FAITH is confidence or trust in a particular system of religious
belief , in which faith may equate to confidence based on some
perceived degree of warrant .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Stages of faith development
* 2.1 Stages of faith
* 4 Religious views
* 4.1 Bahá\'í
* 4.3.1 Christian apologetic views
* 5 Support
* 6 Criticism
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 9.1 Classic reflections on the nature of faith
* 9.2 The Reformation view of faith
* 10 External links
The English word faith is thought to date from 1200–50, from the
Middle English feith, via Anglo-French fed, Old French feid, feit from
Latin fidem, accusative of fidēs (trust), akin to fīdere (to trust).
STAGES OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT
James W. Fowler § Stages of
James W. Fowler (1940-2015) proposes a series of stages of
faith-development (or spiritual development ) across the human
life-span. His stages relate closely to the work of Piaget , Erikson,
and Kohlberg regarding aspects of psychological development in
children and adults. Fowler defines faith as an activity of trusting,
committing, and relating to the world based on a set of assumptions of
how one is related to others and the world.
STAGES OF FAITH
* GET OUT OF HERE
RESSIONABILITY THROUGH STORIES AND RITUALS . (PRE-SCHOOL PERIOD)
* MYTHIC-LITERAL: a stage where provided information is accepted in
order to conform with social norms . (School-going period)
* SYNTHETIC-CONVENTIONAL: In this stage the faith acquired is
concreted in the belief system with the forgoing of personification
and replacement with authority in individuals or groups that represent
one's beliefs. (Early-late adolescence)
* INDIVIDUATIVE-REFLECTIVE: In this stage the individual critically
analyzes adopted and accepted faith with existing systems of faith.
Disillusion or strengthening of faith happens in this stage. Based on
needs, experiences and paradoxes. (Early adulthood)
* CONJUNCTIVE FAITH: In this stage people realize the limits of
logic and, facing the paradoxes or transcendence of life , accept the
"mystery of life" and often return to the sacred stories and symbols
of the pre-acquired or re-adopted faith system. This stage is called
negotiated settling in life. (Mid-life)
* UNIVERSALIZING FAITH: This is the "enlightenment" stage where the
individual comes out of all the existing systems of faith and lives
life with universal principles of compassion and love and in service
to others for upliftment, without worries and doubt . (Middle - late
adulthood (45-65yrs and plus).
No hard-and-fast rule requires individuals pursuing faith to go
through all six stages. There is a high probability for individuals to
be content and fixed in a particular stage for a lifetime; stages from
2-5 are such stages. Stage 6 is the summit of faith development. This
state is often considered as "not fully" attainable.
There is a wide spectrum of opinion with respect to the
epistemological validity of faith.
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is
independent of reason , or that reason and faith are hostile to each
other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see
natural theology ).
Fideism is not a synonym for religious belief, but describes a
particular philosophical proposition in regard to the relationship
between faith's appropriate jurisdiction at arriving at truths,
contrasted against reason. It states that faith is needed to determine
some philosophical and religious truths, and it questions the ability
of reason to arrive at all truth. The word and concept had its origin
in the mid- to late-19th century by way of
Catholic thought, in a
movement called Traditionalism . The Roman
however, repeatedly condemned fideism .
See also: Role of faith in the Baha\'i
In the Bahá\'í
Faith , faith is meant, first, conscious knowledge,
and second, the practice of good deeds, ultimately the acceptance of
the divine authority of the
Manifestations of God . In the religion's
view, faith and knowledge are both required for spiritual growth.
Faith involves more than outward obedience to this authority, but also
must be based on a deep personal understanding of religious teachings.
Faith in Buddhism
Faith (Pali: Saddhā, Sanskrit: Śraddhā) is an important
constituent element of the teachings of Gautama Buddha— in both the
Theravada and the
Mahayana traditions. The teachings of Buddha were
originally recorded in the language
Pali and the word saddhā is
generally translated as "faith". In the teachings, saddhā is often
* a conviction that something is
* a determination to accomplish one's goals
* a sense of joy deriving from the other two
While faith in
Buddhism does not imply "blind faith", Buddhist
practice nevertheless requires a degree of trust, primarily in the
spiritual attainment of
Gautama Buddha .
