age, or contradicting
the virtue of faith.
Faith was defined as a state similar
to enlightenment, with a sense of self-negation and humility.
Thus, the role of faith increased throughout Buddhist history.
However, from the nineteenth century onward,
Buddhist modernism in
countries like Sri Lanka and Japan, and also in the West, has
downplayed and criticized the role of faith in Buddhism.
Buddhism still has a role in modern Asia or the West, but is
understood and defined differently from traditional
interpretations. Within the Dalit Buddhist Movement
communities, taking refuge is defined not only as a religious, but
also a political choice.
Jean-Baptiste Théodon (1646–1713)
Faith in Christianity
The word translated as "faith" in the New Testament is the Greek word
πίστις which can also be translated "belief", "faithfulness",
and "trust". There are various views in
Christianity regarding the
nature of faith. Some see faith as being persuaded or convinced that
something is true. In this view, a person believes something when
they are presented with adequate evidence that it is true. Theologian
Greg Boyd argues to the contrary, that faith includes doubt.
Then there are numerous views regarding the results of faith. Some
believe that true faith results in good works, while others believe
that while faith in
Jesus brings eternal life, it does not necessarily
result in good works.
Regardless of which approach to faith a Christian takes, all agree
Christian faith is aligned with the ideals and the example of
the life of Jesus. The Christian sees the mystery of
God and his grace
and seeks to know and become obedient to God. To a Christian, faith is
not static but causes one to learn more of
God and to grow; Christian
faith has its origin in God.
In Christianity, faith causes change as it seeks a greater
understanding of God.
Faith is not only fideism or simple obedience to
a set of rules or statements. Before Christians have faith, they
must understand in whom and in what they have faith. Without
understanding, there cannot be true faith, and that understanding is
built on the foundation of the community of believers, the scriptures
and traditions and on the personal experiences of the believer. In
English translations of the New Testament, the word "faith" generally
corresponds to the Greek noun πίστις (pistis) or to the Greek
verb πιστεύω (pisteuo), meaning "to trust, to have confidence,
faithfulness, to be reliable, to assure".
Christian apologetic views
In contrast to noted atheist Richard Dawkins' view of faith as "blind
trust, in the absence of evidence, even in the teeth of evidence",
Alister McGrath quotes the Oxford Anglican theologian W. H.
Griffith-Thomas (1861–1924), who states that faith is "not blind,
but intelligent" and that it "commences with the conviction of the
mind based on adequate evidence...", which McGrath sees as "a good and
reliable definition, synthesizing the core elements of the
characteristic Christian understanding of faith".
American biblical scholar
Archibald Thomas Robertson stated that the
Greek word pistis used for faith in the New Testament (over two
hundred forty times), and rendered "assurance" in Acts 17:31 (KJV), is
"an old verb meaning "to furnish", used regularly by Demosthenes for
bringing forward evidence." Tom Price (Oxford Centre for Christian
Apologetics) affirms that when the New Testament talks about faith
positively it only uses words derived from the Greek root [pistis]
which means "to be persuaded".
British Christian apologist
John Lennox argues that "faith conceived
as belief that lacks warrant is very different from faith conceived as
belief that has warrant". He states that "the use of the adjective
'blind' to describe 'faith' indicates that faith is not necessarily,
or always, or indeed normally, blind". "The validity, or warrant, of
faith or belief depends on the strength of the evidence on which the
belief is based." "We all know how to distinguish between blind faith
and evidence-based faith. We are well aware that faith is only
justified if there is evidence to back it up." "Evidence-based faith
is the normal concept on which we base our everyday lives."
Peter S Williams holds that "the classic Christian tradition has
always valued rationality, and does not hold that faith involves the
complete abandonment of reason while believing in the teeth of
evidence."[page needed] Quoting Moreland, faith is defined as "a
trust in and commitment to what we have reason to believe is true."
Regarding doubting Thomas in John 20:24-31, Williams points out that
"Thomas wasn't asked to believe without evidence". He was asked to
believe on the basis of the other disciples' testimony. Thomas
initially lacked the first-hand experience of the evidence that had
convinced them... Moreover, the reason John gives for recounting these
events is that what he saw is evidence...
Jesus did many other
miraculous signs in the presence of his disciples...But these are
written that you may believe that
Jesus is the Christ, the son of God,
and that believing ye might have life in his name. John 20:30,31.
Concerning doubting Thomas, Michael R. Allen wrote, "Thomas's
definition of faith implies adherence to conceptual propositions for
the sake of personal knowledge, knowledge of and about a person qua
Kenneth Boa and Robert M. Bowman Jr. describe a classic understanding
of faith that is referred to[by whom?]as evidentialism, and which is
part of a larger epistemological tradition called classical
foundationalism, which is accompanied by deontologism, which holds
that humans have an obligation to regulate their beliefs in accordance
with evidentialist structures.
