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RTECS
REGISTRY OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES (RTECS) is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature without reference to the validity or usefulness of the studies reported. Until 2001 it was maintained by US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a freely available publication. It is now maintained by the private company Symyx Technologies and is available only for a fee or by subscription. CONTENTSSix types of toxicity data are included in the file: * Primary irritation * Mutagenic effects * Reproductive effects * Tumorigenic effects * Acute toxicity * Other multiple dose toxicitySpecific numeric toxicity values such as LD50 , LC50 , TDLo , and TCLo are noted as well as species studied and the route of administration used. For all data the bibliographic source is listed. The studies are not evaluated in any way
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Database
A DATABASE is an organized collection of data . It is the collection of schemas , tables , queries , reports, views , and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies. A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS
DBMS
is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL , PostgreSQL , MongoDB , MariaDB , Microsoft SQL Server , Oracle , Sybase , SAP HANA , MemSQL , SQLite and IBM DB2
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Toxicity
TOXICITY is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism . Toxicity
Toxicity
can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal , bacterium , or plant , as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity ) or an organ such as the liver (hepatotoxicity ). By extension, the word may be metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage. A central concept of toxicology is that the effects of a toxin are dose -dependent; even water can lead to water intoxication when taken in too high a dose, whereas for even a very toxic substance such as snake venom there is a dose below which there is no detectable toxic effect
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " (
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National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health
The NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness . NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . NIOSH is headquartered in Washington, D.C. , with research laboratories and offices in Cincinnati, Ohio ; Morgantown, West Virginia ; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ; Denver, Colorado ; Anchorage, Alaska ; Spokane, Washington ; and Atlanta, Georgia . NIOSH is a professionally diverse organization with a staff of 1,200 people representing a wide range of disciplines including epidemiology , medicine , industrial hygiene , safety , psychology , engineering, chemistry, and statistics. The director of NIOSH is John Howard
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Symyx Technologies
SYMYX TECHNOLOGIES, Inc. was a company that specialized in informatics and automation products. Symyx provided software solutions for scientific research, including Enterprise Laboratory Notebooks and products for combinatorial chemistry . The software part of the business became part of Accelrys , Inc. in 2010. Symyx also offered laboratory robotics systems for performing automated chemical research, which on 2010, was spun out as Freeslate, Inc. CONTENTS * 1 Products * 2 History * 3 Business model considerations * 4 References * 5 External links PRODUCTSSymyx offered high-speed combinatorial technologies for the discovery of new materials. Using proprietary technologies - including instruments, software and methods - Symyx was able to generate hundreds to thousands of unique materials at a time and screen those materials rapidly and automatically for desired properties
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Irritation
IRRITATION, in biology and physiology , is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage. A stimulus or agent which induces the state of irritation is an IRRITANT. Irritants are typically thought of as chemical agents (for example phenol and capsaicin ) but mechanical, thermal (heat), and radiative stimuli (for example ultraviolet light or ionising radiations ) can also be irritants. Irritation
Irritation
also has non-clinical usages referring to bothersome physical or psychological pain or discomfort. Irritation
Irritation
can also be induced by some allergic response due to exposure of some allergens for example contact dermatitis, irritation of mucousal membranes and pruritus. Mucosal membrane is most common site of irritation because it contains secretory glands that release mucous which attracts the allergens due to its sticky nature
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Mutagen
In genetics, a MUTAGEN is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA
DNA
, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer , mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens , although not always necessarily so. Some chemicals only become mutagenic through cellular processes. Not all mutations are caused by mutagens: so-called "spontaneous mutations" occur due to spontaneous hydrolysis , errors in DNA
DNA
replication , repair and recombination
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Reproduction
REPRODUCTION (or PROCREATION or BREEDING) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life ; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual . In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms . The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes
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Tumor
NEOPLASM is an abnormal growth of tissue, which if it forms a mass, is commonly referred to as a TUMOR. This abnormal growth (neoplasia) usually but not always forms a mass. ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms , in situ neoplasms , malignant neoplasms , and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. Malignant neoplasms are also simply known as cancers and are the focus of oncology . Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia . However, metaplasia or dysplasia does not always progress to neoplasia. The word is from Ancient Greek νέος- _neo_ "new" and πλάσμα _plasma_ "formation, creation". CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Clonality * 1.2 Neoplasia vs
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Median Lethal Dose
In toxicology , the MEDIAN LETHAL DOSE, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose , 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCT50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin , radiation , or pathogen . The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. LD50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity . A lower LD50 is indicative of increased toxicity. The test was created by J.W. Trevan in 1927. The term SEMILETHAL DOSE is occasionally used with the same meaning, in particular in translations from non-English-language texts, but can also refer to a sublethal dose; because of this ambiguity, it is usually avoided. LD50 is usually determined by tests on animals such as laboratory mice . In 2011, the U.S
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LC50
In toxicology , the MEDIAN LETHAL DOSE, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose , 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCT50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin , radiation , or pathogen . The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. LD50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity . A lower LD50 is indicative of increased toxicity. The test was created by J.W. Trevan in 1927. The term SEMILETHAL DOSE is occasionally used with the same meaning, in particular in translations from non-English-language texts, but can also refer to a sublethal dose; because of this ambiguity, it is usually avoided. LD50 is usually determined by tests on animals such as laboratory mice . In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved alternative methods to LD50 for testing the cosmetic drug Botox without animal tests
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Lowest Published Toxic Dose
In toxicology , the LOWEST PUBLISHED TOXIC DOSE (TOXIC DOSE LOW, TDLO) is the lowest dosage per unit of bodyweight (typically stated in milligrams per kilogram ) of a substance known to have produced signs of toxicity in a particular animal species . When quoting a TDLo, the particular species and method of administration (e.g. ingested, inhaled, intravenous ) are typically stated. SEE ALSO * Certain safety factor * Lowest published lethal dose (LDLo) * Median lethal dose (LD50) This Toxicology-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This biochemistry article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lowest_published_toxic_dose additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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US Congress
535 voting members * 100 senators * 435 representatives 6 non-voting members SENATE POLITICAL GROUPS * Republican (52) * Democratic (46)* Independent (2) (caucusing with Democrats) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES POLITICAL GROUPS * Republican (240) * Democratic (194) * Vacant (1) ELECTIONS SENATE LAST ELECTION November 8, 2016 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES LAST ELECTION November 8, 2016 MEETING PLACE United States Capitol Washington, D.C. , United States <
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Occupational Safety And Health Act
A JOB, or OCCUPATION, is a person 's role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and performed in exchange for payment ("for a living"). Many people have multiple jobs (e.g., parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin a job by becoming an employee , volunteering , starting a business , or becoming a parent . The duration of a job may range from temporary (e.g., hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (e.g., judges ). An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession . Typically, a job would be a subset of someone's career . The two may differ in that one usually retires from their career, versus resignation or termination from a job
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