Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual focuses
their mind on a particular object, thought or activity to achieve a
mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Meditation may be used
to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and pain. It may be done
while sitting, repeating a mantra, and closing the eyes in a quiet
Meditation has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious
traditions and beliefs. Since the 19th century, it has spread from its
Indian origins to other cultures where it is commonly practiced in
private and business life.
Meditation is under psychological,
neurological, and cardiovascular research to define its possible
3 Modern definitions
3.1 Definitions and scope
3.2 Definitions in "living" dictionaries
4 Religious and spiritual meditation
4.1 Indian religions
4.2 East-Asian religions
4.3 Iranian religions
4.3.1 Bahá'í Faith
4.4 Secular applications
4.4.1 Sound-based meditation
4.5 Abrahamic religions
4.6 Modern spirituality
4.6.1 New Age
4.6.2 Pagan and occult religions
5 Modern context
5.1 Dissemination in the west
5.2 Modern typologies
Meditation in the workplace
7 Forms of meditation
7.1 Physical postures
7.3 Mental silence
8 Research on meditation
9 Meditation, religion and drugs
10 Prevalence of meditation
11 See also
13.1 Further reading
14 External links
The English meditation is derived from the Latin meditatio, from a
verb meditari, meaning "to think, contemplate, devise, ponder".
In the Old Testament, hāgâ (Hebrew: הגה) means to sigh or murmur,
and also, to meditate. When the
Hebrew Bible was translated into
Greek, hāgâ became the Greek melete. The Latin
Bible then translated
hāgâ/melete into meditatio. The use of the term meditatio as part
of a formal, stepwise process of meditation goes back to the
12th-century monk Guigo II.
Apart from its historical usage, the term meditation was introduced as
a translation for Eastern spiritual practices, referred to as dhyāna
Buddhism and in Hinduism, which comes from the
Sanskrit root dhyai,
meaning to contemplate or meditate. The term "meditation" in
English may also refer to practices from Islamic Sufism, or other
traditions such as Jewish
Kabbalah and Christian Hesychasm. An
edited book about "meditation" published in 2003, for example,
included chapter contributions by authors describing Hindu, Buddhist,
Taoist, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions. Scholars
have noted that "the term 'meditation' as it has entered contemporary
usage" is parallel to the term "contemplation" in Christianity,
but in many cases, practices similar to modern forms of meditation
were simply called "prayer". Christian, Judaic, and Islamic forms of
meditation are typically devotional, scriptural or thematic, while
Asian forms of meditation are often more purely technical.
Main article: History of meditation
Man Meditating in a Garden Setting
The history of meditation is intimately bound up with the religious
context within which it was practiced.[clarification needed] Some
authors have even suggested the hypothesis that the emergence of the
capacity for focused attention, an element of many methods of
meditation, may have contributed to the latest phases of human
biological evolution. Some of the earliest references to
meditation are found in the Hindu
Vedas of India. Wilson
translates the most famous Vedic mantra "Gayatri" as: "We meditate on
that desirable light of the divine Savitri, who influences our pious
rites" (Rigveda : Mandala-3, Sukta-62, Rcha-10). Around the 6th
to 5th centuries BCE, other forms of meditation developed via
Taoism in China as well as Hinduism, Jainism, and
Nepal and India.
In the Roman Empire, by 20 BCE
Philo of Alexandria
Philo of Alexandria had written on some
form of "spiritual exercises" involving attention (prosoche) and
concentration and by the 3rd century
Plotinus had developed
Pāli Canon, which dates to 1st century BCE considers Buddhist
meditation as a step towards liberation. By the time
spreading in China, the
Vimalakirti Sutra which dates to 100 CE
included a number of passages on meditation, clearly pointing to Zen
(known as Chan in China, Thiền in Vietnam, and Seon in Korea).
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism introduced meditation to other
Asian countries, and in 653 the first meditation hall was opened in
Singapore. Returning from China around 1227,
Dōgen wrote the
instructions for zazen.
The Islamic practice of
Dhikr had involved the repetition of the 99
God since the 8th or 9th century. By the 12th
century, the practice of
Sufism included specific meditative
techniques, and its followers practiced breathing controls and the
repetition of holy words. Interactions with Indians, Nepalese or
Sufis may have influenced the
Eastern Christian meditation
approach to hesychasm, but this can not be proved. Between the
10th and 14th centuries, hesychasm was developed, particularly on
Mount Athos in Greece, and involves the repetition of the Jesus
Buddhist monk meditating in a waterfall setting
Western Christian meditation contrasts with most other approaches in
that it does not involve the repetition of any phrase or action and
requires no specific posture.
Western Christian meditation progressed
from the 6th century practice of
Bible reading among Benedictine monks
called Lectio Divina, i.e. divine reading. Its four formal steps as a
"ladder" were defined by the monk
Guigo II in the 12th century with
the Latin terms lectio, meditatio, oratio, and contemplatio (i.e.
read, ponder, pray, contemplate).
Western Christian meditation was
further developed by saints such as
Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola and Teresa of
Avila in the 16th century.
Secular forms of meditation were introduced in
India in the 1950s as a
modern form of Hindu meditative techniques and arrived in Australia in
the late 1950s and, the United States and Europe in the 1960s.
Rather than focusing on spiritual growth, secular meditation
emphasizes stress reduction, relaxation and self-improvement.
Both spiritual and secular forms of meditation have been subjects of
Research on meditation
Research on meditation began in 1931, with
scientific research increasing dramatically during the 1970s and
1980s. Since the beginning of the '70s more than a thousand
studies of meditation in English-language have been reported.
However, after 60 years of scientific study, the exact mechanism at
work in meditation remains unclear.
Definitions and scope
Definitions or Characterizations of Meditation:
Examples from Prominent Reviews*
Definition / Characterization
•"[M]editation refers to a family of self-regulation practices that
focus on training attention and awareness in order to bring mental
processes under greater voluntary control and thereby foster general
mental well-being and development and/or specific capacities such as
calm, clarity, and concentration":228–9
Walsh & Shapiro (2006)
•"[M]editation is used to describe practices that self-regulate the
body and mind, thereby affecting mental events by engaging a specific
attentional set.... regulation of attention is the central commonality
across the many divergent methods":180
Cahn & Polich (2006)
•"We define meditation... as a stylized mental technique...
repetitively practiced for the purpose of attaining a subjective
experience that is frequently described as very restful, silent, and
of heightened alertness, often characterized as blissful":415
Jevning et al. (1992)
•"the need for the meditator to retrain his attention, whether
through concentration or mindfulness, is the single invariant
ingredient in... every meditation system":107
*Influential reviews (cited >50 times in PsycINFO),
encompassing multiple methods of meditation.
As early as 1971,
Claudio Naranjo noted that "The word 'meditation'
has been used to designate a variety of practices that differ enough
from one another so that we may find trouble in defining what
meditation is.":6 There remains no definition of necessary and
sufficient criteria for meditation that has achieved universal or
widespread acceptance within the modern scientific community, as one
study recently noted a "persistent lack of consensus in the
literature" and a "seeming intractability of defining
In popular usage, the word "meditation" and the phrase "meditative
practice" are often used imprecisely to designate broadly similar
practices, or sets of practices, that are found across many cultures
Some of the difficulty in precisely defining meditation has been the
need to recognize the particularities of the many various
traditions. There may be differences between the theories of one
tradition of meditation as to what it means to practice
meditation. The differences between the various traditions
themselves, which have grown up a great distance apart from each
other, may be even starker. To accurately define "what is
meditation" has caused difficulties for modern scientists. Scientific
reviews have proposed that researchers attempt to more clearly define
the type of meditation being practiced in order that the results of
their studies be made clearer.:499 Taylor noted that to refer only
to meditation from a particular faith (e.g., "Hindu" or "Buddhist")
...is not enough, since the cultural traditions from which a
particular kind of meditation comes are quite different and even
within a single tradition differ in complex ways. The specific name of
a school of thought or a teacher or the title of a specific text is
often quite important for identifying a particular type of
The table shows several definitions of meditation that have been used
by influential modern reviews of research on meditation across
multiple traditions. Within a specific context, more precise meanings
are not uncommonly given the word "meditation". For example,
"meditation" is sometimes the translation of meditatio in Latin.
Meditatio is the third of four steps of Lectio Divina, an ancient form
of Christian prayer. "Meditation" also refers to the seventh of the
eight limbs of
Yoga in Patanjali's
Yoga Sutras, a step called dhyāna
Meditation refers to a mental or spiritual state that may
be attained by such practices, and also refers to the practice of
This article mainly focuses on meditation in the broad sense of a type
of discipline, found in various forms in many cultures, by which the
practitioner attempts to get beyond the reflexive, "thinking" mind
(sometimes called "discursive thinking" or "logic") into a
deeper, more devout, or more relaxed state. The terms "meditative
practice" and "meditation" are mostly used here in this broad sense.
However, usage may vary somewhat by context – readers should be
aware that in quotations, or in discussions of particular traditions,
more specialized meanings of "meditation" may sometimes be used (with
meanings made clear by context whenever possible).
Definitions in "living" dictionaries
Definitions in the Oxford and Cambridge living dictionaries are "to
focus one's mind for a period of time" and "the act of giving your
attention to only one thing."