They show how this can go too far, and
Alvin Plantinga deals with
it. While Plantinga upholds that faith may be the result of evidence
testifying to the reliability of the source (of the truth claims), yet
he sees having faith as being the result of hearing the truth of the
gospel with the internal persuasion by the Holy
Spirit moving and
enabling him to believe. "Christian belief is produced in the believer
by the internal instigation of the Holy Spirit, endorsing the
teachings of Scripture, which is itself divinely inspired by the Holy
Spirit. The result of the work of the Holy
Spirit is faith."
The four-part Catechism of the
Catholic Church (CCC) gives Part One to
"The Profession of Faith". This section describes the content of
faith. It elaborates and expands particularly upon the Apostles'
Creed. CCC 144 initiates a section on the "Obedience of Faith".
In the theology of Pope John Paul II, faith is understood in personal
terms as a trusting commitment of person to person and thus involves
Christian commitment to the divine person of
Main article: Hinduism
Ahimsa, also referred to as non-violence, is the fundamental tenet of
Hinduism which advocates harmonious and peaceful co-existence and
evolutionary growth in grace and wisdom for all humankind
In Hinduism, most of the Vedic prayers begins with the chants of Om.
Om is the Sanskrit symbol that amazingly resonates the peacefulness
ensconced within one's higher self. Om is considered to have a
profound effect on the body and mind of the one who chants and also
creates a calmness, serenity, healing, strength of its own to prevail
within and also in the surrounding environment.
Main article: Iman (concept)
In Islam, a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of
called "Iman" (Arabic: الإيمان), which is complete
submission to the will of God, not unquestionable or blind
belief. A man must build his faith on well-grounded
convictions beyond any reasonable doubt and above
uncertainty. According to the Quran, Iman must be
accompanied by righteous deeds and the two together are necessary for
entry into Paradise. In the Hadith of Gabriel, Iman in addition to
Ihsan form the three dimensions of the Islamic religion.
Prophet Muhammad referred to the six articles of faith in the Hadith
of Gabriel: "Iman is that you believe in
God and His Angels and His
Books and His Messengers and the Hereafter and the good and evil fate
[ordained by your God]." The first five are mentioned together in
the Qur'an  The
Quran states that faith can grow with remembrance
of God. The Qur'an also states that nothing in this world should
be dearer to a true believer than faith.
Main article: Jewish principles of faith
Faith itself is not a religious concept in Judaism. The faith in God
is mentioned in the
Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis Chapter 15 verse 6 and in the Book
of Exodus Chapter 4 verse 31 and in the Book of Isaiah, Chapter 43
verse 10, in the 24 books of the Jewish Bible. The word translated as
"faith" here is the Hebrew word אָמַן which can also be
translated "believe", "reliable", and "trustworthy". In the Book
of Isaiah, Chapter 43 verse 10, the commandment to know
followed by the commandments to believe and to understand, thus
denoting descending importance.
Judaism does recognize the positive value of Emunah
(generally translated as faith, trust in God) and the negative status
of the Apikorus (heretic), but faith is not as stressed or as central
as it is in other religions, especially compared with
Islam. It could be a necessary means for being a practicing religious
Jew, but the emphasis is placed on true knowledge, true prophecy and
practice rather than on faith itself. Very rarely does it relate to
any teaching that must be believed.
Judaism does not require
one to explicitly identify
God (a key tenet of Christian faith, which
Avodah Zarah in Judaism, a minor form of idol worship, a big
sin and strictly forbidden to Jews). Rather, in Judaism, one is to
honour a (personal) idea of God, supported by the many principles
quoted in the
Talmud to define Judaism, mostly by what it is not. Thus
there is no established formulation of Jewish principles of faith
which are mandatory for all (observant) Jews.
In the Jewish scriptures trust in
God – Emunah – refers to how God
acts toward his people and how they are to respond to him; it is
rooted in the everlasting covenant established in the Torah,
notably Deuteronomy 7:9:
Know, therefore, that the Lord, your
God He is God, the faithful God,
Who keeps the covenant and loving kindness with those who love Him and
keep His commandments to a thousand generations.
— Tanakh, Deuteronomy 7:9
The specific tenets that compose required belief and their application
to the times have been disputed throughout Jewish history. Today many,
but not all, Orthodox
Jews have accepted Maimonides' Thirteen
Principles of Belief.
A traditional example of Emunah as seen in the Jewish annals is found
in the person of Abraham. On a number of occasions,
accepts statements from
God that seem impossible and offers obedient
actions in response to direction from
God to do things that seem
implausible (see Genesis 12-15).