Faith in Buddhism centers on
the understanding that the Buddha is an Awakened being, on his
superior role as teacher, in the truth of his
teachings), and in his Sangha (community of spiritually developed
Faith in Buddhism can be summarised as faith in the Three
Jewels : the Buddha,
Dharma and Sangha. It is intended to lead to the
goal of enlightenment, or bodhi , and
Nirvana . Volitionally, faith
implies a resolute and courageous act of will. It combines the
steadfast resolution that one will do a thing with the self-confidence
that one can do it.
As a counter to any form of "blind faith", the Buddha's teachings
included those included in the
Kalama Sutra , exhorting his disciples
to investigate any teaching and to live by what is learnt and
accepted, rather than believing in something simply because it is
Idolatry by Jean-Baptiste Théodon
(1646–1713) Main article:
Faith in Christianity
The word translated as "faith" in the New Testament is the Greek word
πίστις which can also be translated "belief", "faithfulness",
and "trust". There are various views in
Christianity regarding the
nature of faith. Some see faith as being persuaded or convinced that
something is true. In this view, a person believes something when
they are presented with adequate evidence that it is true. Theologian
Greg Boyd argues to the contrary, that faith includes doubt.
Then there are numerous views regarding the results of faith. Some
believe that true faith results in good works, while others believe
that while faith in
Jesus brings eternal life, it does not necessarily
result in good works.
Regardless of which approach to faith a Christian takes, all agree
Christian faith is aligned with the ideals and the example of
the life of Jesus. The Christian sees the mystery of
God and his grace
and seeks to know and become obedient to God. To a Christian, faith is
not static but causes one to learn more of
God and to grow; Christian
faith has its origin in God.
In Christianity, faith causes change as it seeks a greater
understanding of God.
Faith is not only fideism or simple obedience to
a set of rules or statements. Before Christians have faith, they must
understand in whom and in what they have faith. Without understanding,
there cannot be true faith, and that understanding is built on the
foundation of the community of believers, the scriptures and
traditions and on the personal experiences of the believer . In
English translations of the New Testament, the word "faith" generally
corresponds to the Greek noun πίστις (pistis) or to the Greek
verb πιστεύω (pisteuo), meaning "to trust, to have confidence,
faithfulness, to be reliable, to assure".
Christian Apologetic Views
In contrast to noted atheist
Richard Dawkins ' view of faith as
"blind trust, in the absence of evidence, even in the teeth of
Alister McGrath quotes the Oxford Anglican theologian W.
H. Griffith-Thomas (1861-1924), who states that faith is "not blind,
but intelligent" and that it "commences with the conviction of the
mind based on adequate evidence...", which McGrath sees as "a good and
reliable definition, synthesizing the core elements of the
characteristic Christian understanding of faith".
American biblical scholar
Archibald Thomas Robertson stated that the
Greek word pistis used for faith in the New Testament (over two
hundred forty times), and rendered "assurance" in Acts 17:31 (KJV), is
"an old verb meaning "to furnish", used regularly by Demosthenes for
bringing forward evidence." Tom Price (Oxford Centre for Christian
Apologetics) affirms that when the New Testament talks about faith
positively it only uses words derived from the Greek root which means
"to be persuaded".
British Christian apologist
John Lennox argues that "faith conceived
as belief that lacks warrant is very different from faith conceived as
belief that has warrant". He states that "the use of the adjective
'blind' to describe 'faith' indicates that faith is not necessarily,
or always, or indeed normally, blind". "The validity, or warrant, of
faith or belief depends on the strength of the evidence on which the
belief is based." "We all know how to distinguish between blind faith
and evidence-based faith. We are well aware that faith is only
justified if there is evidence to back it up." "Evidence-based faith
is the normal concept on which we base our everyday lives."
Peter S Williams holds that "the classic Christian tradition has
always valued rationality, and does not hold that faith involves the
complete abandonment of reason will believing in the teeth of
evidence." Quoting Moreland, faith is defined as "a trust in and
commitment to what we have reason to believe is true."
Regarding doubting Thomas in John 20:24-31, Williams points out that
"Thomas wasn't asked to believe without evidence". He was asked to
believe on the basis of the other disciples' testimony. Thomas
initially lacked the first-hand experience of the evidence that had
convinced them... Moreover, the reason John gives for recounting these
events is that what he saw is evidence...
