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Proteales
Nelumbonaceae (lotus) Platanaceae (plane trees) Proteaceae
Proteaceae
Sabiaceae PROTEALES is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants consisting of two (or three) families. The Proteales
Proteales
have been recognized by almost all taxonomists
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Engler System
One of the prime systems of plant taxonomy , the ENGLER SYSTEM was devised by Adolf Engler
Adolf Engler
(1844–1930), and is featured in two major taxonomic texts he authored or coauthored. His influence is reflected in the use of the terms "Engler School" and "Engler Era". Engler's starting point was that of Eichler who had been the first to use phylogenetic principles, although Engler himself did not think that his was
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Botanical Name
A BOTANICAL NAME is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen , the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi , or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae ( Cyanobacteria ), chytrids , oomycetes , slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups (but excluding Microsporidia )." The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name that is accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group
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Rolf Dahlgren
ROLF MARTIN THEODOR DAHLGREN (7 July 1932 – 14 February 1987) was a Swedish -Danish botanist , professor at the University of Copenhagen from 1973 to his death. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Career * 3 Selected publications * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links LIFEDahlgren was born in Örebro
Örebro
on July 7, 1932 to apothecary Rudolf Dahlgren and wife Greta née Dahlstrand. He took his MSc degree in Biology in (1955) and PhD degree in Botany
Botany
in (1963) at Lund University . He was killed in a car crash in Scania
Scania
, Sweden
Sweden
on February 14, 1987). CAREERHe continued working on South African plants during expeditions in 1956-57 and 1965–66, while affiliated with the Botanical Museum in Lund as docent
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Superorder
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Magnoliopsida
MAGNOLIOPSIDA is a valid botanical name for a class of flowering plants . By definition the class will include the family Magnoliaceae , but its circumscription can otherwise vary, being more inclusive or less inclusive depending upon the classification system being discussed. Magnolia
Magnolia
flowers CONTENTS* 1 Cronquist and Takhtajan systems * 1.1 Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
in the Takhtajan system * 1.2 Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
in the Cronquist system
Cronquist system
* 2 Dahlgren and Thorne systems * 3 Reveal system * 4 APG systems CRONQUIST AND TAKHTAJAN SYSTEMSIn the Takhtajan system and the Cronquist system
Cronquist system
the name was used for the group known as DICOTYLEDONS
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Elaeagnaceae
The ELAEAGNACEAE are a plant family , the OLEASTER FAMILY, of the order Rosales comprising small trees and shrubs , native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south into tropical Asia and Australia. The family has about 60 species in three genera. They are commonly thorny , with simple leaves often coated with tiny scales or hairs. Most of the species are xerophytes (found in dry habitats ); several are also halophytes , tolerating high levels of soil salinity . The Elaeagnaceae often harbor nitrogen-fixing actinomycetes of the genus Frankia in root nodules , making them useful for soil reclamation. This characteristic, together with their production of plentiful seeds, often results in the Eleagnaceae being viewed as weeds. PHYLOGENYModern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships: Rhamnaceae (outgroup ) ElaeagnaceaeElaeagnus Shepherdia Hippophae REFERENCES * ^ A B Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009)
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Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
The ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY WEBSITE (or APWEB) is a well-known web site dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy. The site is hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
website and maintained by researchers, Peter F. Stevens and Hilary M. Davis . Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm
Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of the APG, with modifications to incorporate new results. REFERENCES * ^ APWebsite is a resource for NCBI (NCBI ) * ^ A useful site for Kew Gardens (Kew Gardens ) * ^ Peter F. Stevens and Hilary M. Davis. 2005. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website - a tool for reference and teaching in a time of change. In: Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 42, issue 1
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Cretaceous
The CRETACEOUS ( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/ , kri-TAY-shəs ) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 145 million years ago (mya ) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era . The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate , resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas . These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles , ammonites and rudists , while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds , as well as flowering plants , appeared
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Archichlamydeae
POLYPETALAE was a taxonomic grouping used in the identification of plants, but it is now considered to be artificial group, one that does not reflect evolutionary history. The grouping was based on similar morphological plant characteristics. Polypetalae was defined as including plants with the petals free from the base or only slightly connected
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Antoine Laurent De Jussieu
ANTOINE LAURENT DE JUSSIEU (French pronunciation: ​ ; 12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist , notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants ; much of his system remains in use today. His classification was based on and extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Selected publications * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 Wikimedia LIFEJussieu was born in Lyon
Lyon
. He went to Paris
Paris
to study medicine , graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826. His son Adrien-Henri also became a botanist. In his study of flowering plants, Genera plantarum (1789), Jussieu adopted a methodology based on the use of multiple characters to define groups, an idea derived from naturalist Michel Adanson
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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