Talmud describes how a thief also believes in G‑d: On the brink
of his forced entry, as he is about to risk his life—and the life of
his victim—he cries out with all sincerity, 'G‑d help me!' The
thief has faith that there is a G‑d who hears his cries, yet it
escapes him that this G‑d may be able to provide for him without
requiring that he abrogate G‑d’s will by stealing from others. For
emunah to affect him in this way he needs study and
Sikhism and Five Ks
Faith itself is not a religious concept in Sikhism. However, the five
Sikh symbols, known as Kakaars or
Five Ks (in Punjabi known as pañj
kakkē or pañj kakār), are sometimes referred to as the Five
articles of Faith. The articles include kēs (uncut hair), kaṅghā
(small wooden comb), kaṛā (circular steel or iron bracelet),
kirpān (sword/dagger), and kacchera (special undergarment). Baptised
Sikhs are bound to wear those five articles of faith, at all times, to
save them from bad company and keep them close to God.
Religious epistemologists have formulated and defended reasons for the
rationality of accepting belief in
God without the support of an
argument. Some religious epistemologists hold that belief in God
is more analogous to belief in a person than belief in a scientific
hypothesis. Human relations demand trust and commitment. If belief in
God is more like belief in other persons, then the trust that is
appropriate to persons will be appropriate to God. American
psychologist and philosopher
William James offers a similar argument
in his lecture The Will to Believe.
Foundationalism is a view
about the structure of justification or knowledge.
Foundationalism holds that all knowledge and justified belief are
ultimately based upon what are called properly basic beliefs. This
position is intended to resolve the infinite regress problem in
epistemology. According to foundationalism, a belief is epistemically
justified only if it is justified by properly basic beliefs. One of
the significant developments in foundationalism is the rise of
Reformed epistemology is a view about the epistemology of religious
belief, which holds that belief in
God can be properly basic. Analytic
Alvin Plantinga and
Nicholas Wolterstorff develop this
view. Plantinga holds that an individual may rationally believe in
God even though the individual does not possess sufficient evidence to
convince an agnostic. One difference between reformed epistemology and
fideism is that the former requires defence against known objections,
whereas the latter might dismiss such objections as irrelevant.
Plantinga has developed reformed epistemology in Warranted Christian
Belief as a form of externalism that holds that the justification
conferring factors for a belief may include external factors. Some
theistic philosophers have defended theism by granting evidentialism
but supporting theism through deductive arguments whose premises are
considered justifiable. Some of these arguments are probabilistic,
either in the sense of having weight but being inconclusive, or in the
sense of having a mathematical probability assigned to them.
Notable in this regard are the cumulative arguments presented by
British philosopher Basil Mitchell and analytic philosopher Richard
Swinburne, whose arguments are based on Bayesian probability.
In a notable exposition of his arguments, Swinburne appeals to an
inference for the best explanation.
Professor of Mathematics
Professor of Mathematics and philosopher of science at University of
John Lennox has stated, "
Faith is not a leap in the dark;
it’s the exact opposite. It’s a commitment based on evidence… It
is irrational to reduce all faith to blind faith and then subject it
to ridicule. That provides a very anti-intellectual and convenient way
of avoiding intelligent discussion.” He criticises Richard Dawkins
as a famous proponent of asserting that faith equates to holding a
belief without evidence, thus that it is possible to hold belief
without evidence, for failing to provide evidence for this
Bertrand Russell wrote:
Christians hold that their faith does good, but other faiths do harm.
At any rate, they hold this about the communist faith. What I wish to
maintain is that all faiths do harm. We may define “faith” as a
firm belief in something for which there is no evidence. Where there
is evidence, no one speaks of “faith.” We do not speak of faith
that two and two are four or that the earth is round. We only speak of
faith when we wish to substitute emotion for evidence. The
substitution of emotion for evidence is apt to lead to strife, since
different groups substitute different emotions. Christians have faith
in the Resurrection; communists have faith in Marx’s Theory of
Value. Neither faith can be defended rationally, and each therefore is
defended by propaganda and, if necessary, by war.
— Will Religious
Faith Cure Our Troubles?
Richard Dawkins criticizes all faith by
generalizing from specific faith in propositions that conflict
directly with scientific evidence. He describes faith as belief
without evidence; a process of active non-thinking. He states that it
is a practice that only degrades our understanding of the natural
world by allowing anyone to make a claim about nature that is based
solely on their personal thoughts, and possibly distorted perceptions,
that does not require testing against nature, has no ability to make
reliable and consistent predictions, and is not subject to peer
Blue skies research
Faith and rationality
Faith, Hope, and Charity
Lectures on Faith
Major world religions
Spectrum of theistic probability
There are no atheists in foxholes
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University Press. pp. 250, 291. ISBN 0-19-513192-4.
^ Dulles SJ, Avery Cardinal (2003). The Splendor of Faith: The
Theological Vision of Pope John Paul II. New York: Crossroad
Publishing Company. pp. vii–viii.
