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The Info List - LC50


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In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen. The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. LD50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity. A lower LD50 is indicative of increased toxicity. The test was created by J.W. Trevan in 1927.[1] The term semilethal dose is occasionally used with the same meaning, in particular in translations from non-English-language texts, but can also refer to a sublethal dose; because of this ambiguity, it is usually avoided. LD50 is usually determined by tests on animals such as laboratory mice. In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
approved alternative methods to LD50 for testing the cosmetic drug Botox
Botox
without animal tests.[2][3]

Contents

1 Conventions 2 Limitation 3 Examples 4 Animal rights
Animal rights
concerns 5 See also

5.1 Other measures of toxicity 5.2 Related measures

6 References 7 External links

Conventions[edit] The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms (suitable for botulinum), micrograms, or grams (suitable for paracetamol) per kilogram. Stating it this way allows the relative toxicity of different substances to be compared, and normalizes for the variation in the size of the animals exposed (although toxicity does not always scale simply with body mass). For substances in the environment, such as poisonous vapors or substances in water that are toxic to fish, the concentration in the environment (per cubic metre or per litre) is used, giving a value of LC50. But in this case, the exposure time is important (see below). The choice of 50% lethality as a benchmark avoids the potential for ambiguity of making measurements in the extremes and reduces the amount of testing required. However, this also means that LD50 is not the lethal dose for all subjects; some may be killed by much less, while others survive doses far higher than the LD50. Measures such as "LD1" and "LD99" (dosage required to kill 1% or 99%, respectively, of the test population) are occasionally used for specific purposes.[4] Lethal dosage often varies depending on the method of administration; for instance, many substances are less toxic when administered orally than when intravenously administered. For this reason, LD50 figures are often qualified with the mode of administration, e.g., "LD50 i.v." The related quantities LD50/30 or LD50/60 are used to refer to a dose that without treatment will be lethal to 50% of the population within (respectively) 30 or 60 days. These measures are used more commonly within Radiation
Radiation
Health Physics, as survival beyond 60 days usually results in recovery. A comparable measurement is LCt50, which relates to lethal dosage from exposure, where C is concentration and t is time. It is often expressed in terms of mg-min/m3. ICt50 is the dose that will cause incapacitation rather than death. These measures are commonly used to indicate the comparative efficacy of chemical warfare agents, and dosages are typically qualified by rates of breathing (e.g., resting = 10 l/min) for inhalation, or degree of clothing for skin penetration. The concept of Ct was first proposed by Fritz Haber
Fritz Haber
and is sometimes referred to as Haber's Law, which assumes that exposure to 1 minute of 100 mg/m3 is equivalent to 10 minutes of 10 mg/m3 (1 × 100 = 100, as does 10 × 10 = 100). Some chemicals, such as hydrogen cyanide, are rapidly detoxified by the human body, and do not follow Haber's Law. So, in these cases, the lethal concentration may be given simply as LC50 and qualified by a duration of exposure (e.g., 10 minutes). The Material Safety Data Sheets for toxic substances frequently use this form of the term even if the substance does follow Haber's Law. For disease-causing organisms, there is also a measure known as the median infective dose and dosage. The median infective dose (ID50) is the number of organisms received by a person or test animal qualified by the route of administration (e.g., 1,200 org/man per oral). Because of the difficulties in counting actual organisms in a dose, infective doses may be expressed in terms of biological assay, such as the number of LD50's to some test animal. In biological warfare infective dosage is the number of infective doses per cubic metre of air times the number of minutes of exposure (e.g., ICt50 is 100 medium doses - min/m3). Limitation[edit] As a measure of toxicity, LD50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration.[5] There can be wide variability between species as well; what is relatively safe for rats may very well be extremely toxic for humans (cf. paracetamol toxicity), and vice versa. For example, chocolate, comparatively harmless to humans, is known to be toxic to many animals. When used to test venom from venomous creatures, such as snakes, LD50 results may be misleading due to the physiological differences between mice, rats, and humans. Many venomous snakes are specialized predators on mice, and their venom may be adapted specifically to incapacitate mice; and mongooses may be exceptionally resistant. While most mammals have a very similar physiology, LD50 results may or may not have equal bearing upon every mammal species, such as humans, etc. Examples[edit] Note: Comparing substances (especially drugs) to each other by LD50 can be misleading in many cases due (in part) to differences in effective dose (ED50). Therefore, it is more useful to compare such substances by therapeutic index, which is simply the ratio of LD50 to ED50. The following examples are listed in reference to LD50 values, in descending order, and accompanied by LC50 values, bracketed , when appropriate.

