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About 80, see text

The Proteaceae
Proteaceae
/ˌproʊtiˈeɪsiː/ are a family of flowering plants predominantly distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The family comprises 83 genera with about 1,660 known species.[2] Together with the Platanaceae
Platanaceae
and Nelumbonaceae, they make up the order Proteales. Well-known genera include Protea, Banksia, Embothrium, Grevillea, Hakea, Dryandra, and Macadamia. Species
Species
such as the New South Wales waratah (Telopea speciosissima), king protea ( Protea
Protea
cynaroides), and various species of Banksia, Grevillea, and Leucadendron
Leucadendron
are popular cut flowers, while the nuts of Macadamia
Macadamia
integrifolia are widely grown commercially and consumed. Australia
Australia
and South Africa
South Africa
have the greatest concentrations of diversity.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Description 3 Flowers 4 Ecology 5 Distribution 6 Phytochemistry 7 Uses and cultivation 8 Parasites 9 Conservation status 10 Fossils 11 Taxonomy 12 References 13 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Proteaceae
Proteaceae
by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
in 1789 was based on the genus Protea, which in 1767 Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
derived from the name of the Greek god Proteus, a deity that was able to change between many forms. This is an appropriate image, seeing as the family is known for its astonishing variety and diversity of flowers and leaves. Description[edit]

Rhopala heterophylla

The genera of Proteaceae
Proteaceae
are highly varied, with Banksia
Banksia
in particular providing a striking example of adaptive radiation in plants.[3] This variability makes it impossible to provide a simple, diagnostic identification key for the family, although individual genera may be easily identified.

Proteaceae
Proteaceae
are generally trees, rarely of more than 40 m in height, and are usually of medium height or low or perennial shrubs, except for some Stirlingia
Stirlingia
species that are herbs. They are facultatively deciduous ( Embothrium
Embothrium
coccineum), rarely acaulescent, the cauline portion of the collar is often thickened (lignotuber). Indumentum
Indumentum
of three-celled hairs, sometimes glandular, rarely absent, the apical cell is usually elongated, acute, sometimes equally or unequally bifid. Leaves rarely aromatic, usually alternate, and in a spiral, rarely opposed, or verticilate; coriaceous, rarely fleshy or spinescent, simple or compound (imparipinate, imparibipinate or rarely palmate or digitate with pinnatisect segments), entire edge to (3-)pinnatisect (giving a fern-like aspect); rarely divided dichotomously, often remotely toothed, crenate or serrated, seated or stalked; the petiole frequently with a swollen base but rarely sheathed (sometimes in Synaphea), without stipules; pinnate sometimes palmate or parallel venation, brochidodromous or reduced to a single prominent vane, vernation normally conduplicate; anisophylly often occurs during the different growth periods; leaf blade dorsiventral, isobilateral or centred; mesophyll tissue usually with sclerenchymatous idioblasts, rare secretory cavities. Brachy-paracytic stomata (laterocytic in Bellendena).

Plant
Plant
stems with two types of radii, wide and multi-serrated or narrow and uni-serrated, phloem stratified or not, trilacunar nodes with three leaf traces (rarely unilacunar with one trace), sclereids frequent; bark with lenticels frequently horizontally enlarged, cork cambium present, usually superficial. Roots lateral and short, often grouped in bundles (proteoid roots) with very dense root hairs, rarely with mycorrhiza.