^ Farāhī, Majmū‘ah Tafāsīr, 2nd ed. (Faran Foundation, 1998),
^ Frederick M. Denny, An Introduction to Islam, 3rd ed., p. 405
^ Swartley, Keith E. (2005-11-02). Encountering the World of Islam.
InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830856442.
^ Quran 95:6
^ Muslim, Al-Jami‘ al-sahih, 22, (no. 93).
^ Quran 2:285
^ Quran 8:2
^ Quran 9:24
^ "Strong's Hebrew: 539. אָמַן (aman) -- believe, reliable".
biblehub.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
^ a b Mizrachi, Yosef. "Who
God Is". Audios English
5min:40sec-9min:02sec. DivineInformation.com. Retrieved 22 August
^ a b "What Is Emunah – Beyond
Belief – Essentials". chabad.org.
Retrieved 14 October 2015.
^ a b Brueggemann, Walter (2002). Reverberations of faith: a
theological handbook of Old Testament themes. Louisville, Ky.:
Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 76–78.
Torah – A Modern Commentary; Union of American Hebrew
Congregations, NY 1981 by W. G. Plaut)
^ The 13 Principles and the Resurrection of the Dead Archived
2006-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. from The Wolf Shall Lie With the
Lamb, Rabbi Shmuel Boteach (Oxford University)
^ For a wide history of this dispute see: Shapiro, Marc: The Limits of
Orthodox Theology: Maimonides' Thirteen Principles Reappraised
(Littman Library of Jewish Civilization (Series).)
^ "Sikhism: Five Articles of Faith". realsikhism.com. Retrieved 14
^ a b c Clark, Kelly James (2 October 2004). "Religious Epistemology".
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
^ James, William. "1896". New World. 5: 327–347. Retrieved 23
^ a b c Poston, Ted (10 June 2010). "Foundationalism". Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
^ Plantinga, Alvin;
Nicholas Wolterstorff (1983).
Belief in God. Notre Dame, IN: University of
Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-00964-3.
^ Forrest, Peter (11 March 2009). "The
Epistemology of Religion".
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
^ Plantinga, Alvin (2000). Warranted Christian Belief. New York:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513192-4.
^ Basic, Mitchell. The Justification of Religious Belief. London:
^ Swinburne, Richard. The Existence of God. Oxford: Clarendon
^ Forrest, Peter.
God without the Supernatural. Ithaca: Cornell
^ Swinburne, Richard. Is there a God?. Oxford: Oxford University
^ Lennox, John (2009). God's Undertaker: Has Science Buried God?. Lion
^ Russell, Bertrand. "Will Religious
Faith Cure Our Troubles?". Human
Society in Ethics and Politics. Ch 7. Pt 2. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
^ Dawkins, Richard (2006). The
God Delusion. Bantam Books.
^ Dawkins, Richard (January–February 1997). "Is Science a
Religion?". American Humanist Association. Archived from the original
on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
Green, Ronald S. (2013), "East Asian Buddhism" (PDF), in Emmanuel,
Steven M., A companion to Buddhist philosophy, Chichester, West
Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-470-65877-2
Harvey, Peter (2013), An introduction to Buddhism: teachings, history
and practices (PDF) (2nd ed.), New York: Cambridge University Press,
Jayatilleke, K.N. (1963), Early Buddhist theory of knowledge (PDF),
George Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-134-54287-9
Lamotte, Etienne (1988), Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien, des origines
à l'ère Śaka [History of Indian Buddhism: from the origins to the
Saka era] (PDF) (in French), translated by Webb-Boin, Sara,
Louvain-la-Neuve: Université catholique de Louvain, Institut
orientaliste, ISBN 906831100X
Sam Harris, The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of
Reason, W. W. Norton (2004), hardcover, 336 pages,
Stephen Palmquist, "
Faith as Kant's Key to the Justification of
Transcendental Reflection", The Heythrop Journal 25:4 (October 1984),
pp. 442–455. Reprinted as Chapter V in Stephen Palmquist,
Kant's System of Perspectives (Lanham: University Press of America,
D. Mark Parks, "Faith/Faithfulness" Holman Illustrated Bible
Dictionary. Eds. Chad Brand, Charles Draper, Archie England.
Nashville: Holman Publishers, 2003.
Reason by Swami Tripurari
Baba, Meher: Discourses, San Francisco: Sufism Reoriented, 1967.
Classic reflections on the nature of faith
Martin Buber, I and Thou
Paul Tillich, The Dynamics of Faith
The Reformation view of faith
John Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536
Faith Alone, Baker Books, 1 February 1999,
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John Bishop (Jul 10, 2017). "Faith". Stanford Encyclopedia of
Peter Forrest (Jul 10, 2017). "
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