Substance Animal, Route LD50 LC50 LD50 : g/kg LC50 : g/L standardized Reference

Water rat, oral >7004900000000000000♠90,000 mg/kg >90 [6]

Sucrose
Sucrose
(table sugar) rat, oral 7004297000000000000♠29,700 mg/kg 29.7 [7]

Glucose
Glucose
(blood sugar) rat, oral 7004258000000000000♠25,800 mg/kg 25.8 [8]

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate
(MSG) rat, oral 7004166000000000000♠16,600 mg/kg 16.6 [9]

Stevioside
Stevioside
(from stevia) mice & rats, oral 7004150000000000000♠>15,000 mg/kg 15 [10]

Vitamin C
Vitamin C
(ascorbic acid) rat, oral 7004119000000000000♠11,900 mg/kg 11.9 [11]

Lactose
Lactose
(milk sugar) rat, oral 7004100000000000000♠>10,000 mg/kg 10.0 [12]

Aspartame mice, oral 7004100000000000000♠>10,000 mg/kg 10.0 [13]

Urea rat, oral 7003847100000000000♠8,471 mg/kg 8.471 [14]

Cyanuric acid rat, oral 7003770000000000000♠7,700 mg/kg 7.7 [15]

Cadmium sulfide rat, oral 7003708000000000000♠7,080 mg/kg 7.08 [16]

Ethanol
Ethanol
(Grain alcohol) rat, oral 7003706000000000000♠7,060 mg/kg 7.06 [17]

Sodium isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA, metabolite of sarin) rat, oral 7003686000000000000♠6,860 mg/kg 6.86 [18]

Melamine rat, oral 7003600000000000000♠6,000 mg/kg 6 [15]

Methanol rat, oral 7003562800000000000♠5,628 mg/kg 5.628 [19]

Taurine rat, oral 7003500000000000000♠>5,000 mg/kg 5.0 [20]

Melamine
Melamine
cyanurate rat, oral 7003410000000000000♠4,100 mg/kg 4.1 [15]

Fructose
Fructose
(fruit sugar) rat, oral 4,000 mg/kg 4 [21]

Sodium molybdate rat, oral 4,000 mg/kg 4 [22]

Sodium chloride
Sodium chloride
(table salt) rat, oral 3,000 mg/kg 3 [23]

Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) mouse, oral 338 mg/kg 0.338 [24]

Synthetic Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC) + Polysorbate 80 rat, oral 1270 mg/kg 1.27 [25]

Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(CBD) rat, oral[citation needed] 980 mg/kg 0.98 [26]

Metallic Arsenic rat, oral 763 mg/kg 0.763 [27]

Ibuprofen rat, oral 636 mg/kg 0.636 [28]

Formaldehyde rat, oral 600–800 mg/kg 0.600 [29]

Alkyl dimethyl benzalkonium chloride (ADBAC) rat, oral fish, immersion aquatic invertebrates, immersion 304.5 mg/kg 0.28 mg/L 0.059 mg/L 0.3045 0.00028 0.000059 [30]

Coumarin
Coumarin
(benzopyrone, from Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum aromaticum
and other plants) rat, oral 293 mg/kg 0.293 [31]

Psilocybin
Psilocybin
(from magic mushrooms) mouse, oral 280 mg/kg 0.280 [32]

Hydrochloric acid rat, oral 238–277 mg/kg 0.238 [33]

Ketamine rat, intraperitoneal 229 mg/kg 0.229 [34]

Aspirin
Aspirin
(acetylsalicylic acid) rat, oral 200 mg/kg 0.2 [35]

Caffeine rat, oral 192 mg/kg 0.192 [36]

Arsenic
Arsenic
trisulfide rat, oral 185–6,400 mg/kg 0.185–6.4 [37]

Sodium nitrite rat, oral 180 mg/kg 0.18 [38]

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) rat, oral 160 mg/kg 0.18 [39]