Plants usually hermaphroditic, more rarely monoecious, dioecious or andromonoecious. Inflorescences very variable, simple or compound, axillary or terminal, lateral flowers solitary or in pairs, rarely with a terminal flower, racemiform, paniculate or condensed, usually with bracts, sometimes converted into leaves or squamiform, forming a type of cone, or with bright colours, forming an involucre or pseudanthium, the peduncles and pedicels sometimes contracted, compacted with the rachis, in some cases the congested inflorescences form super inflorescences (some Alloxylon); very rarely the flowers are solitary and axillary near the end of branches; in species with lignotubers the flowers sometimes grow from these and pass through the soil (geophytes). Flowers are usually perfect, actinomorphic, or zygomorphic, hypogynous, frequently large and showy. Flat or oblique, sometimes forming a gynophore. Hypogynous disk present and extrastaminal or absent. Perianth
Perianth
of (3-)4(-8) tepals (sometimes interpreted as a dimerous and dichlamydeous perianth), in 1(-2) valvate whorls, sometimes elongated in a basal sack, free or fused in different ways (all fused or even one free and three basally to completely fused), or even connivent by marginally interdigitate papillae forming a tube or a bilabiate structure, zygomorphic, sometimes opening laterally in a variety of ways. Haplostemonous androecium, usually isostemonous, opposititepalous of (3-)4(-5) stamens, all fertile or some converted into staminodes, usually filamentous, filaments partially or totally fused to the tepals, rarely free, basifixed anthers adnate, ditheous, tetrasporangiate, sometimes unilocular and bisporagiate, introrse to latrorse (rarely), expanded connective, usually with apiculus, dehiscence along longitudinal tears. Hypogynous glands (0-)1-4, squamiform or elongated, fleshy, free or fused forming a lunate or annular nectary over the receptacle. Superior gynoecium of 1(-2) apocarpous carpels, sessile or stipitate (with a more or less elongated gynophore), sometimes not completely closed, style usually developed, stigma small or in the shape of a terminal or sub terminal disk or even lateral and oblique, often indented, papilous, moist or dry, ovules 1-100 or more per carpel, anatropous, hemianatropous, amphitropous or orthotropous, mostly hemitropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate, chalaza with a ring of vascular bundles, the funiculus is occasionally absent and the ovule is fused to the placenta, marginal placentation with various dispositions or apical. Fruit
Fruit
dehiscent or indehiscent, in achene or nucule, follicle, drupe (with lignified endocarp) or falsely drupal (with lignified internal mesocarp), sometimes similar to a caryopsis as it is fused to the wall of the ovary and the testa, often lignified and serotinous; the fruit from the same inflorescence are sometimes fused forming a syncarp. Seeds 1-many, sometimes winged, flat to rounded, with endosperm absent, present in Bellendina, endotesta with an unusual layer containing crystals of calcium oxalate that is rarely absent, well differentiated embryo, straight, dicotyledonous, but often with 3 or more (up to 9) large cotyledons, often auriculate. Pollen
Pollen
in monads, triangular in polar view, (2-)3(-8)-aperturate, usually isopolar and triporate, biporate in Embothrium
Embothrium
and the Banksieae
Banksieae
tribe, colpoidate in Beauprea, spherical in Aulax and Franklandia or strongly anisopolar in some species of Persoonia; the openings of the former’s tetrads follow Garside’s Law.[clarification needed] Chromosomal number: n = 5, 7, 10-14, 26, 28; sizes range from very small (average of 1,0 μm) to very big (average of 14,4 μm) according to species; x = 7, 12.

Flowers[edit]

Inflorescence
Inflorescence
and leaves of the pin-cushion hakea ( Hakea
Hakea
laurina)

Generally speaking, the diagnostic feature of Proteaceae
Proteaceae
is the compound flower head or, more accurately, inflorescence. In many genera, the most obvious feature is the large and often very showy inflorescences, consisting of many small flowers densely packed into a compact head or spike. Even this character, however, does not occur in all Proteaceae; Adenanthos
Adenanthos
species, for example, have solitary flowers. In most Proteaceae
Proteaceae
species, the pollination mechanism is highly specialised. It usually involves the use of a "pollen-presenter", an area on the style-end that presents the pollen to the pollinator.[4] Proteaceae
Proteaceae
flower parts occur in fours, but the four tepals are fused into a long, narrow tube with a closed cup at the top, and the filaments of the four stamens are fused to the tepals, in such a way that the anthers are enclosed within the cup. The pistil initially passes along the inside of the perianth tube, so the stigma, too, is enclosed within the cup. As the flower develops, the pistil grows rapidly. Since the stigma is trapped, the style must bend to elongate, and eventually it bends so far, it splits the perianth along one seam. The style continues to grow until anthesis, when the nectaries begin to produce nectar. At this time, the perianth splits into its component tepals, the cup splits apart, and the pistil is released to spring more or less upright. Ecology[edit]