Jesus did many other
miraculous signs in the presence of his disciples...But these are
written that you may believe that
Jesus is the Christ, the son of God,
and that believing ye might have life in his name. John 20:30,31.
Concerning doubting Thomas , Michael R. Allen wrote, "Thomas's
definition of faith implies adherence to conceptual propositions for
the sake of personal knowledge, knowledge of and about a person qua
Kenneth Boa and Robert M. Bowman Jr. describe a classic understanding
of faith that is referred toas evidentialism , and which is part of a
larger epistemological tradition called classical foundationalism ,
which is accompanied by deontologism , which holds that humans have an
obligation to regulate their beliefs in accordance with evidentialist
They show how this can go too far, and
Alvin Plantinga deals with
it. While Plantinga upholds that faith may be the result of evidence
testifying to the reliability of the source (of the truth claims), yet
he sees having faith as being the result of hearing the truth of the
gospel with the internal persuasion by the Holy
Spirit moving and
enabling him to believe. "Christian belief is produced in the believer
by the internal instigation of the Holy Spirit, endorsing the
teachings of Scripture, which is itself divinely inspired by the Holy
Spirit. The result of the work of the Holy
Spirit is faith."
Ahimsa , also referred to as non-violence, is the fundamental tenet
Hinduism which advocates harmonious and peaceful co-existence and
evolutionary growth in grace and wisdom for all humankind
In Hinduism, most of the Vedic prayers begins with the chants of Om.
Om is the Sanskrit symbol that amazingly resonates the peacefulness
ensconced within one's higher self. Om is considered to have a
profound effect on the body and mind of the one who chants and also
creates a calmness, serenity, healing, strength of its own to prevail
within and also in the surrounding environment.
In Islam, a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of
called "Iman" (Arabic : الإيمان), which is complete
submission to the will of God, not unquestionable or blind belief. A
man must build his faith on well-grounded convictions beyond any
reasonable doubt and above uncertainty. According to the Quran, Iman
must be accompanied by righteous deeds and the two together are
necessary for entry into Paradise . In the Hadith of Gabriel, Iman in
Ihsan form the three dimensions of the Islamic
Prophet Muhammad referred to the six articles of faith in the Hadith
of Gabriel : "Iman is that you believe in
God and His Angels and His
Books and His Messengers and the Hereafter and the good and evil fate
." The first five are mentioned together in the Qur'an The Quran
states that faith can grow with remembrance of God. The Qur'an also
states that nothing in this world should be dearer to a true believer
Jewish principles of faith
Faith itself is not a religious concept in
Judaism . The only one
time faith in
God is mentioned in the 24 books of the
Jewish Bible ,
is in verse 10 of the
Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah , Chapter 43. In this verse, the
commandment to know
God is followed by the commandments to believe and
to understand, thus denoting descending importance.
Judaism does recognize the positive value of Emunah
(generally translated as faith, trust in God) and the negative status
of the Apikorus (heretic), but faith is not as stressed or as central
as it is in other religions, especially compared with
Islam . It could be a necessary means for being a practicing religious
Jew, but the emphasis is placed on true knowledge , true prophecy and
practice rather than on faith itself. Very rarely does it relate to
any teaching that must be believed.
Judaism does not require one to
God (a key tenet of
Christian faith , which is
Avodah Zarah in Judaism, a minor form of idol worship , a big
sin and strictly forbidden to Jews). Rather, in Judaism, one is to
honour a (personal) idea of God, supported by the many principles
quoted in the
Talmud to define Judaism, mostly by what it is not. Thus
there is no established formulation of Jewish principles of faith
which are mandatory for all (observant)
In the Jewish scriptures trust in
God - Emunah - refers to how God
acts toward his people and how they are to respond to him; it is
rooted in the everlasting covenant established in the
Torah , notably
Know, therefore, that the Lord, your
God He is God, the faithful God,
Who keeps the covenant and loving kindness with those who love Him and
keep His commandments to a thousand generations. —
The specific tenets that compose required belief and their
application to the times have been disputed throughout Jewish history.
Today many, but not all, Orthodox
Jews have accepted
Thirteen Principles of Belief.
A traditional example of Emunah as seen in the Jewish annals is found
in the person of
Abraham . On a number of occasions,
accepts statements from
God that seem impossible and offers obedient
actions in response to direction from
God to do things that seem
implausible (see Genesis 12-15).