Most of the ancient religions of the world have a tradition of using
some type of prayer beads as tools in devotional
meditation. Most prayer beads and Christian rosaries
consist of pearls or beads linked together by a thread. The
Roman Catholic rosary is a string of beads containing five sets with
ten small beads. Each set of ten is separated by another bead. The
Hindu japa mala has 108 beads (the figure 108 in itself having
spiritual significance, as well as those used in
Jainism and Buddhist
prayer beads. Each bead is counted once as a person recites a
mantra until the person has gone all the way around the mala. The
Muslim misbaha has 99 beads. Specific meditations of each religion may
Religious and spiritual meditation
Main article: Jain meditation
Mahavira in meditative posture
In Jainism, meditation has been a core spiritual practice, one that
Jains believe people have undertaken since the teaching of the
Tirthankara, Rishabha. All the twenty-four Tirthankaras practiced
deep meditation and attained enlightenment. They are all shown in
meditative postures in the images or idols.
Mahavira practiced deep
meditation for twelve years and attained enlightenment. The
Acaranga Sutra dating to 500 BCE, addresses the meditation system of
Jainism in detail.
Bhadrabahu of the 4th century BCE
practiced deep Mahaprana meditation for twelve years. Kundakunda
of 1st century BCE, opened new dimensions of meditation in Jain
tradition through his books Samayasāra, Pravachansar and others.
The 8th century Jain philosopher
Haribhadra also contributed to the
development of Jain yoga through his Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, which
compares and analyzes various systems of yoga, including Hindu,
Buddhist and Jain systems.
Jain meditation and spiritual practices system were referred to as
salvation-path. It has three important parts called the Ratnatraya
"Three Jewels": right perception and faith, right knowledge and right
Jainism aims at realizing the self,
attaining salvation, take the soul to complete freedom. It aims to
reach and to remain in the pure state of soul which is believed to be
pure consciousness, beyond any attachment or aversion. The
practitioner strives to be just a knower-seer (Gyata-Drashta). Jain
meditation can be broadly categorized to Dharmya Dhyana and Shukla
There exists a number of meditation techniques such as
pindāstha-dhyāna, padāstha-dhyāna, rūpāstha-dhyāna,
rūpātita-dhyāna, savīrya-dhyāna, etc. In padāstha dhyāna one
focuses on Mantra. A
Mantra could be either a combination of core
letters or words on deity or themes. There is a rich tradition of
Mantra in Jainism. All Jain followers irrespective of their sect,
Digambara or Svetambara, practice mantra.
Mantra chanting is
an important part of daily lives of Jain monks and followers. Mantra
chanting can be done either loudly or silently in mind.
Pranayama has been an important practice undertaken since ages.
Pranayama – breathing exercises – are performed to
strengthen the five Pranas or vital energy.
Yogasana and Pranayama
balances the functioning of neuro-endocrine system of body and helps
in achieving good physical, mental and emotional health.
Contemplation is a very old and important meditation technique. The
practitioner meditates deeply on subtle facts. In agnya vichāya, one
contemplates on seven facts – life and non-life, the inflow,
bondage, stoppage and removal of karmas, and the final accomplishment
of liberation. In apaya vichāya, one contemplates on the incorrect
insights one indulges, which eventually develops right insight. In
vipaka vichāya, one reflects on the eight causes or basic types of
karma. In sansathan vichāya, one thinks about the vastness of the
universe and the loneliness of the soul.
Preksha meditation in the 1970s and
presented a well-organised system of meditation.
Asana and Pranayama,
meditation, contemplation, mantra and therapy are its integral
Preksha meditation centers came into existence
around the world and numerous meditations camps are being organized to
impart training in it.
Buddhist meditation refers to the meditative practices associated with
the religion and philosophy of Buddhism. Core meditation techniques
have been preserved in ancient
Buddhist texts and have proliferated
and diversified through teacher-student transmissions. Buddhists
pursue meditation as part of the path toward awakening and
nirvana. The closest words for meditation in the classical
Buddhism are bhāvanā, jhāna/dhyāna, and
Buddhist meditation techniques have become increasingly popular in the
wider world, with many non-Buddhists taking them up for a variety of
reasons. There is considerable homogeneity across meditative
practices – such as breath meditation and various recollections
(anussati) – that are used across
Buddhist schools, as well as
significant diversity. In the
Theravāda tradition alone, there are
over fifty methods for developing mindfulness and forty for developing
concentration, while in the Tibetan tradition there are thousands of
visualization meditations. Most classical and contemporary
Buddhist meditation guides are school-specific.
The Buddha is said to have identified two paramount mental qualities
that arise from wholesome meditative practice:
"serenity" or "tranquility" (Pali: samatha) which steadies, composes,
unifies and concentrates the mind;
"insight" (Pali: vipassana) which enables one to see, explore and
discern "formations" (conditioned phenomena based on the five
Buddhist theory, through the meditative development of
serenity, one is able to weaken the obscuring hindrances and bring the
mind to a collected, pliant and still state (samadhi). This quality of
mind then supports the development of insight and wisdom (Prajñā)
which is the quality of mind that can "clearly see" (vi-passana) the
nature of phenomena. According to the
Buddhist tradition, all
phenomena are to be seen as impermanent, suffering, not-self and
empty. When this happens, one develops dispassion (viraga) for all
phenomena, including all negative qualities and hindrances and lets
them go. It is through the release of the hindrances and ending of
craving through the meditative development of insight that one gains
In the modern era,
Buddhist meditation saw increasing popularity due
to the influence of
Buddhist modernism and the lay meditation based
Vipassana movement. The spread of
Buddhist meditation to the Western
world paralleled the spread of
Buddhism in the West. Buddhist
meditation has also influenced Western Psychology, especially through
the work of
Jon Kabat-Zinn who founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress
Reduction (MBSR) in 1979. The modernized concept of mindfulness
(based on the
Buddhist term sati) and related meditative practices has
in turn led to several mindfulness based therapies.
Dhyana in Hinduism
Dhyana in Hinduism and Yoga
There are many schools and styles of meditation within Hinduism.
In pre-modern and traditional Hindu religions,
Yoga and Dhyana are
done to realize union of one's eternal self or soul, one's ātman. In
some Hindu traditions, such as
Advaita Vedanta this is equated with
the omnipresent and non-dual Brahman. In others, such as the dualistic
Yoga school and Samkhya, the Self is referred to as Purusha, a
pure consciousness which is separate from matter. Depending on the
tradition, this liberative event is referred to as moksha, vimukti or
The earliest clear references to meditation in Hindu literature are in
Upanishads and the Mahabharata, the latter of which
includes the Bhagavad Gita. According to Gavin Flood, the
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad refers to meditation when it states
that "having become calm and concentrated, one perceives the self
(ātman) within oneself".
One of the most influential texts of classical Hindu
Yoga sutras (c. 400 CE), a text associated with
Samkhya, which outlines eight limbs leading to kaivalya ("aloneness").
These are ethical discipline (yamas), rules (niyamas), physical
postures (āsanas), breath control (prāṇāyama), withdrawal from
the senses (pratyāhāra), one-pointedness of mind (dhāraṇā),
meditation (dhyāna), and finally samādhi.
Later developments in Hind meditation include the compilation of Hatha
Yoga (forceful yoga) compendiums like the Hatha
Yoga Pradipika, the
Bhakti yoga as a major form of meditation and Tantra.
Another important Hindu yoga text is the
Yoga Yajnavalkya, which makes
use of Hatha
In the sixth chapter of Bhāvārthadipikā commentary on the
Bhagavad-Gita by Sri Jñāneśvar (Dnyaneshwar) meditation in yoga
is described as a state caused by the spontaneous awakening of the
Kundalini (not Prana or Chi), which creates a connection
of the individual soul Ātman with universal Spirit - Paramātman.
See also: Hindu new religious movements
Hinduism has expanded beyond
Hinduism to the West.
Mantra meditation, with the use of a japa mala and especially with
focus on the Hare
Krishna maha-mantra, is a central practice of the
Gaudiya Vaishnava faith tradition and the International Society for
Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), also known as the Hare Krishna
movement. Other popular
New Religious Movements
New Religious Movements include the
Vedanta Society, Divine Light Mission, Chinmaya
Mission, Osho, Sahaja Yoga, Transcendental Meditation, Oneness
University, and Brahma Kumaris.
Main article: Nām Japō
Sikhs gather in Gurdwara's and recite Shabad Kirtan, a vocal
In Sikhism, simran (meditation) and good deeds are both necessary to
achieve the devotee's Spiritual goals; without good deeds
meditation is futile. When Sikhs meditate, they aim to feel God's
presence and immerge in the divine light. It is only God's divine
will or order that allows a devotee to desire to begin to meditate.
Guru Nanak in the
Japji Sahib daily
Sikh scripture explains:
Visits to temples, penance, compassion and charity gain you but a
sesame seed of credit. It is hearkening to His Name, accepting and
adoring Him that obtains emancipation by bathing in the shrine of
soul. All virtues are Yours, O Lord! I have none; Without good deeds
one can't even meditate.
Nām Japnā involves focusing one's attention on the names or great
attributes of God. The practices of Simran and Nām Japnā
encourage quiet internal meditation but may be practiced vocally in
the sangat (holy congregation). Sikhs believe that there are ten
"gates" to the body, the nine visible holes (nostrils, eyes, ears,
mouth, urethra, anus) and the tenth invisible hole. The tenth
invisible hole is the topmost energy level and is called the tenth
gate or Dasam Duaar. When one reaches this stage through continuous
practice meditation becomes a habit that continues whilst walking,
talking, eating, awake and even sleeping. There is a distinct taste or
flavour when a meditator reaches this lofty stage of meditation, and
experiences absolute peace and tranquility inside and outside the
Followers of the
Sikh religion also believe that love comes through
meditation on the lord's name since meditation only conjures up
positive emotions in oneself which are portrayed through our actions.