Inflorescence
Inflorescence
of Protea
Protea
caffra

Many of the Proteaceae
Proteaceae
have specialised proteoid roots, masses of lateral roots and hairs forming a radial absorptive surface, produced in the leaf litter layer during seasonal growth, and usually shrivelling at the end of the growth season. They are an adaptation to growth in poor, phosphorus-deficient soils, greatly increasing the plants' access to scarce water and nutrients by exuding carboxylates that mobilise previously unavailable phosphorus. They also increase the root's absorption surface, but this is a minor feature, as it also increases competition for nutrients against its own root clusters.[5] However, this adaptation leaves them highly vulnerable to dieback caused by the Phytophthora cinnamomi
Phytophthora cinnamomi
water mould, and generally intolerant of fertilization. Due to these specialized proteoid roots, the Proteaceae
Proteaceae
are one of few flowering plant families that do not form symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. They exude large amounts of organic acids (citric acid and malic acid) every 2–3 days in order to aid the mobilization and absorption of phosphate. Many species are fire-adapted (pyrophytes), meaning they have strategies for surviving fires that sweep through their habitat. Some are resprouters, and have a thick rootstock buried in the ground that shoots up new stems after a fire, and others are reseeders, meaning the adult plants are killed by the fire, but disperse their seeds, which are stimulated by the smoke to take root and grow. The heat was previously thought to have stimulated growth, but the chemicals in the smoke have now been shown to cause it. There are four dioecious genera (Aulax, Dilobeia, Heliciopsis and Leucadendron), 11 andromonoecious genera and some other genera have species that are cryptically andromonoecious: two species are sterile and only reproduce vegetatively ( Lomatia
Lomatia
tasmanica, Hakea pulvinifera). The species vary between being autocompatible and autoincompatible, with intermediate situations; these situations sometimes occur in the same species. The flowers are usually protandrous. Just before anthesis, the anthers release their pollen, depositing it onto the stigma, which in many cases has an enlarged fleshy area specifically for the deposition of its own pollen. Nectar-feeders are unlikely to come into contact with the anthers themselves, but can hardly avoid contacting the stigma; thus, the stigma functions as a pollen-presenter, ensuring the nectar-feeders act as pollinators. The downside of this pollination strategy is that the probability of self-fertilisation is greatly increased; many Proteaceae
Proteaceae
counter this with strategies such as protandry, self-incompatibility, or preferential abortion of selfed seed. The systems for presenting pollen are usually highly diverse, corresponding to the diversification of the pollinators. Pollination is carried out by bees, beetles, flies, moths, birds (honeyeaters, sunbirds, sugarbirds and hummingbirds) and mammals (rodents, small marsupials, elephant shrews and bats. The latter two means were evolutionarily derived from entomophily in different, independent events. The dispersion of some species exhibit the curious phenomenon of serotiny, which is associated with their pyrophytic behaviour: these trees accumulate fruits on their branches whose outer layers or protective structures (bracts) are highly lignified and resistant to fire. The fruit only release their seeds when they have been burnt and when the ground has been fertilized with ashes from the fire and is free from competitors. Many species have seeds with elaiosomes that are dispersed by ants; the seeds with wings or thistledown exhibit anemochory, while the drupes and other fleshy fruit exhibit endozoochory as mammals and birds ingest them. Some African and Australian rodents are known to accumulate fruit and seeds of these plants in their nests in order to feed on them, although some manage to germinate. Distribution[edit] Proteaceae
Proteaceae
are mainly a Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
family, with its main centres of diversity in Australia
Australia
and South Africa. It also occurs in Central Africa, South and Central America, India, eastern and south eastern Asia, and Oceania.[5] Only two species are known from New Zealand, although fossil pollen evidence suggests there were more previously.[6] It is a good example of a Gondwanan family, with taxa occurring on virtually every land mass considered a remnant of the ancient supercontinent Gondwana, except Antarctica. The family and subfamilies are thought to have diversified well before the fragmentation of Gondwana, implying all of them are well over 90 million years old. Evidence for this includes an abundance of proteaceous pollen found in the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
coal deposits of the South Island
South Island
of New Zealand. It is thought to have achieved its present distribution largely by continental drift rather than dispersal across ocean gaps.[7] Phytochemistry[edit]