Talmud describes how a thief also believes in G‑d: On the
brink of his forced entry, as he is about to risk his life—and the
life of his victim—he cries out with all sincerity, 'G‑d help me!'
The thief has faith that there is a G‑d who hears his cries, yet it
escapes him that this G‑d may be able to provide for him without
requiring that he abrogate G‑d’s will by stealing from others. For
emunah to affect him in this way he needs study and contemplation."
Faith itself is not a religious concept in Sikhism. However, the five
Sikh symbols, known as Kakaars or
Five Ks (in Punjabi known as pañj
kakkē or pañj kakār), are sometimes referred to as the Five
articles of Faith. The articles include kēs (uncut hair), kaṅghā
(small wooden comb), kaṛā (circular steel or iron bracelet),
kirpān (sword/dagger), and kacchera (special undergarment). Baptised
Sikhs are bound to wear those five articles of faith, at all times, to
save them from bad company and keep them close to God.
Certain religious epistemologists have formulated and defended
reasons for the rationality of accepting belief in
God without the
support of an argument. Some religious epistemologists hold that
God is more analogous to belief in a person than belief in a
scientific hypothesis. Human relations demand trust and commitment. If
God is more like belief in other persons, then the trust
that is appropriate to persons will be appropriate to God. However,
trust in another person will usually be built on perceptions and
acquired knowledge of that person, such as how they treat you, if they
lie, or if they are educated.
Foundationalism is a view about the structure of justification or
Foundationalism holds that all knowledge and justified
belief are ultimately based upon what are called properly basic
beliefs . This position is intended to resolve the infinite regress
problem in epistemology . According to foundationalism, a belief is
epistemically justified only if it is justified by properly basic
beliefs. One of the significant developments in foundationalism is the
rise of reformed epistemology .
Reformed epistemology is a view about the epistemology of religious
belief, which holds that belief in
God can be properly basic. Analytic
Alvin Plantinga and
Nicholas Wolterstorff develop this
view. Plantinga holds that an individual may rationally believe in
God even though the individual does not possess sufficient evidence to
convince an agnostic. One difference between reformed epistemology and
fideism is that the former requires defence against known objections,
whereas the latter might dismiss such objections as irrelevant.
Plantinga has developed reformed epistemology in Warranted Christian
Belief as a form of externalism that holds that the justification
conferring factors for a belief may include external factors. Some
theistic philosophers have defended theism by granting evidentialism
but supporting theism through deductive arguments whose premises are
considered justifiable. Some of these arguments are probabilistic,
either in the sense of having weight but being inconclusive, or in the
sense of having a mathematical probability assigned to them. Notable
in this regard are the cumulative arguments presented by British
philosopher Basil Mitchell and analytic philosopher Richard Swinburne
, whose arguments are based on
Bayesian probability . In a notable
exposition of his arguments, Swinburne appeals to an inference for the
Professor of Mathematics and philosopher of science at University of
John Lennox has stated, "
Faith is not a leap in the dark;
it’s the exact opposite. It’s a commitment based on evidence …
It is irrational to reduce all faith to blind faith and then subject
it to ridicule. That provides a very anti-intellectual and convenient
way of avoiding intelligent discussion.” He criticises Richard
Dawkins as a famous proponent of asserting that faith equates to
holding a belief without evidence, thus that it is possible to hold
belief without evidence, for failing to provide evidence for this
Bertrand Russell wrote:
Christians hold that their faith does good, but other faiths do harm.
At any rate, they hold this about the communist faith. What I wish to
maintain is that all faiths do harm. We may define “faith” as a
firm belief in something for which there is no evidence. Where there
is evidence, no one speaks of “faith.” We do not speak of faith
that two and two are four or that the earth is round. We only speak of
faith when we wish to substitute emotion for evidence. The
substitution of emotion for evidence is apt to lead to strife, since
different groups substitute different emotions. Christians have faith
in the Resurrection; communists have faith in Marx’s Theory of Value
. Neither faith can be defended rationally, and each therefore is
defended by propaganda and, if necessary, by war. — Will Religious
Faith Cure Our Troubles?