The first Guru of the Sikhs,
Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached the equality
of all humankind and stressed the importance of living a householder's
life instead of wandering around jungles meditating, the latter of
which being a popular practice at the time. The Guru preached that we
can obtain liberation from life and death by living a totally normal
family life and by spreading love amongst every human being regardless
Sikh religion, kirtan, otherwise known as singing the hymns of
God is seen as one of the most beneficial ways of aiding
meditation,[by whom?] and it too in some ways is believed to be a
meditation of one kind.
Main article: Daoist meditation
"Gathering the Light", Taoist meditation from The Secret of the Golden
Daoist meditation has a long history, and has developed
various techniques including concentration, visualization, qi
cultivation, contemplation, and mindfulness meditations. Traditional
Daoist meditative practices were influenced by Chinese Buddhism
beginning around the 5th century, and later had influence upon
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine and the Chinese martial arts.
Livia Kohn distinguishes three basic types of Daoist meditation:
"concentrative", "insight", and "visualization". Ding 定
(literally means "decide; settle; stabilize") refers to "deep
concentration", "intent contemplation", or "perfect absorption". Guan
觀 (lit. "watch; observe; view") meditation seeks to merge and attain
unity with the Dao. It was developed by
Tang Dynasty (618–907)
Daoist masters based upon the
Buddhist practice of Vipassanā
"insight" or "wisdom" meditation. Cun 存 (lit. "exist; be present;
survive") has a sense of "to cause to exist; to make present" in the
meditation techniques popularized by the Daoist Shangqing and Lingbao
Schools. A meditator visualizes or actualizes solar and lunar
essences, lights, and deities within his/her body, which supposedly
results in health and longevity, even xian 仙/仚/僊, "immortality".
The (late 4th century BCE) Guanzi essay
Neiye "Inward training" is the
oldest received writing on the subject of qi cultivation and
breath-control meditation techniques. For instance, "When you
enlarge your mind and let go of it, when you relax your vital breath
and expand it, when your body is calm and unmoving: And you can
maintain the One and discard the myriad disturbances. ... This is
called "revolving the vital breath": Your thoughts and deeds seem
The (c. 3rd century BCE) Daoist Zhuangzi records zuowang or "sitting
Confucius asked his disciple Yan Hui to
explain what "sit and forget" means: "I slough off my limbs and trunk,
dim my intelligence, depart from my form, leave knowledge behind, and
become identical with the Transformational Thoroughfare."
Daoist meditation practices are central to
Chinese martial arts
Chinese martial arts (and
some Japanese martial arts), especially the qi-related neijia
"internal martial arts". Some well-known examples are daoyin "guiding
and pulling", qigong "life-energy exercises", neigong "internal
exercises", neidan "internal alchemy", and taijiquan "great ultimate
boxing", which is thought of as moving meditation. One common
explanation contrasts "movement in stillness" referring to energetic
visualization of qi circulation in qigong and zuochan "seated
meditation", versus "stillness in movement" referring to a state
of meditative calm in taijiquan forms.
In the teachings of the Bahá'í Faith, meditation along with prayer
are both primary tools for spiritual development and mainly refer
to one's reflection on the words of God. While prayer and
meditation are linked, where meditation happens generally in a
prayerful attitude, prayer is seen specifically as turning toward
God, and meditation is seen as a communion with one's self where
one focuses on the divine.
Bahá'í teachings note that the purpose of meditation is to
strengthen one's understanding of the words of God, and to make one's
soul more susceptible to their potentially transformative power,
more receptive to the need for both prayer and meditation to bring
about and maintain a spiritual communion with God.
Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the religion, never specified any
particular form of meditation, and thus each person is free to choose
their own form. However, he specifically did state that Bahá'ís
should read a passage of the Bahá'í writings twice a day, once in
the morning, and once in the evening, and meditate on it. He also
encouraged people to reflect on one's actions and worth at the end of
each day. During the Nineteen Day Fast, a period of the year
during which Bahá'ís adhere to a sunrise-to-sunset fast, they
meditate and pray to reinvigorate their spiritual forces.
Meditation may be for a religious purpose, but even before being
brought to the West it was used in secular contexts. Beginning with
the theosophists, meditation has been employed in the West by a number
of religious and spiritual movements, such as yoga,
New Age and the
New Thought movement.
Meditation techniques have also been used by Western theories of
counseling and psychotherapy. Relaxation training works toward
achieving mental and muscle relaxation to reduce daily stresses.
Jacobson is credited with developing the initial progressive
relaxation procedure. These techniques are used in conjunction with
other behavioral techniques. Originally used with systematic
desensitization, relaxation techniques are now used with other
clinical problems. Meditation, hypnosis and biofeedback-induced
relaxation are a few of the techniques used with relaxation training.
One of the eight essential phases of
EMDR (developed by Francine
Shapiro), bringing adequate closure to the end of each session, also
entails the use of relaxation techniques, including meditation.
Multimodal therapy, a technically eclectic approach to behavioral
therapy, also employs the use of meditation as a technique used in
From the point of view of psychology and physiology, meditation can
induce an altered state of consciousness. Such altered states of
consciousness may correspond to altered neuro-physiologic states.
Today, there are many different types of meditation practiced in
western culture. Mindful breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and
loving kindness meditations for instance have been found to provide
cognitive benefits such as relaxation and decentering. With training
in meditation, depressive rumination can be decreased and overall
peace of mind can flourish. Different techniques have shown to work
better for different people.
A collective meditation in Sri Lanka
As stated by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative
Medicine, a US government entity within the National Institutes of
Health that advocates various forms of Alternative Medicine,
Meditation may be practiced for many reasons, such as to increase
calmness and physical relaxation, to improve psychological balance, to
cope with illness, or to enhance overall health and well-being."
Herbert Benson of
Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School conducted a series of
clinical tests on meditators from various disciplines, including the
Transcendental Meditation technique and Tibetan Buddhism. In 1975,
Benson published a book titled
The Relaxation Response
The Relaxation Response where he
outlined his own version of meditation for relaxation. Also in
the 1970s, the American psychologist Patricia Carrington developed a
similar technique called Clinically Standardized Meditation
(CSM). In Norway, another sound-based method called Acem
Meditation developed a psychology of meditation and has been the
subject of several scientific studies.
Biofeedback has been used by many researchers since the 1950s in an
effort to enter deeper states of mind.
Main article: Jewish meditation
There is evidence that
Judaism has had meditative practices that go
back thousands of years. For instance, in the Torah, the
Isaac is described as going "לשוח" (lasuach) in the
field—a term understood by all commentators as some type of
meditative practice (Genesis 24:63).
Similarly, there are indications throughout the
Tanakh (the Hebrew
Bible) that meditation was used by the prophets. In the Old
Testament, there are two Hebrew words for meditation: hāgâ (Hebrew:
הגה), which means to sigh or murmur, but also to meditate, and
sîḥâ (Hebrew: שיחה), which means to muse, or rehearse in
Some meditative traditions have been encouraged in the school of
Judaism known as Kabbalah, and some Jews have described
Kabbalah as an
inherently meditative field of study. Aryeh Kaplan has
argued that, for the Kabbalist, the ultimate purpose of meditative
practice is to understand and cleave to the Divine. Classic
methods include the mental visualisation of the supernal realms the
soul navigates through to achieve certain ends. One of the best known
types of meditation in early Jewish mysticism was the work of the
Merkabah, from the root /R-K-B/ meaning "chariot" (of God).
Meditation has been of interest to a wide variety of modern Jews. In
modern Jewish practice, one of the best known meditative practices is
called "hitbodedut" (התבודדות, alternatively transliterated as
"hisbodedus"), and is explained in Kabbalistic, Hasidic, and Mussar
writings, especially the
Hasidic method of Rabbi Nachman of Breslav.
The word derives from the Hebrew word "boded" (בודד), meaning the
state of being alone. Another
Hasidic system is the
of "hisbonenus", related to the
Sephirah of "Binah", Hebrew for
understanding. This practice is the analytical reflective process
of making oneself understand a mystical concept well, that follows and
internalises its study in
The Musar Movement, founded by Rabbi Israel Salanter in the middle of
the nineteenth-century, emphasized meditative practices of
introspection and visualization that could help to improve moral
A strong believer in Christian meditation, Saint Pio of Pietrelcina
stated: "Through the study of books one seeks God; by meditation one
Main articles: Christian meditation, Aspects of Christian meditation,
Contemplative prayer, Hesychasm, and Theoria
Christian meditation is a term for a form of prayer in which a
structured attempt is made to get in touch with and deliberately
reflect upon the revelations of God. The word meditation comes
from the Latin word meditari, which means to concentrate. Christian
meditation is the process of deliberately focusing on specific
thoughts (e.g. a biblical scene involving
Jesus and the Virgin Mary)
and reflecting on their meaning in the context of the love of
Rosary is a devotion for the meditation of the mysteries of Jesus
and Mary.“The gentle repetition of its prayers makes it an
excellent means to moving into deeper meditation. It gives us an
opportunity to open ourselves to God’s word, to refine our interior
gaze by turning our minds to the life of Christ. The first principle
is that meditation is learned through practice. Many people who
practice rosary meditation begin very simply and gradually develop a
more sophisticated meditation. The meditator learns to hear an
interior voice, the voice of God”.
Christian meditation contrasts with Eastern forms of meditation as
radically as the portrayal of
God the Father in the
with depictions of
Brahman in Indian teachings. Unlike
Eastern meditations, most styles of Christian meditations do not rely
on the repeated use of mantras, and yet are also intended to stimulate
thought and deepen meaning.