Uranyl acetate dihydrate mouse, oral 136 mg/kg 0.136 [40]

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
(DDT) mouse, oral 135 mg/kg 0.135 [41]

Uranium mice, oral 7002114000000000000♠114 mg/kg (estimated) 0.114 [42]

Bisoprolol mouse, oral 100 mg/kg 0.1 [43]

Cocaine mouse, oral 96 mg/kg 0.096 [44]

Cobalt(II) chloride rat, oral 80 mg/kg 0.08 [45]

Cadmium oxide rat, oral 72 mg/kg 0.072 [46]

Thiopental sodium
Thiopental sodium
(used in lethal injection) rat, oral 64 mg/kg 0.064 [47]

Methamphetamine rat, intraperitoneal 57 mg/kg 0.057 [48]

Sodium fluoride rat, oral 52 mg/kg 0.052 [49]

Pentaborane human, oral <50 mg/kg <0.05 [50]

Capsaicin mouse, oral 47.2 mg/kg 0.0472 [51]

Mercury(II) chloride rat, dermal 41 mg/kg 0.041 [52]

Vitamin D3
Vitamin D3
(cholecalciferol) rat, oral 37 mg/kg 0.037 [53]

Piperidine
Piperidine
(from black pepper) rat, oral 30 mg/kg 0.030 [54]

Heroin
Heroin
(diamorphine) mouse, intravenous 21.8 mg/kg 0.0218 [55]

Lysergic acid diethylamide
Lysergic acid diethylamide
(LSD) rat, intravenous 16.5 mg/kg 0.0165 [56]

Arsenic
Arsenic
trioxide rat, oral 14 mg/kg 0.014 [57]

Metallic Arsenic rat, intraperitoneal 13 mg/kg 0.013 [58]

Nicotine human, oral mice, oral

6.5–13.0 mg/kg (estimated) 3.34 mg/kg

0.0065–0.013 0.0034

[59] [60]

Sodium cyanide rat, oral 6.4 mg/kg 0.0064 [61]

Hydrogen cyanide mouse, oral 3.7 mg/kg 0.0037 [62]

Chlorotoxin
Chlorotoxin
(CTX, from scorpions) mice 4.3 mg/kg 0.0043 [63]

White phosphorus rat, oral 3.03 mg/kg 0.00303 [64]

Strychnine human, oral 1–2 mg/kg (estimated) 0.001 [65]

Cantharidin
Cantharidin
(from blister beetles) human, oral 500 µg/kg 0.0005

Aflatoxin
Aflatoxin
B1 (from Aspergillus flavus mold) rat, oral 480 µg/kg 0.00048 [66]

Plutonium dog, intravenous 320 µg/kg 0.00032 [67]

Amatoxin
Amatoxin
(from Amanita phalloides mushrooms) rat 300-700 µg/kg 0.0007 [68]

Tetrodotoxin
Tetrodotoxin
(TTX, from blue-ringed octopus) mice, oral 334 µg/kg 0.000334 [69]

Fentanyl monkey 300 µg/kg 0.0003 [70]

Bufotoxin (from Bufo
Bufo
toads) cat, intravenous 6999300000000000000♠300 µg/kg 0.000300 [71]

Sarin mouse, subcutaneous injection 6999172009999900000♠172 µg/kg 0.000172 [72]

Robustoxin
Robustoxin
(from Sydney funnel-web spider) mice 6999150000000000000♠150 µg/kg 0.000150 [73]

VX human, oral, inhalation, absorption through skin/eyes 6999140000000000000♠140 µg/kg (estimated) 0.00014 [74]

Venom
Venom
of the Brazilian wandering spider rat, subcutaneous 6999134000000000000♠134 µg/kg 0.000134 [75]

Venom
Venom
of the Inland Taipan
Inland Taipan
(Australian snake) rat, subcutaneous 6998250000000000000♠25 µg/kg 0.000025 [76]

Ricin
Ricin
(from castor oil plant) rat, intraperitoneal rat, oral 6998220000000000000♠22 μg/kg 20–30 mg/kg 0.000022 0.02 [77]

Carfentanil human, oral 6998200000000000000♠20 µg/kg 0.00002 [78]

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
(TCDD, in Agent Orange) rat, oral 6998200000000000000♠20 µg/kg 0.00002 [79]