Richard Dawkins criticizes all faith by
generalizing from specific faith in propositions that conflict
directly with scientific evidence. He describes faith as belief
without evidence; a process of active non-thinking. He states that it
is a practice that only degrades our understanding of the natural
world by allowing anyone to make a claim about nature that is based
solely on their personal thoughts, and possibly distorted perceptions,
that does not require testing against nature, has no ability to make
reliable and consistent predictions, and is not subject to peer
From the position and observations of
Aron Ra , the president of the
Atheist Alliance of America :
Religious faith is an unreasonable assertion of stoic conviction
which is assumed without reason and is defended against all reason.
Blue skies research
Faith and rationality
Faith, Hope, and Charity
Lectures on Faith
Major world religions
* Pascal\'s Wager
Spectrum of theistic probability
There are no atheists in foxholes
* ^ A B "
Faith - Define Faith". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 14
* ^ Plantinga, Alvin (January 27, 2000). Warranted Christian
Belief. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 169–199. ISBN
* ^ Boa, Kenneth (March 1, 2006).
Faith Has Its Reasons:
Integrative Approaches to Defending the Christian Faith. USA: IVP
Books. pp. 251–255. ISBN 978-0830856480 .
* ^ Works of Daniel J. Levinson
* ^ Fowler,J.W.; Stages of
Faith - The Psychology of Human
Development and the Quest for Meaning
* ^ Lewis, C.S. (2001). Mere
Christianity : a revised and amplified
edition, with a new introduction, of the three books, Broadcast talks,
Christian behaviour, and Beyond personality.
San Francisco :
HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-065292-6 .
* ^ "Fideism". stanford.edu. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
* ^ Baha'i World
Faith - Abdu'l-Baha Section, p. 383
* ^ A B C Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í
Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. p. 155. ISBN 1-85168-184-1 .
* ^ Conze, Edward (1993). The Way of Wisdom The Five Spiritual
Buddhist Publication Society .
ISBN 978-9552401107 .
Soma Thera . "Kalama Sutta: The Buddha\'s Charter of Free
Inquiry". accesstoinsight.org. Archived from the original on 4
February 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
* ^ "Strong\'s Greek: 4102. πίστις (pistis) -- faith,
faithfulness". biblehub.com. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
* ^ Wilkin, Robert N. (2012). The Ten Most Misunderstood Words in
the Bible. Corinth, TX: GES. p. 221.
* ^ Boyd, Gregory A. (2013). The Benefit of the Doubt. Grand
Rapids: Baker. p. 272. ISBN 978-0801014925 .
* ^ "(PDF) Jeremy Myers, The Gospel Under Siege: 3 Views on the
Faith and Good Works"
* ^ Wuerl, By Donald W. (2004). The Teaching of Christ: A Catholic
Catechism for Adults, Edition: 5, revised. Huntingdon, IN: Our Sunday
Visitor Pub. Division. p. 238. ISBN 1-59276-094-5 . Retrieved 21 April
* ^ Migliore, Daniel L. 2004.
Faith seeking understanding: an
introduction to Christian theology. Grand Rapids, Mich: W.B. Eerdmans.
* ^ Inbody, Tyron. 2005. The faith of the Christian church: an
introduction to theology. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans Pub.
* ^ Thomas, Robert L.; Editor, General (1981). New American
standard exhaustive concordance of the Bible:. Nashville, Tenn.: A.J.
Holman. pp. 1674–75. ISBN 0-87981-197-8 .
* ^ Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1989, 198.
* ^ McGrath, Alister E. (2008). The Order of Things: Explorations
in Scientific Theology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 33. ISBN 140512556X .
* ^ Robertson, Archibald Thomas. WORD PICTURES IN THE NEW
TESTAMENT. pp. Chapter 17.
* ^ Price, Thomas. "
Faith is about \'just trusting\'
It?". Retrieved 23 January 2014.
* ^ Lennox, John (2011). Gunning for God: Why the New Atheists Are
Missing the Target. United kingdom: Lion. p. 55. ISBN 0745953220 .
* ^ "Peter S. Williams". peterswilliams.com. Retrieved 14 October
* ^ Williams, Peter S (2013). A Faithful Guide to Philosophy: A
Christian Introduction to the Love of Wisdom. Authentic Media. pp.
Chapter 1.4. ISBN 1842278118 .
* ^ Allen, Michael (2009). The Christ's Faith: A Dogmatic Account.
London: T&T Clark Studies in Systematic Theology. p. 80. ISBN
* ^ Boa, Kenneth; Robert M.Bowman (March 1, 2006).