Christian meditation aims to heighten the
personal relationship based on the love of
God that marks Christian
In Aspects of Christian meditation, the
Catholic Church warned of
potential incompatibilities in mixing Christian and Eastern styles of
meditation. In 2003, in A Christian reflection on the
New Age the
Vatican announced that the "Church avoids any concept that is close to
those of the New Age".
Christian meditation is sometimes taken to mean the middle level in a
broad three stage characterization of prayer: it then involves more
reflection than first level vocal prayer, but is more structured than
the multiple layers of contemplation in Christianity.
Germany in 2007 the Centre for Christian
Spirituality in the
Holy Cross Church, Frankfurt-Bornheim
Holy Cross Church, Frankfurt-Bornheim was founded
by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg. In and by the centre
different kinds of church services are offered like for example with
elements such as expressionist dance, moreover days of exercises of
Christian mysticism, contemplative prayer, meditative singing,
meditation courses, Zen-meditation courses, days of reflection,
spiritual exercises and retreats
Early studies on states of consciousness conducted by Roland Fischer
 found evidence of mystical experience description in the
writings of Saint Teresa of Avila. In her autobiography she describes
that, at the peak of a praying experience "... the soul neither hears
nor sees nor feels. While it lasts, none of the senses perceives or
knows what is taking place". This corresponds to the fourth stage
described by Saint Teresa, "Devotion of Ecstasy", where the
consciousness of being in the body disappears, as an effect of deep
transcendent meditation in prayer.
Main articles: Sufi, Muraqaba, Sema, and
God in Islam, which is known by the concept
interpreted in different meditative techniques in
Sufism or Islamic
mysticism. This became one of the essential elements of Sufism
as it was systematized traditionally. It is juxtaposed with fikr
(thinking) which leads to knowledge. By the 12th century, the
Sufism included specific meditative techniques, and its
followers practiced breathing controls and the repetition of holy
Sufi traditions place emphasis upon a meditative procedure
which comes from the cognitive aspect to one of the two principal
approaches to be found in the
Buddhist traditions: that of the
concentration technique, involving high-intensity and sharply focused
introspection. In the Oveyssi-Shahmaghsoudi
Sufi order, for example,
this is particularly evident, where muraqaba takes the form of
tamarkoz, the latter being a Persian term that means concentration.
Meditative quiescence is said to have a quality of healing, and—in
contemporary terminology—enhancing creativity.
Tafakkur or tadabbur in
Sufism literally means reflection upon the
universe: this is considered to permit access to a form of cognitive
and emotional development that can emanate only from the higher level,
i.e. from God. The sensation of receiving divine inspiration awakens
and liberates both heart and intellect, permitting such inner growth
that the apparently mundane actually takes on the quality of the
infinite. Muslim teachings embrace life as a test of one's submission
Meditation in the
Sufi traditions is largely based on a spectrum of
mystical exercises, varying from one lineage to another. Such
techniques, particularly the more audacious, can be, and often have
been down the ages, a source of controversy among scholars. One broad
group of ulema, followers of the great Al-Ghazali, for example, have
in general been open to such techniques and forms of devotion.
In recent years, meditation or
Muraqaba has been popularized in
various parts of the world by Silsila Naqshbandia Mujaddadia under
Nazim Al-Haqqani and
Silsila Azeemia under Khwaja Shamsuddin Azeemi.
Main article: New Age
New Age meditations are often influenced by Eastern philosophy,
Hinduism and Buddhism, yet may contain some degree of
Western influence. In the West, meditation found its mainstream roots
through the social revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, when many of the
youth of the day rebelled against traditional religion as a reaction
against what some perceived as the failure of
Christianity to provide
spiritual and ethical guidance.
New Age meditation as practised
by the early hippies is regarded for its techniques of blanking out
the mind and releasing oneself from conscious thinking. This is often
aided by repetitive chanting of a mantra, or focusing on an
New Age meditation evolved into a range of purposes and
practices, from serenity and balance to access to other realms of
consciousness to the concentration of energy in group meditation to
the supreme goal of samadhi, as in the ancient yogic practice of
Pagan and occult religions
Religions and religious movements which use magic, such as Wicca,
Thelema, Neopaganism, occultism etc., often require their adherents to
meditate as a preliminary to the magical work. This is because magic
is often thought to require a particular state of mind in order to
make contact with spirits, or because one has to visualize one's goal
or otherwise keep intent focused for a long period during the ritual
in order to see the desired outcome.
Meditation practice in these
religions usually revolves around visualization, absorbing energy from
the universe or higher self, directing one's internal energy, and
inducing various trance states.
Meditation and magic practice often
overlap in these religions as meditation is often seen as merely a
stepping stone to supernatural power, and the meditation sessions may
be peppered with various chants and spells.
Dissemination in the west
Methods of meditation have been cross-culturally disseminated at
various times throughout history, such as
Buddhism going to East Asia,
Sufi practices going to many Islamic societies. Of special
relevance to the modern world is the dissemination of meditative
practices since the late 19th century, accompanying increased travel
and communication among cultures worldwide. Most prominent has been
the transmission of numerous Asian-derived practices to the West. In
addition, interest in some Western-based meditative practices has also
been revived, and these have been disseminated to a limited
extent to Asian countries. Also evident is some extent of
influence over Enlightenment thinking through Denis Diderot's
Encyclopédie, although he states, "I find that a meditation
practitioner is often quite useless and that a contemplation
practitioner is always insane".
Ideas about Eastern meditation had begun "seeping into American
popular culture even before the American Revolution through the
various sects of European occult Christianity",:3 and such ideas
"came pouring in [to America] during the era of the
transcendentalists, especially between the 1840s and the 1880s.":3
The following decades saw further spread of these ideas to America:
The World Parliament of Religions, held in Chicago in 1893, was the
landmark event that increased Western awareness of meditation. This
was the first time that Western audiences on American soil received
Asian spiritual teachings from Asians themselves. Thereafter, Swami
Vivekananda... [founded] various
Vedanta ashrams... Anagarika
Dharmapala lectured at Harvard on
Buddhist meditation in
Abdul Baha ... [toured] the US teaching the principles of Bahai,
Soyen Shaku toured in 1907 teaching Zen...:4
Meditating in Madison Square Park, New York City
More recently, in the 1960s, another surge in Western interest in
meditative practices began. Observers have suggested many types of
explanations for this interest in Eastern meditation and revived
Western contemplation. Thomas Keating, a founder of Contemplative
Outreach, wrote that "the rush to the East is a symptom of what is
lacking in the West. There is a deep spiritual hunger that is not
being satisfied in the West.":31 Daniel Goleman, a scholar of
meditation, suggested that the shift in interest from "established
religions" to meditative practices "is caused by the scarcity of the
personal experience of these [meditation-derived] transcendental
states – the living spirit at the common core of all
Another suggested contributing factor is the rise of communist
political power in Asia, which "set the stage for an influx of Asian
spiritual teachers to the West",:7 oftentimes as refugees.
Ornstein noted that "Most techniques of meditation do not exist as
solitary practices but are only artificially separable from an entire
system of practice and belief.":143 This means that, for
instance, while monks engage in meditation as a part of their everyday
lives, they also engage the codified rules and live together in
monasteries in specific cultural settings that go along with their
meditative practices. These meditative practices sometimes have
similarities (often noticed by Westerners), for instance concentration
on the breath is practiced in Zen, Tibetan and Theravadan contexts,
and these similarities or "typologies" are noted here.
Bodhidharma practicing zazen.
Progress on the "intractable" problem of defining meditation was
attempted by a recent study of views common to seven experts trained
in diverse but empirically highly studied (clinical or
Eastern-derived) forms of meditation. The study identified "three
main criteria... as essential to any meditation practice: the use of a
defined technique, logic relaxation, and a self-induced state/mode.
Other criteria deemed important [but not essential] involve a state of
psychophysical relaxation, the use of a self-focus skill or anchor,
the presence of a state of suspension of logical thought processes, a
religious/spiritual/philosophical context, or a state of mental
silence.":135 However, the study cautioned, "It is plausible that
meditation is best thought of as a natural category of techniques best
captured by 'family resemblances'... or by the related 'prototype'
model of concepts.":135
In modern psychological research, meditation has been defined and
characterized in a variety of ways; many of these emphasize the role
In the West, meditation is sometimes thought of in two broad
categories: concentrative meditation and mindfulness meditation.
These two categories are discussed in the following two paragraphs,
with concentrative meditation being used interchangeably with focused
attention and mindfulness meditation being used interchangeably with
Direction of mental attention... A practitioner can focus intensively
on one particular object (so-called concentrative meditation), on all
mental events that enter the field of awareness (so-called mindfulness
meditation), or both specific focal points and the field of
One style, Focused
Attention (FA) meditation, entails the voluntary
focusing of attention on a chosen object, breathing, image, or words.
The other style, Open Monitoring (OM) meditation, involves
non-reactive monitoring of the content of experience from moment to
Other typologies have also been proposed, and some
techniques shift among major categories.
Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that the categories of
meditation, defined by how they direct attention, appear to generate
different brainwave patterns. Evidence also suggests that
using different focus objects during meditation may generate different
Meditation in the workplace
It is estimated[who?] that around a quarter of U.S. employers are
using stress reduction initiatives. Many large companies have
introduced mindfulness programs to their employees.[quantify] In 2010,
healthcare benefits company
Aetna developed, launched and studied two
mindfulness programs, called Viniyoga Stress Reduction and Mindfulness
at Work. The goal was to help reduce stress and improve
reactions to stress.
