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RTECS
REGISTRY OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES (RTECS) is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature without reference to the validity or usefulness of the studies reported. Until 2001 it was maintained by US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a freely available publication. It is now maintained by the private company Symyx Technologies and is available only for a fee or by subscription. CONTENTSSix types of toxicity data are included in the file: * Primary irritation * Mutagenic effects * Reproductive effects * Tumorigenic effects * Acute toxicity * Other multiple dose toxicitySpecific numeric toxicity values such as LD50 , LC50 , TDLo , and TCLo are noted as well as species studied and the route of administration used. For all data the bibliographic source is listed. The studies are not evaluated in any way
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Lowest Published Toxic Dose
In toxicology , the LOWEST PUBLISHED TOXIC DOSE (TOXIC DOSE LOW, TDLO) is the lowest dosage per unit of bodyweight (typically stated in milligrams per kilogram ) of a substance known to have produced signs of toxicity in a particular animal species . When quoting a TDLo, the particular species and method of administration (e.g. ingested, inhaled, intravenous ) are typically stated. SEE ALSO * Certain safety factor * Lowest published lethal dose (LDLo) * Median lethal dose (LD50) This Toxicology-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This biochemistry article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Database
A DATABASE is an organized collection of data . A relational database , more restrictively, is a collection of schemas , tables , queries , reports, views , and other elements. Database
Database
designers typically organize the data to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as (for example) modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies. A DATABASE-MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) is a computer-software application that interacts with end-users , other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS allows the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases
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US Congress
535 voting members * 100 senators * 435 representatives 6 non-voting members SENATE POLITICAL GROUPS * Republican (52) * Democratic (46)* Independent (2) (caucusing with Democrats) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES POLITICAL GROUPS * Republican (240) * Democratic (194) * Vacant (1) ELECTIONS SENATE LAST ELECTION November 8, 2016 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES LAST ELECTION November 8, 2016 MEETING PLACE United States Capitol
United States Capitol

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Occupational Safety And Health Act
The OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT is the primary federal law which governs occupational health and safety in the private sector and federal government in the United States
United States
. It was enacted by Congress in 1970 and was signed by President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
on December 29, 1970. Its main goal is to ensure that employers provide employees with an environment free from recognized hazards, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, excessive noise levels, mechanical dangers, heat or cold stress, or unsanitary conditions. The Act created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The Act can be found in the United States Code
United States Code
at title 29, chapter 15
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Elsevier MDL
MDL INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Inc. was a provider of R&D informatics products for the life sciences and chemicals industries. The company was launched as a computer-aided drug design firm (originally named Molecular Design Limited, Inc.) in January 1978 in Hayward, California. The company was acquired by Symyx Technologies , Inc. in 2007. Subsequently Accelrys
Accelrys
merged with Symyx. The Accelrys
Accelrys
name was retained for the combined company. In 2014 Accelrys
Accelrys
was acquired by Dassault Systemes . The Accelrys
Accelrys
business unit was renamed BioVia . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Innovations * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYMolecular Design Limited, Inc. was founded by Stuart Marson and W. Todd Wipke in 1978
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Chemical
A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE also known as a PURE SUBSTANCE is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical elements , chemical compounds , ions or alloys . Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures . A common example of a chemical substance is pure water ; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory . Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold , table salt (sodium chloride ) and refined sugar (sucrose ). However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical
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Wikidata
WIKIDATA is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as , and by anyone else, under a public domain licence. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase . CONTENTS * 1 Concepts * 2 Development history * 2.1 Phase 1 * 2.2 Phase 2 * 2.3 Phase 3 * 3 Reception * 4 Logo * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CONCEPTS Screenshots Three statements from Wikidata\'s item on the planet Mars. Values include links to other items and to Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons

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Tumor
NEOPLASM is an abnormal growth of tissue, which if it forms a mass, is commonly referred to as a TUMOR. This abnormal growth (neoplasia) usually but not always forms a mass. ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms , in situ neoplasms , malignant neoplasms , and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. Malignant neoplasms are also simply known as cancers and are the focus of oncology . Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia . However, metaplasia or dysplasia does not always progress to neoplasia. The word is from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νέος- neo "new" and πλάσμα plasma "formation, creation". CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Clonality * 1.2 Neoplasia vs
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National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health
The NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness . NIOSH
NIOSH
is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . NIOSH
NIOSH
is headquartered in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, with research laboratories and offices in Cincinnati, Ohio
Cincinnati, Ohio
; Morgantown, West Virginia ; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
; Denver, Colorado
Denver, Colorado
; Anchorage, Alaska ; Spokane, Washington
Spokane, Washington
; and Atlanta, Georgia
Atlanta, Georgia

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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Irritation
IRRITATION, in biology and physiology , is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage. A stimulus or agent which induces the state of irritation is an IRRITANT. Irritants are typically thought of as chemical agents (for example phenol and capsaicin ) but mechanical, thermal (heat), and radiative stimuli (for example ultraviolet light or ionising radiations ) can also be irritants. Irritation
Irritation
also has non-clinical usages referring to bothersome physical or psychological pain or discomfort. Irritation
Irritation
can also be induced by some allergic response due to exposure of some allergens for example contact dermatitis, irritation of mucousal membranes and pruritus. Mucosal membrane is most common site of irritation because it contains secretory glands that release mucous which attracts the allergens due to its sticky nature
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Reproduction
REPRODUCTION (or PROCREATION or BREEDING) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction
Reproduction
is a fundamental feature of all known life ; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual . In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms . The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes
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Mutagen
In genetics, a MUTAGEN is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA
DNA
, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer , mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens , although not always necessarily so. Some chemicals only become mutagenic through cellular processes. Not all mutations are caused by mutagens: so-called "spontaneous mutations" occur due to spontaneous hydrolysis , errors in DNA
DNA
replication , repair and recombination
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