Faith Has Its
Reasons: Integrative Approaches to Defending the Christian Faith. USA:
IVP Books. p. 253. ISBN 978-0830856480 .
* ^ Plantinga, Alvin (2000). Warranted Christian Belief. USA:
Oxford University Press. pp. 250, 291. ISBN 0195131924 .
* ^ Farāhī, Majmū‘ah Tafāsīr, 2nd ed. (Faran Foundation,
* ^ Frederick M. Denny, An Introduction to Islam, 3rd ed., p. 405
* ^ Muslim, Al-Jami‘ al-sahih, 22, (no. 93).
* ^ A B Mizrachi, Yosef. "Who
God Is". Audios English
5min:40sec-9min:02sec. DivineInformation.com. Retrieved 22 August
* ^ A B "What Is Emunah - Beyond
Belief - Essentials". chabad.org.
Retrieved 14 October 2015.
* ^ A B Brueggemann, Walter (2002). Reverberations of faith: a
theological handbook of Old Testament themes. Louisville, Ky.:
Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 76–78. ISBN 0-664-22231-5 .
* ^ (The
Torah - A Modern Commentary; Union of American Hebrew
Congregations, NY 1981 by W. G. Plaut)
* ^ The 13 Principles and the Resurrection of the Dead from The
Wolf Shall Lie With the Lamb, Rabbi Shmuel Boteach (Oxford University)
* ^ For a wide history of this dispute see: Shapiro, Marc: The
Limits of Orthodox Theology: Maimonides' Thirteen Principles
Reappraised (Littman Library of Jewish Civilization (Series).)
* ^ "Sikhism: Five Articles of Faith". realsikhism.com. Retrieved
14 October 2015.
* ^ A B Clark, Kelly James (2 October 2004). "Religious
Epistemology". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 23
* ^ A B C Poston, Ted (10 June 2010). "Foundationalism". Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
* ^ Plantinga, Alvin ;
Nicholas Wolterstorff (1983).
Belief in God. Notre Dame, IN: University of
Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-00964-3 .
* ^ Forrest, Peter (11 March 2009). "The
Epistemology of Religion".
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
* ^ Plantinga, Alvin (2000). Warranted Christian Belief. New York:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513192-4 .
* ^ Basic, Mitchell . The Justification of Religious Belief.
* ^ Swinburne, Richard . The Existence of God. Oxford: Clarendon
* ^ Forrest, Peter .
God without the Supernatural. Ithaca: Cornell
* ^ Swinburne, Richard . Is there a God?. Oxford: Oxford University
* ^ Lennox, John (2009). God's Undertaker: Has Science Buried God?.
* ^ Russell, Bertrand. "Will Religious
Faith Cure Our Troubles?".
Human Society in Ethics and Politics. Ch 7. Pt 2. Retrieved 16 August
* ^ Dawkins, Richard (2006). The
God Delusion. Bantam Books.
* ^ Dawkins, Richard (January–February 1997). "Is Science a
Religion?". American Humanist Association. Archived from the original
on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
* ^ AronRa (2013-09-02),
Truth vs Make-Believe, retrieved
* Sam Harris ,
The End of Faith : Religion, Terror, and the Future
of Reason, W. W. Norton (2004), hardcover, 336 pages, ISBN
* Stephen Palmquist, "
Faith as Kant's Key to the Justification of
Transcendental Reflection", The Heythrop Journal 25:4 (October 1984),
pp. 442–455. Reprinted as Chapter V in Stephen Palmquist, Kant\'s
System of Perspectives (Lanham: University Press of America, 1993).
* D. Mark Parks , "Faith/Faithfulness" Holman Illustrated Bible
Dictionary. Eds. Chad Brand, Charles Draper, Archie England.
Nashville: Holman Publishers, 2003.
* Baba, Meher : Discourses, San Francisco: Sufism Reoriented, 1967.
William James lecture
The Will to Believe .
CLASSIC REFLECTIONS ON THE NATURE OF FAITH
Martin Buber , I and Thou
Paul Tillich , The Dynamics of Faith
THE REFORMATION VIEW OF FAITH
John Calvin , The
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Institutes of the Christian Religion , 1536
R.C. Sproul ,
Faith Alone, Baker Books, 1 February 1999, ISBN
Look up πίστις in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up FAITH in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.