Aetna now offers its program to its customers.
Google also implements mindfulness, offering more than a dozen
meditation courses, with the most prominent one, "Search Inside
Yourself", having been implemented since 2007. General Mills
offers the Mindful Leadership Program Series, a course which uses a
combination of mindfulness meditation, yoga and dialog with the
intention of developing the mind's capacity to pay attention.
Recently available research that has shown quantitative benefits for
the brain and body has encouraged the adoption of corporate
mindfulness programs. Studies conducted by
Yale University found
that mindfulness meditation is associated with lower levels of
activity in the default mode network (DMN), which is part of the brain
network that is responsible for self-related thinking and mind
wandering. Volume changes in key areas of the brain are also
found as a result of meditation. In 2011, a team at Harvard found
that mindfulness can actually change the structure of the brain after
conducting an eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction program
(MBSR) on participants. The research found an increase in
cortical thickness in the hippocampus, which controls learning, memory
and emotion regulation. The research also found decreases in
brain cell volume in the Amygdala, which is responsible for fear,
anxiety and stress. These changes were also aligned with the
participant's self-reports of their stress levels.
According to a study on spirituality and performance in organizations,
the increase in corporate meditation programs can also be linked to a
complex paradigm shift in the structure and system of
organizations. The changes in management include a shift from an
economic focus to a balance of profits, quality of life, spirituality
and social responsibility concerns. For the past 300 years, the
mechanical paradigm shaped the economy where the main corporate
objectives were to satisfy shareholders by increasing competition and
exploitation. The new emerging business paradigm is called the
"Spiritual Movement" and moves away from a materialistic to a more
spiritual orientation. In this new paradigm, a company's
competitive advantage resides in how much it invests in its human
capital and the qualities of its employees. The shift in business
paradigms can be explained by the fact that the business world is more
competitive, globalized and fast-pace than ever. The boundaries
between work and home are blurred, where work has become central to
people's lives and employees can be connected to their work whenever.
The increase in the importance of work has led to an increase in
stress and burnout. The workplace is a place where employees
spend most of their lives, develop friendships, create value and make
meaningful contributions to society. This means that they are
looking for satisfaction beyond work. According to a report on
emerging cultures, the shift in paradigm can also be explained by
American demographics. "The American adult population is divided
into three groups, each with a different set of values and view of the
world."  The "Cultural Creatives," whom constitute 24% of US
adults are the newest and increasingly growing worldview. "Their
values align with ecological sustainability, globalism, women's
issues, social conscience, self-actualization and spirituality".
They reflect a major change that has been growing in American culture.
According to a report conducted at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health
Network (LVHHN), nurses are at high risk for chronic burnout and
stress. During the study, 27 nurses voluntarily participated in
an 8-week-stress-reduction program called Mindfulness-Based Stress
Reduction (MBSR). Data analyses revealed that the MBSR program
had significant benefits that could be categorized into two. "The
early weeks of the training program conveyed that benefits were
related to increased relaxation, slowing down, feeling a sense of
peace, and learning to be in the present moment."  Results in the
late weeks of the training program were linked to self-acceptance,
self-awareness and self-care. An experiential study like this is
considered a lower level of evidence than a randomized controlled
trial, and this study did not examine effects on job satisfaction,
long-term stress, or turnover.
Forms of meditation
Young children practicing meditation in a Peruvian school
Main article: Meditative postures
Various postures are taken up in some meditation techniques. Sitting,
supine, and standing postures are used. Popular in Buddhism, Jainism
Hinduism are the full-lotus, half-lotus, Burmese, Seiza, and
Meditation is sometimes done while walking, known
as kinhin, or while doing a simple task mindfully, known as samu.
Main article: Mindfulness
Over the past 20 years,
Mindfulness and mindfulness-based programs
have become increasingly important to Westerners and in the Western
medical and psychological community as a means of helping people,
whether they be clinically sick or healthy. Jon Kabat-Zinn, who
founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program in 1979, has
defined mindfulness as 'moment to moment non-judgmental
awareness.' Several methods are used during time set aside
specifically for mindfulness meditation, such as body scan techniques
or letting thought arise and pass, and also during our daily lives,
such as being aware of the taste and texture of the food that we
eat. Some studies offer evidence that mindfulness practices are
beneficial for the brain's self-regulation by increasing activity in
the anterior cingulate cortex. A shift from using the right
prefrontal cortex is claimed to be associated with a trend away from
depression and anxiety, and towards happiness, relaxation, and
Jacobson's Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Jacobson's Progressive Muscle Relaxation was developed by American
Edmund Jacobson in the early 1920s. In this practice one
tenses and then relaxes muscle groups in a sequential pattern whilst
concentrating on how they feel. The method has been seen to help
people with many conditions, especially extreme anxiety.
As a result of the popularity in participation of mindfulness,
conferences such as Wisdom 2.0 have arisen. Mindfulness
has entered the secular world in many ways, allowing it to reach many
different groups of people.
It has also been shown that mindfulness has resulted in increased
antibody titers to the influenza vaccine.
Sahaja yoga meditation is regarded as a mental silence meditation, and
has been shown to correlate with particular brain and brain wave
activity. Some studies have led to suggestions that
Sahaja meditation involves 'switching off' irrelevant brain networks
for the maintenance of focused internalized attention and inhibition
of inappropriate information. Sahaja meditators scored above peer
group for emotional well-being measures on
Research on meditation
Main article: Research on meditation
Research on the processes and effects of meditation is a subfield of
neurological research. Modern scientific techniques, such as fMRI
and EEG, were used to observe neurological responses during
meditation. Since the 1950s, hundreds of studies on meditation
have been conducted, though the overall methological quality of
meditation research is poor, yielding unreliable results.
Since the 1970s, clinical psychology and psychiatry have developed
meditation techniques for numerous psychological conditions.
Mindfulness practice is employed in psychology to alleviate mental and
physical conditions, such as reducing depression, stress, and
Mindfulness is also used in the treatment of
drug addiction. Studies demonstrate that meditation has a
moderate effect to reduce pain. There is insufficient evidence for
any effect of meditation on positive mood, attention, eating habits,
sleep, or body weight.
A 2017 systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of
meditation on empathy, compassion, and prosocial behaviors found that
meditation practices had small to medium effects on self-reported and
observable outcomes, concluding that such practices can "improve
positive prosocial emotions and behaviors".
Meditation, religion and drugs
Religion and drugs
See also: Psychedelic psychotherapy
Many major traditions in which meditation is practiced, such as
Buddhism and Hinduism, advise members not to consume
intoxicants, while others, such as the Rastafarian movements and
Native American Church, view drugs as integral to their religious
The fifth of the five precepts of the Pancasila, the ethical code in
Buddhist traditions, states that adherents
must: "abstain from fermented and distilled beverages that cause
On the other hand, the ingestion of psychoactives has been a central
feature in the rituals of many religions, in order to produce altered
states of consciousness. In several traditional shamanistic
ceremonies, drugs are used as agents of ritual. In the Rastafari
movement, cannabis is believed to be a gift from
Jah and a sacred herb
to be used regularly, while alcohol is considered to debase man.
Native Americans use peyote, as part of religious ceremony, continuing
today. In India, the soma drink has a long history of use
alongside prayer and sacrifice, and is mentioned in the Vedas.
During the 1960s and 70s, both eastern meditation traditions and
psychedelics, such as LSD, became popular in America, and it was
LSD use and meditation were both means to the same
spiritual/existential end. Many practitioners of eastern
traditions rejected this idea, including many who had tried LSD
themselves. In The Master Game,
Robert S de Ropp writes that the "door
to full consciousness" can be glimpsed with the aid of substances, but
to "pass beyond the door" requires yoga and meditation. Other authors,
such as Rick Strassman, believe that the relationship between
religious experiences reached by way of meditation and through the use
of psychedelic drugs deserves further exploration.
Prevalence of meditation
The 2012 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 34,525),
found 8.0% of US adults used meditation,, with lifetime and
12-month prevalence of meditation use of 5.2% and 4.1%
respectively. In the 2017 survey meditation use among workers was
9.9% (up from 8.0% in 2002).
Mushin (mental state)
Neural mechanisms of mindfulness meditation
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Rowland-Seymour, A; Sharma, R; Berger, Z; Sleicher, D; Maron, D. D;
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^ An universal etymological English dictionary 1773, London, by Nathan
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^ Terje Stordalen, "Ancient Hebrew Meditative Recitation", in Halvor
Meditation in Judaism,
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^ Christian spirituality: themes from the tradition by Lawrence S.
Cunningham, Keith J. Egan 1996 ISBN 0-8091-3660-0 page 88
^ The Oblate Life by Gervase Holdaway, 2008 ISBN 0-8146-3176-2
^ a b Feuerstein, Georg. "
Meditation (Dhyana)." Moksha
Journal. Issue 1. 2006. ISSN 1051-127X, OCLC 21878732
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(1971) [Reprinted from 1929]. A practical
Sanskrit dictionary with
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^ Mirahmadi, Sayyid Nurjan; Naqshbandi, Muhammad Nazim Adil
al-Haqqani; Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham; Mirahmadi, Hedieh (2005). The
healing power of sufi meditation. Fenton, MI: Naqshbandi Haqqani Sufi
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^ Joel Stein (2003). "Just say Om". Time. 162 (5): 48–56. In
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^ Jean L. Kristeller (2010). "Spiritual engagement as a mechanism of
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ISBN 978-1-57224-694-2. . Page 161 states "In Christianity,
the term 'contemplation' is parallel to the term 'meditation' as it
has entered contemporary usage"
^ Halvor Eifring, "
Meditation in Judaism,
Christianity and Islam:
Technical Aspects of Devotional Practices", in Halvor Eifring (ed.),
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B. Alan Wallace has argued that focused attention
is a basis for the practice of mindfulness. He writes that "Truly
effective meditation is impossible without focused attention... the
cultivation of attentional stability has been a core element of the
meditative traditions throughout the centuries" (p. xi) in Wallace, B.