CrTX-A (from box jellyfish venom) crayfish, intraperitoneal 6997500000000000000♠5 µg/kg 0.000005 [80]

Latrotoxin (from widow spider venom) mice 6997430000000000000♠4.3 µg/kg 0.0000043 [81]

Batrachotoxin
Batrachotoxin
(from poison dart frog) human, sub-cutaneous injection 6997200000000000000♠2–7 µg/kg (estimated) 0.000002 [82]

Abrin
Abrin
(from rosary pea) mice, intravenously human, inhalation human, oral

0.7 µg/kg 3.3 µg/kg 10–1000 µg/kg

0.0000007 0.0000033 0.00001–0.001

Maitotoxin
Maitotoxin
(from ciguateric fish) mouse, intraperitoneal 6996129990000099999♠0.13 µg/kg 0.00000013 [83]

Polonium-210 human, inhalation 6995100000000000000♠10 ng/kg (estimated) 0.00000001 [84]

Diphtheria toxin mice 6995100000000000000♠10 ng/kg 0.00000001 [85]

Shiga toxin
Shiga toxin
(from dysentery) mice 6994200000000000000♠2 ng/kg 0.000000002 [85]

Tetanospasmin
Tetanospasmin
(tetanus toxin) mice 6994200000000000000♠2 ng/kg 0.000000002 [85]

Botulinum
Botulinum
toxin (Botox) human, oral, injection, inhalation 6994100000000000000♠1 ng/kg (estimated) 0.000000001 [86]

Ionizing radiation human, irradiation 5 Gy

[87]

Animal rights
Animal rights
concerns[edit] Animal-rights and animal-welfare groups, such as Animal Rights International,[88] have campaigned against LD50 testing on animals. Several countries, including the UK, have taken steps to ban the oral LD50, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) abolished the requirement for the oral test in 2001 (see Test Guideline 401, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Vol 22, February 22, 2001). See also[edit]

Animal testing Reed-Muench method

Other measures of toxicity[edit]

IDLH Certain safety factor Therapeutic index Protective index Fixed Dose Procedure to estimate LD50 Median toxic dose (TD50) Lowest published toxic concentration (TCLo) Lowest published lethal dose (LDLo) EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) IC50
IC50
(half maximal inhibitory concentration) Draize test Indicative limit value No-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) Up-and-down procedure

Related measures[edit]

TCID50
TCID50
Tissue Culture Infective Dosage EID50 Egg Infective Dosage ELD50 Egg Lethal Dosage Plaque forming units (pfu)

References[edit]