Alan (2006). The attention revolution: Unlocking the power of the
focused mind. Boston: Wisdom. ISBN 0-86171-276-5.
^ Matt J. Rossano (2007). "Did meditating make us human?". Cambridge
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doi:10.1017/S0959774307000054. This paper draws on various lines
of evidence to argue that "Campfire rituals of focused attention
created Baldwinian selection for enhanced working memory among our
Homo sapiens ancestors.... this emergence was [in part] caused by a
fortuitous genetic mutation that enhanced working memory capacity
[and] a Baldwinian process where genetic adaptation follows somatic
adaptation was the mechanism for this emergence" (p. 47).
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Zen Buddhism : a History:
India and China by Heinrich Dumoulin,
James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter 2005 ISBN 0-941532-89-5 pages 15
Zen Buddhism : a History:
India and China by Heinrich Dumoulin,
James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter 2005 ISBN 0-941532-89-5 pages 50
Zen Buddhism : a History: Japan by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W.
Heisig, Paul F. Knitter 2005 ISBN 0-941532-90-9 page 5
Zen in Medieval Japan by William Bodiford 2008
ISBN 0-8248-3303-1 page 39
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John Whitney Hall 1990 ISBN 0521223547
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^ Bruhn, O (2017) Ainslie Meares on Meditation.
^ Encyclopedia of
Religion by David A. Leeming, Kathryn
Madden, Stanton Marlan 2009 ISBN page 559
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^ a b
Roger Walsh & Shauna L. Shapiro (2006). "The meeting of
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July 2010); 95 for Cahn & Polich, 2006 (2 July 2010); 57 for
Jevning et al. (1992) (3 July 2010); 103 for Goleman, 1988 (2 July
Claudio Naranjo (1972, originally published 1971), in: Naranjo and
Orenstein, On the
Psychology of Meditation. New York: Viking.
^ a b c d Kenneth Bond; Maria B. Ospina; Nicola Hooton; Liza Bialy;
Donna M. Dryden; Nina Buscemi; David Shannahoff-Khalsa; Jeffrey Dusek;
Linda E. Carlson (2009). "Defining a complex intervention: The
development of demarcation criteria for "meditation"".
Religion and Spirituality. 1 (2): 129–137.
^ Mary Carroll (2005). "Divine therapy: Teaching reflective and
meditative practices". Teaching
Theology and Religion. 8 (4):
^ a b Lutz, Dunne and Davidson, "
Meditation and the Neuroscience of
Consciousness: An Introduction" in The Cambridge handbook of
consciousness by Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch, Evan
Thompson, 2007 ISBN 0-521-85743-0 page 499-551 (proof copy) (NB:
pagination of published was 499-551 proof was 497-550). Archived March
3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b "John Dunne's speech". Archived from the original on November
^ a b c d e Eugene Taylor (1999). Michael Murphy; Steven Donovan;
Eugene Taylor, eds. "Introduction". The physical and psychological
effects of meditation: A review of contemporary research with a
comprehensive bibliography 1931-1996. Sausalito, CA: Institute of
Noetic Sciences: 1–32.
^ Besides Lectio and Yoga, examples include Herbert Benson's (1975)
Relaxation Response ISBN 0-380-00676-6, Jon Kabat-Zinn's (1990)
Full Catastrophe Living ISBN 0-385-29897-8, and Eknath Easwaran's
Passage Meditation ISBN 978-1-58638-026-7
^ This does not mean that all meditation seeks to take a person beyond
all thought processes, only those processes that are sometimes
referred to as "discursive" or "logical" (see Shapiro, 1982/1984;
Bond, Ospina, et al., 2009; Appendix B, pp. 279-282 in Ospina, Bond,
et al., 2007).
^ An influential definition by Shapiro (1982; republished 1984, 2008)
states that "meditation refers to a family of techniques which have in
common a conscious attempt to focus attention in a nonanalytical way
and an attempt not to dwell on discursive, ruminating thought" (p. 6,
italics in original); the term "discursive thought" has long been used
in Western philosophy, and is often viewed as a synonym to logical
thought (Rappe, Sara (2000). Reading neoplatonism :
Non-discursive thinking in the texts of plotinus, proclus, and
damascius. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-65158-5. ).
^ Bond, Ospina et al. (2009) – see fuller discussion elsewhere
on this page -- report that 7 expert scholars who had studied
different traditions of meditation agreed that an "essential"
component of meditation "Involves logic relaxation: not 'to intend' to
analyze the possible psychophysical effects, not 'to intend' to judge
the possible results, not 'to intend' to create any type of
expectation regarding the process" (p. 134, Table 4). In their final
consideration, all 7 experts regarded this feature as an "essential"
component of meditation; none of them regarded it as merely "important
but not essential" (p. 234, Table 4). (This same result is presented
in Table B1 in Ospina, Bond, et al., 2007, p. 281)
^ a b Mysteries of the
Rosary by Stephen J. Binz 2005
ISBN 1-58595-519-1 page 3
^ a b The everything
Buddhism book by Jacky Sach 2003
ISBN 978-1-58062-884-6 page 175
^ For a general overview see Beads of Faith: Pathways to Meditation
Spirituality Using Rosaries,
Prayer Beads, and Sacred Words by
Gray Henry, Susannah Marriott 2008 ISBN 1-887752-95-1
^ a b
Meditation and Mantras by Vishnu Devananda 1999
ISBN 81-208-1615-3 pages 82–83
Acharya Tulsi Key (1995). "01.01 Traditions of shramanas". Bhagwan
Mahavira. JVB, Ladnun, India. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
^ Sadhvi Vishrut Vibha Key (2007). "1 History and Tradition".
Introduction to Jainism. JVB, Ladnun, India.
Acharya Tulsi Key (1995). "04.04 accomplishment of sadhana". Bhagwan
Mahavira. JVB, Ladnun, India. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
^ Ahimsa – The Science Of Peace by Surendra Bothra 1987
Bhadrabahu Swami". Retrieved 2010-07-20.
Mahapragya (2004). "Foreword". Jain Yog. Aadarsh Saahitya
Acharya Tulsi (2004). "blessings". Sambodhi. Aadarsh Saahitya
^ a b Dr. Rudi Jansma; Dr. Sneh Rani Jain Key (2006). "07
Meditation (2)". Introduction To Jainism. Prakrit Bharti Academy,
jaipur, India. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
^ Dr. Rudi Jansma; Dr. Sneh Rani Jain Key (2006). "07
Meditation (2)". Introduction To Jainism. Prakrit Bharti Academy,
jaipur, India. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
^ Muni Kishan Lal Key (2007). Preksha Dhyana: Yogic Exercises. Jain
Vishva Bharati. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
^ "Preksha Meditation". Preksha International. Retrieved
^ For instance, Kamalashila (2003), p. 4, states that Buddhist
meditation "includes any method of meditation that has Enlightenment
as its ultimate aim." Likewise,
Bodhi (1999) writes: "To arrive at the
experiential realization of the truths it is necessary to take up the
practice of meditation.... At the climax of such contemplation the
mental eye ... shifts its focus to the unconditioned state,
Nibbana...." A similar although in some ways slightly broader
definition is provided by Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1991), p. 142:
"Meditation – general term for a multitude of religious
practices, often quite different in method, but all having the same
goal: to bring the consciousness of the practitioner to a state in
which he can come to an experience of 'awakening,' 'liberation,'
'enlightenment.'" Kamalashila (2003) further allows that some Buddhist
meditations are "of a more preparatory nature" (p. 4).
Sanskrit word bhāvanā literally means "development"
as in "mental development." For the association of this term with
"meditation," see Epstein (1995), p. 105; and, Fischer-Schreiber et
al. (1991), p. 20. As an example from a well-known discourse of the
Pali Canon, in "The Greater Exhortation to Rahula" (Maha-Rahulovada
Sutta, MN 62), Ven.
Sariputta tells Ven.
Rahula (in Pali, based on
VRI, n.d.): ānāpānassatiṃ, rāhula, bhāvanaṃ bhāvehi.
Thanissaro (2006) translates this as: "Rahula, develop the meditation
[bhāvana] of mindfulness of in-&-out breathing."
(Square-bracketed Pali word included based on Thanissaro, 2006, end
^ See, for example, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), entry for
"jhāna1"[permanent dead link]; Thanissaro (1997); as well as, Kapleau
(1989), p. 385, for the derivation of the word "zen" from
Pāli Text Society Secretary Rupert Gethin, in
describing the activities of wandering ascetics contemporaneous with
the Buddha, wrote:
[T]here is the cultivation of meditative and contemplative techniques
aimed at producing what might, for the lack of a suitable technical
term in English, be referred to as "altered states of consciousness".
In the technical vocabulary of Indian religious texts such states come
to be termed "meditations" ([Skt.:] dhyāna / [Pali:] jhāna) or
"concentrations" (samādhi); the attainment of such states of
consciousness was generally regarded as bringing the practitioner to
deeper knowledge and experience of the nature of the world. (Gethin,
1998, p. 10.)
^ Goldstein (2003) writes that, in regard to the Satipatthana Sutta,
"there are more than fifty different practices outlined in this Sutta.
The meditations that derive from these foundations of mindfulness are
called vipassana..., and in one form or another – and by
whatever name – are found in all the major
(p. 92). The forty concentrative meditation subjects refer to
Visuddhimagga's oft-referenced enumeration. Regarding Tibetan
visualizations, Kamalashila (2003), writes: "The Tara meditation ...
is one example out of thousands of subjects for visualization
meditation, each one arising out of some meditator's visionary
experience of enlightened qualities, seen in the form of Buddhas and
Bodhisattvas" (p. 227).
^ Examples of contemporary school-specific "classics" include, from
Theravada tradition, Nyanaponika (1996) and, from the Zen
tradition, Kapleau (1989).
^ These definitions of samatha and vipassana are based on the "Four
Kinds of Persons Sutta" (AN 4.94). This article's text is primarily
Bodhi (2005), pp. 269–70, 440 n. 13. See also Thanissaro
^ See, for instance, AN 2.30 in
Bodhi (2005), pp. 267-68, and
^ "The Stress Reduction Program, founded by Dr.
Jon Kabat-Zinn in
1979..." - http://www.umassmed.edu/cfm/stress/index.aspx
^ a b c Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. pp. 94–95.
^ Alexander Wynne, The Origin of
Buddhist Meditation. Routledge 2007,
page 51. The earliest reference is actually in the Mokshadharma, which
dates to the early
^ The Katha Upanishad describes yoga, including meditation. On
meditation in this and other post-
Buddhist Hindu literature see
Randall Collins, The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of
Harvard University Press, 2000, page 199.
^ Shri, Jnaneshvar (1978). Jnaneshvari. New York: State University of
New York Press. pp. 114–152. ISBN 0887064884.
^ Sharma, Suresh (2004). Cultural and Religious Heritage of India:
Sikhism. Mittal Publications. p. 7.
^ Parashar, M. (2005). Ethics And The Sex-King. AuthorHouse.
p. 592. ISBN 9781463458133.
^ Duggal, Kartar (1980). The Prescribed
Sikh Prayers (Nitnem). Abhinav
Publications. p. 20. ISBN 9788170173779.
^ Singh, Nirbhai (1990). Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its
Manifestations. Atlantic Publishers & Distribution.
^ Kohn, Livia (2008), "
Meditation and visualization," in The
Encyclopedia of Taoism, ed. by Fabrizio Pregadio, p. 118.
^ Harper, Donald; Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L. (2007) [First
published in 1999]. The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the
Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge
University Press. p. 880. ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8.
^ Roth, Harold D. (1999), Original Tao: Inward Training (Nei-yeh) and
the Foundations of Taoist Mysticism, Columbia University Press, p. 92.
^ Mair, Victor H., tr. (1994), Wandering on the Way: Early Taoist
Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu, Bantam Books, p. 64.
^ a b Perez-De-Albeniz, Alberto; Jeremy Holmes (March 2000).
"Meditation: concepts, effects and uses in therapy". International
Journal of Psychotherapy. 5 (1): 49–59.
doi:10.1080/13569080050020263. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
^ a b "Prayer, Meditation, and Fasting". Bahá'í International
Community. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-01.
^ a b c d Smith, Peter (2000). "Meditation". A concise encyclopedia of
the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 243–44.
^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Prayer". A concise encyclopedia of the
Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 274.
^ Effendi, Shoghi (1983). Hornby, Helen, ed. Lights of Guidance: A
Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India.
p. 506. ISBN 81-85091-46-3.
^ Effendi, Shoghi (1973). Directives from the Guardian. Hawaii
Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 28.
^ Corey, G. (March 2000). Theory and practice of counseling and
psychotherapy (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
p. 550. ISBN 0-534-34823-8.
^ Deane Shapiro "Towards an empirical understanding of meditation as
an altered state of consciousness" in Meditation, classic and
contemporary perspectives by Deane H. Shapiro, Roger N. Walsh 1984
ISBN 0-202-25136-5 page 13
^ New developments in consciousness research by Vincent W. Fallio 2006
ISBN 1-60021-247-6 page 151
^ Feldman, G. (2010). "Differential effects of mindful breathing,
progressive muscle relaxation, and loving-kindness meditation on
decentering and negative reactions to repetitive thoughts". Behavior
Research and Therapy. 48 (10): 1002–1011.
doi:10.1016/j.brat.2010.06.006. PMC 2932656 .
^ "Meditation: An Introduction". NCCIH.
^ Herbert Benson; Miriam Z. Klipper. The Relaxation Response. William
Morrow Paperbacks, Exp Upd edition (February 8, 2000).
^ Patricia Carrington (1977). Freedom in meditation. Anchor Press.
^ Lagopoulos, Jim; Xu, Jian; Rasmussen, Inge-Andre; Vik, Alexandra;
Malhi, Gin S.; Eliassen, Carl Fredrik; Arntsen, Ingrid Edith; Sæther,
Jardar G; Saether, JG; Hollup, Stig Arvid; Holen, Are; Davanger,
Svend; Ellingsen, Øyvind (2009). "Increased Theta and Alpha EEG
Activity During Nondirective Meditation". Journal of Alternative and
Complementary Medicine. 15 (11): 1187–1192.
^ Rubin, Jeffrey B (2001). "A New View of Meditation". Journal of
Religion and Health. 40 (1): 121–28.
^ The history and varieties of
Jewish meditation by Mark Verman 1997
ISBN 978-1-56821-522-8 page 1
^ Jacobs, L. (1976) Jewish Mystical Testimonies, Jerusalem, Keter
Publishing House Jerusalem Ltd.
^ Kaplan, A. (1978)
Meditation and the Bible, Maine, Samuel Weiser
Inc., p 101.
^ The history and varieties of
Jewish meditation by Mark Verman 1997
ISBN 978-1-56821-522-8 page 45
^ a b c Kaplan, A. (1985) Jewish Meditation: A Practical Guide, New
York Schocken Books.
^ Kaplan, A. (1982)
Meditation and Kabbalah, Maine, Samuel Weiser,
^ Matt, D.C. (1996) The Essential Kabbalah: The
Heart of Jewish
Mysticism, San Francisco, HarperCollins.
^ Kaplan, A. (1978) op cit p2
^ Kaplan, (1982) op cit, p13
^ Claussen, Geoffrey. "The Practice of Musar". Conservative Judaism
63, no. 2 (2012): 3-26. Retrieved June 10, 2014
^ The Rosary: A Path Into
Prayer by Liz Kelly 2004
ISBN 0-8294-2024-X pages 79 and 86
Meditation for Beginners by Thomas Zanzig, Marilyn
Kielbasa 2000, ISBN 0-88489-361-8 page 7
^ An introduction to Christian spirituality by F. Antonisamy, 2000
ISBN 81-7109-429-5 pages 76-77
Meditation by Edmund P. Clowney, 1979
ISBN 1-57383-227-8 page 12
Meditation by Edmund P. Clowney, 1979
ISBN 1-57383-227-8 pages 12-13
^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch,
Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 90-04-12654-6 page 488
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Letter on certain
Christian meditation (in English), October 15, 1989
^ Los Angeles Times, February 8, 2003
New Age Beliefs Aren't
Christian, Vatican Finds
BBC Feb 4, 2003 Vatican sounds
New Age alert
^ Vatican website
^ Simple Ways to Pray by Emilie Griffin 2005 ISBN 0-7425-5084-2
^ "Heilig Kreuz – Zentrum für christliche
Spiritualität – Programm September 2016 bis Juli 2017" (PDF) (in
German). Heilig Kreuz – Zentrum für christliche
Spiritualität. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
^ Roland Fischer (1971), A Cartography of the Ecstatic and Meditative
States. In Science, Vol 174 Num 4012 26 November 1971
^ Saint Teresa, The Life of Saint Teresa, J. M. Cohen, Transl.
(Penquin, Baltimore, 1957), p. 142.
^ Sainthood and revelatory discourse by David Emmanuel Singh 2003
ISBN 81-7214-728-7 page 154
^ Dwivedi, Kedar Nath. Review:Freedom from Self, Sufism, Meditation
and Psychotherapy. Group Analysis, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 434-436,
^ Khalifa, Rashad (2001). Quran: The Final Testament. Universal Unity.
p. 536. ISBN 1-881893-05-7.
^ Time Magazine, Youth: The Hippies Friday, Jul. 07, 1967
^ Barnia, George (1996). The Index of Leading Spiritual Indicators.
Dallas TX: Word Publishing.
^ Lash, John (1990). The Seeker's Handbook: The Complete Guide to
Spiritual Pathfinding. New York: Harmony Books. p. 320.
^ Gustave Reininger, ed. (1997). Centering prayer in daily life and
ministry. New York: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-1041-2.
^ The organization
Contemplative Outreach Archived 2011-11-03 at the
Wayback Machine., which teaches Christian Centering Prayer, has
chapters in non-Western locations in Malaysia, Singapore, and South
Korea (accessed 5 July 2010)
^ "Meditation". quod.lib.umich.edu. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
^ Keating, Thomas (1997) [First published in 1986]. Open mind, open
heart. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-0696-3.
^ Taylor (1999, p. 7) stated that "the increased Soviet influence in
India, the Cultural Revolution in China, the Communist Chinese
takeover of Tibet and Mongolia, and the increased political influence
of Chinese Communism in Korea and Southeast Asia were key forces that
collectively set the stage for an influx of Asian spiritual teachers
to the West. An entirely new generation of them appeared on the
American scene and they found a willing audience of devotees within
the American counter-culture. Swami A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, Swami
Satchitananda, Guru Maharaji, Kerpal Singh, Nayanaponika Thera, Swami
Rama, Thich Nhat Hanh, Chogyam Trungpa, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Swami
Muktananda, Sri Bagwan Rujneesh, Pir Viliyat Kahn, and the Karmapa
were but a few of the names that found followers in the United
States... [and] the most well known and influential... today remains
Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama of Tibet, winner of the Nobel
Peace Prize in 1989."