^ What is an LD50 and LC50 ^ "Allergan Receives FDA Approval for First-of-Its-Kind, Fully in vitro, Cell-Based Assay for BOTOX® and BOTOX® Cosmetic (onabotulinumtoxinA)". Allergan Web site. 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-15.  ^ "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". Washington Post. 12 April 2008. Retrieved 2011-06-26.  ^ REGISTRY OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES (RTECS) COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE RTECS Archived 2013-05-16 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ernest Hodgson (2004). A Textbook of Modern Toxicology. Wiley-Interscience (3rd ed.).[page needed] ^ " Material Safety Data Sheet
Material Safety Data Sheet
Water MSDS". Section 11: Toxicological Information for the LD50 verification.  ^ Safety (MSDS) data for sucrose ^ Safety (MSDS) data for glucose ^ Walker R, Lupien JR (April 2000). "The safety evaluation of monosodium glutamate". The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (4S Suppl): 1049S–52S. PMID 10736380.  ^ Toskulkao C, Chaturat L, Temcharoen P, Glinsukon T (1997). "Acute toxicity of stevioside, a natural sweetener, and its metabolite, steviol, in several animal species". Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 20 (1–2): 31–44. doi:10.3109/01480549709011077. PMID 9183561.  ^ "Safety (MSDS) data for ascorbic acid". Oxford University. 2005-10-09. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2007-02-21.  ^ "Safety (MSDS) data for Lactose" (PDF).  ^ https://www.spectrumchemical.com/MSDS/A6051.pdf ^ "Safety (MSDS) data for urea". 2015-03-06. Section 11: Toxicological Information for the LD50 verification. Retrieved 2015-03-06.  ^ a b c A.A. Babayan, A.V.Aleksandryan, "Toxicological characteristics of melamine cyanurate, melamine and cyanuric acid", Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Klinicheskoi Meditsiny, Vol.25, 345–9 (1985). Original article in Russian. ^ Advanced Search – Alfa Aesar – A Johnson Matthey Company. Alfa.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-17. ^ Safety (MSDS) data for ethyl alcohol ^ Mecler, Francis J. (May 1981). Mammalian Toxological Evaluation of DIMP and DCBP (Phase 3 – IMPA) (Final report ed.). Litton Bionetics, Inc. The oral LD50 values for the test material, IMPA, were 7650 and 6070 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively.  ^ Safety (MSDS) data for methanol ^ Safety data for taurine ^ Safety (MSDS) data for fructose ^ Safety (MSDS) data for sodium molybdate ^ Safety (MSDS) data for sodium chloride ^ Safety (MSDS) data for paracetamol ^ "Inhalation, parenteral and oral LD50 values of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Fischer rats". Toxicology
Toxicology
and Applied Pharmacology. 28: 18–27. doi:10.1016/0041-008X(74)90126-4.  ^ MSDS of CBD ^ [1][dead link] ^ MSDS of Ibuprofen ^ Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
SIDS Initial Assessment Report ^ Frank T. Sanders, ed. (August 2006). Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (ADBAC) (PDF) (Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. p. 114. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-10-24. Retrieved 2009-03-31.  ^ Coumarin
Coumarin
Material Safety Data Sheet
Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS) Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Handbook of Mushroom Poisoning ^ Safety (MSDS) data for hydrochloric acid ^ Ketamine ^ Safety (MSDS) data for acetylsalicylic acid ^ Safety (MSDS) data for caffeine ^ " Material Safety Data Sheet
Material Safety Data Sheet
– Spent Metal Catalyst" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-28.  ^ Safety (MSDS) data for sodium nitrite ^ Gable RS (September 2004). "Acute toxic effects of club drugs". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 36 (3): 303–13. doi:10.1080/02791072.2004.10400031. PMID 15559678.  ^ Chemical toxicity of uranium ^ Hayes WJ (21 December 2013) [1959]. " Pharmacology
Pharmacology
and toxicology of DDT". In Müller P, Simmons SW. DDT: The Insecticide Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
and Its Significance / Das Insektizid Dichlordiphenyltrichloräthan und Seine Bedeutung: Human and Veterinary Medicine. 2. Springer-Verlag. pp. 9–247. ISBN 978-3-0348-6809-9.  ^ http://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/pub_meet/en/Depluranium4.pdf ^ DrugBank data for bisoprolol ^ DrugBank data for Cocaine ^ Safety (MSDS) data for cobalt (II) chloride ^ Safety (MSDS) data for cadmium oxide ^ Thiopental sodium
Thiopental sodium
MSDS ^ Kiyatkin EA, Sharma HS. "Acute methamphetamine intoxication: brain hyperthermia, blood-brain barrier, brain edema, and morphological cell abnormalities". Int Rev Neurobiol. 88: 65–100. doi:10.1016/S0074-7742(09)88004-5. PMC 3145326 . PMID 19897075.  ^ Sodium Fluoride MSDS ^ Pentaborane
Pentaborane
chemical and safety data ^ " Capsaicin
Capsaicin