^ Robert Ornstein (1972, originally published 1971), in: Naranjo and
Orenstein, On the
Psychology of Meditation. New York: Viking. LCCN
^ "members were chosen on the basis of their publication record of
research on the therapeutic use of meditation, their knowledge of and
training in traditional or clinically developed meditation techniques,
and their affiliation with universities and research centers.. Each
member had specific expertise and training in at least one of the
following meditation practices: kundalini yoga, Transcendental
Meditation, relaxation response, mindfulness-based stress reduction,
and vipassana meditation" (Bond, Ospina et al., 2009, p. 131); their
views were combined using "the Delphi technique... a method of
eliciting and refining group judgments to address complex problems
with a high level of uncertainty" (p. 131).
^ The full quotation from Bond, Ospina et al. (2009, p. 135) reads:
"It is plausible that meditation is best thought of as a natural
category of techniques best captured by 'family resemblances'
(Wittgenstein, 1968) or by the related 'prototype' model of concepts
(Rosch, 1973; Rosch & Mervin, 1975)."
^ a b c d Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A.; Dunne, John D.; Davidson,
Richard J. (April 2008). "
Attention regulation and monitoring in
meditation". Trends in
Cognitive Sciences. 12 (4): 163–169.
doi:10.1016/j.tics.2008.01.005. PMC 2693206 .
PMID 18329323. The term ‘meditation’ refers to a broad
variety of practices...In order to narrow the explanandum to a more
tractable scope, this article uses
Buddhist contemplative techniques
and their clinical secular derivatives as a paradigmatic framework
(see e.g., 9,10 or 7,9 for reviews including other types of
techniques, such as
Yoga and Transcendental Meditation). Among the
wide range of practices within the
Buddhist tradition, we will further
narrow this review to two common styles of meditation, FA and OM (see
box 1–box 2), that are often combined, whether in a single session
or over the course of practitioner's training. These styles are found
with some variation in several meditation traditions, including Zen,
Vipassanā and Tibetan
Buddhism (e.g. 7,15,16)....The first style, FA
meditation, entails voluntary focusing attention on a chosen object in
a sustained fashion. The second style, OM meditation, involves
non-reactively monitoring the content of experience from moment to
moment, primarily as a means to recognize the nature of emotional and
^ The full quote from Bond, Ospina et al. (2009, p. 130) reads: "The
differences and similarities among these techniques is often explained
in the Western meditation literature in terms of the direction of
mental attention (Koshikawa & Ichii, 1996; Naranjo, 1971;
Orenstein, 1971): A practitioner can focus intensively on one
particular object (so-called concentrative meditation), on all mental
events that enter the field of awareness (so-called mindfulness
meditation), or both specific focal points and the field of awareness
^ a b Fred Travis; Jonathan Shear (2010). "Focused attention, open
monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize
meditations from Vedic,
Buddhist and Chinese traditions".
Consciousness and Cognition. 19 (4): 1110–8.
doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.01.007. PMID 20167507.
^ Dietrich Lehmann; P. L. Faber; Peter Achermann; Daniel Jeanmonod;
Lorena R. R. Gianotti; Diego Pizzagalli (2001). "Brain sources of EEG
gamma frequency during volitionally meditation-induced, altered states
of consciousness, and experience of the self".
108 (2): 111–121. doi:10.1016/S0925-4927(01)00116-0.
^ a b "The mind business". Financial Times. Retrieved
^ a b c "Why Google, Target, and
General Mills Are Investing in
Mindfulness". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
^ Pinsker, Joe. "Corporations' Newest Productivity Hack: Meditation".
The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
^ a b c d e Walton, Alice G. "7 Ways
Meditation Can Actually Change
The Brain". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
^ a b c d e Karakas, Fahri (2010). "
Spirituality and Performance in
Organizations: A Literature Review" (PDF). Journal of Business Ethics.
94: 89–106. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0251-5.
^ a b c d e f Ashar, Hanna; Lane-Maher, Maureen (September 2004).
Spirituality in the New Business Paradigm". Journal of
Management Inquiry. 13 (3 249–260): 249–260.
^ a b c d Cohen-Katz, Joanne; Wiley, Susan; Capuano, Terry; Baker,
Debra M; Deitrick, Lynn; Shapiro, Shauna (2005). "The Effects of
Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction on Nurse Stress and Burnout".
Holistic Nursing Practice. 19 (2): 78–86.
doi:10.1097/00004650-200503000-00009. PMID 15871591.
^ "In the last 20 years, mindfulness has become the focus of
considerable attention for a large community of clinicians and, to a
lesser extent, empirical psychology." - Mindfulness: A Proposed
^ Jon Kabat-Zinn; Elizabeth Wheeler; Timothy Light; Anne Skillings;
Mark J. Scharf; Thomas G. Cropley; David Hosmer; Jeffrey D. Bernhard
(1998). "Influence of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction
intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to
severe psoriasis undergoing phototherapy (uvb) and photochemotherapy
(puva)". Psychosomatic Medicine. 60 (5): 625–632.
doi:10.1097/00006842-199809000-00020. ISSN 0033-3174.
PMID 9773769. Archived from the original on February 14,
^ Kabat-Zinn gives the body scan and food meditations in "Mindfulness
for Beginners" the 2CD set, and Matthieu Ricard gives the letting
thoughts arise and pass away in his 2CD set "Happiness: A Guide to
Cultivating Life's Most Important Skill"
^ Tang, YY; Lu, Q; Geng, X; Stein, EA; Yang, Y; Posner, MI (2010).
"Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior
cingulate". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (35):
doi:10.1073/pnas.1011043107. PMC 2932577 . PMID 20713717.
Retrieved 30 November 2015.
Jon Kabat-Zinn gives a
Talk about introductory
mindfulness practice online". YouTube.
Progressive muscle relaxation
Progressive muscle relaxation from where these two references
were taken showing that this method reduces extreme anxiety, 1) Craske
& Barlow (2006). Worry. Oxford University Press. p. 53.
ISBN 0-19-530001-7. and 2) Chen WC, Chu H, Lu RB, Chou YH,
Chen CH, Chang YC, O'Brien AP, Chou KR (Aug 2009). "Efficacy of
progressive muscle relaxation training in reducing anxiety in patients
with acute schizophrenia". Journal of Clinical Nursing. 18 (15):
^ "Mindfulness: Getting Its Share of Attention". The New York Times.
November 1, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
^ "Wisdom 2.0 - An Interview with Soren Gordhamer". The Huffington
Post. March 27, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
^ "Why I Disrupted the Wisdom 2.0 Conference". Tricycle: The Buddhist
Review. February 9, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
^ "In Silicon Valley,
Meditation Is No Fad. It Could Make Your
Career". Wired. June 18, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
^ Davidson, RJ; Kabat-Zinn, J; Schumacher, J; et al. (2003).
"Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by
Mindful... : Psychosomatic Medicine". LWW. 65 (4): 564–70.
doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000077505.67574.E3. PMID 12883106.
^ Aftanas, LI; Golocheikine, SA (September 2001). "Human anterior and
frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally positive
state and internalized attention: high-resolution
EEG investigation of
meditation". Neuroscience Letters. 310 (1): 57–60.
doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(01)02094-8. PMID 11524157.
^ Aftanas, Ljubomir; Golosheykin, Semen (June 2005). "Impact of
regular meditation practice on
EEG activity at rest and during evoked
negative emotions". The International Journal of Neuroscience. 115
(6): 893–909. doi:10.1080/00207450590897969.
^ Manocha, Ramesh; Black, Deborah; Spiro, David; Ryan, Jake; Stough,
Con (March 2010). "Changing Definitions of
Meditation – Is there a
Physiological Corollary? Skin temperature changes of a mental silence
orientated form of meditation compared to rest" (PDF). Journal of the
International Society of Life Sciences. 28 (1): 23–31.
^ Aftanas, LI; Golocheikine, SA (September 2002). "Non-linear dynamic
complexity of the human
EEG during meditation". Neuroscience Letters.
330 (2): 143–6. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(02)00745-0.
^ "Quality of Life and Functional Health Status of Long-Term
Meditators". Hindawi Publishing Corporation. 15 January 2012.
^ Fox, Kieran C.R.; Nijeboer, Savannah; Dixon, Matthew L.; Floman,
James L.; Ellamil, Melissa; Rumak, Samuel P.; Sedlmeier, Peter;
Christoff, Kalina (2014). "Is meditation associated with altered brain
structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric
neuroimaging in meditation practitioners". Neuroscience &
Biobehavioral Reviews. 43: 48–73.
doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.016. PMID 24705269.
^ Ospina, M; Bond T (2007-01-06). "
Meditation Practices for Health:
State of the Research. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 155"
(etext). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved
^ Harrington A. Dunne JD. (Oct 2015). "When mindfulness is therapy:
Ethical qualms, historical perspectives". American Psychologist. 70
(7): 621–31. doi:10.1037/a0039460. PMID 26436312.
^ Strauss C, Cavanagh K, Oliver A, Pettman D (Apr 2014).
"Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed with a Current
Episode of an
Anxiety or Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of
Randomised Controlled Trials". PLoS ONE. 9 (4): e96110.
PMC 3999148 . PMID 24763812.
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