Material Safety Data Sheet" (PDF). sciencelab.com. 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-13.  ^ http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/DisplayMSDSContent.doc ^ MSDS for cholecalciferol crystalline ^ MSDS for piperidine (pepper) ^ MSDS for diamorphine ^ Erowid LSD (Acid) Vault : Fatalities / Deaths. Erowid.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-17. ^ Safety (MSDS) data for arsenic trioxide ^ Safety (MSDS) data for metallic arsenic ^ Mayer B (January 2014). "How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century". Archives of Toxicology. 88 (1): 5–7. doi:10.1007/s00204-013-1127-0. PMC 3880486 . PMID 24091634.  ^ http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9926222 ^ Safety (MSDS) data for sodium cyanide ^ Safety (MSDS) data for hydrogen cyanide ^ "Chlorotoxin: A Helpful Natural Scorpion
Scorpion
Peptide to Diagnose Glioma and Fight Tumor Invasion".  ^ "Hexachloroethane" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-03.  ^ INCHEM: Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations: Strychnine. ^ Safety (MSDS) data for aflatoxin B1 ^ Los Alamos Science article for Plutonium
Plutonium
toxicity ^ Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides ^ " Material Safety Data Sheet
Material Safety Data Sheet
Tetrodotoxin
Tetrodotoxin
ACC# 01139". Acros Organics N.V.  ^ [2] ^ "nih.gov Datasheet for Bufotoxin".  ^ Inns RH, Tuckwell NJ, Bright JE, Marrs TC (July 1990). "Histochemical demonstration of calcium accumulation in muscle fibres after experimental organophosphate poisoning". Human & Experimental Toxicology. 9 (4): 245–50. doi:10.1177/096032719000900407. PMID 2390321.  ^ Sheumack DD, Baldo BA, Carroll PR, Hampson F, Howden ME, Skorulis A (1984). "A comparative study of properties and toxic constituents of funnel web spider (Atrax) venoms". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. C, Comparative Pharmacology
Pharmacology
and Toxicology. 78 (1): 55–68. doi:10.1016/0742-8413(84)90048-3. PMID 6146485.  ^ Munro, N. (Jan 1994). " Toxicity
Toxicity
of the organophosphate chemical warfare agents GA, GB, and VX: implications for public protection". Environmental Health Perspectives. 102: 18–38. doi:10.1289/ehp.9410218. PMC 1567233 . PMID 9719666.  ^ Venomous Animals and their Venoms, vol. III, ed. Wolfgang Bücherl and Eleanor Buckley ^ LD50 for various snakes Archived 2012-02-01 at the Wayback Machine.. Seanthomas.net. Retrieved on 2013-07-17. ^ EFSA – Scientific Opinion of the CONTAM Panel: Ricin
Ricin
(from Ricinus communis) as undesirable substances in animal feed [1] - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain. Efsa.europa.eu. Retrieved on 2013-07-17. ^ "Chemical weapon for sale: China's unregulated narcotic". Retrieved 2016-07-10.  ^ U.S. National Toxicology
Toxicology
Program acute toxicity studies for Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) ^ Nagai H (2003). "Recent Progress in Jellyfish Toxin Study". Journal of Health Science. 49 (5): 337–340. doi:10.1248/jhs.49.337. ISSN 1344-9702.  ^ http://biology.unm.edu/toolson/biotox/presentations_2013/ALPHA-LATROTOXIN%20POWERPOINT.pptx ^ Brief Review of Natural Nonprotein Neurotoxins ^ Yokoyama A, Murata M, Oshima Y, Iwashita T, Yasumoto T (August 1988). "Some chemical properties of maitotoxin, a putative calcium channel agonist isolated from a marine dinoflagellate". Journal of Biochemistry. 104 (2): 184–7. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a122438. PMID 3182760.  ^ Topic 2 Toxic Chemicals and Toxic Effects Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c http://biology.unm.edu/toolson/biotox/representative_LD50_values.pdf ^ Fleming DO, Hunt DL (2000). Biological Safety: principles and practices. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 267. ISBN 1-55581-180-9.  ^ European Nuclear Society ^ Thirty-Two Years of Measurable Change Archived 2007-02-11 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety Lipnick RL, Cotruvo JA, Hill RN, Bruce RD, Stitzel KA, Walker AP, Chu I, Goddard M, Segal L, Springer JA (March 1995). "Comparison of the up-and-down, conventional LD50, and fixed-dose acute toxicity procedures". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 33 (3): 223–31. doi:10.1016/0278-6915(94)00136-C. PMID 7896233. 

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(L)ADME: (Liberation) Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion
Excretion
(Clearance)

Loading dose Volume of distribution (Initial) Rate of infusion

Compartment Bioequivalence Bioavailability

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(Neurotoxicology) Dose–response relationship
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(Efficacy, Potency)

Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics: Minimum inhibitory concentration (Bacteriostatic) Minimum bactericidal concentration (Bactericide)

Agonism and antagonism

Agonist: Inverse agonist Irreversible agonist Partial agonist Superagonist Physiological agonist

Antagonist: Competitive antagonist Irreversible antagonist Physiological antagonist

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