Fruit
Fruit
of Brabejum
Brabejum
stellatifolium

No conclusive studies have been carried out on the chemical substances present in this broad family. The genera Protea
Protea
and Faurea
Faurea
are unusual as they use xylose as the main sugar in their nectar and as they have high concentrations of polygalactol, while sucrose is the main sugar present in Grevillea. Cyanogenic glycosides, derived from tyrosine, are often present, as are proanthocyanidines (delphinidin and cyanidin), flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin) and arbutin. Alkaloids are usually absent. Iridoids and ellagic acid are also absent. Saponins and sapogenins can be either present or absent in different species. Many species accumulate aluminium.

Leucadendron
Leucadendron
argenteum

Uses and cultivation[edit]

Edible nuts of Macadamia

Many indigenous cultures have used Proteaceae
Proteaceae
as sustenance, medicine, for curing animal hides, as a source of dyes and firewood and as wood for construction. Aboriginal Australians eat the fruit of Persoonia, and the seeds of species from other genera, including Gevuina
Gevuina
and Macadamia, form part of the diet of the indigenous peoples but are also sold throughout the world. The tender shoots of Helicia
Helicia
species are used in Java, and the nectar from the inflorescences of a number of species is drunk in Australia. Traditional medicines can be obtained from infusions of the roots, bark, leaves, or flowers of many species that are used as topical applications for skin conditions or internally as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and galactogens to treat headaches, cough, dysentery, diarrhea, indigestion, stomach ulcers, and kidney disease. The wood from the trees of this family is widely used in construction and for internal uses such as decoration; the wood from species of Protea, Leucadendron
Leucadendron
and Grevillea
Grevillea
is especially popular. Many species are used in gardening, particularly genera of Banksia, Embothrium, Grevillea, and Telopea. Unfortunately, this use has resulted in the introduction of exotic species that have become invasive; examples include the Hakea
Hakea
Willow ( Hakea
Hakea
salicifolia) and the Silky Hakea
Hakea
( Hakea
Hakea
sericea) in Portugal. Two species of Macadamia are cultivated commercially for their edible nuts. Gevuina
Gevuina
avellana (Chilean hazel) is cultivated for its edible nuts in Chile
Chile
and New Zealand, and they are also used in the pharmaceutical industry for their humectant properties and as an ingredient in sunscreens. It is the most resistant to cold of the tree families that produce nuts. It is also planted in the British Isles
British Isles
and on the Pacific coast of the United States
United States
for its tropical appearance and its ability to grow in cooler climates (it is also related to a common family in these latitudes). Many Proteaceae
Proteaceae
species are cultivated by the nursery industry as barrier plants and for their prominent and distinctive flowers and foliage. Some species are of importance to the cut flower industry, especially some Banksia
Banksia
and Protea
Protea
species. Two species of the genus Macadamia
Macadamia
are grown commercially for edible nuts. Sugarbushes (Protea), pincushions (Leucospermum) and conebushes (Leucadendron), as well as others like pagodas (Mimetes), Aulax and blushing brides (Serruria), comprise one of the three main plant groups of fynbos, which forms part of the Cape Floral Kingdom, the smallest but richest plant kingdom for its size and the only kingdom contained within a single country. The other main groups of plants in fynbos are the Ericaceae
Ericaceae
and the Restionaceae. South African proteas are thus widely cultivated due to their many varied forms and unusual flowers. They are popular in South Africa
South Africa
for their beauty and their usefulness in wildlife gardens for attracting birds and useful insects. The species most valued as ornamentals are the trees that grow in southern latitudes as they give landscapes in temperate climates a tropical appearance; Lomatia ferruginea
Lomatia ferruginea
(Fuinque), Lomatia
Lomatia
hirsuta (Radal) have been introduced in Western Europe
Europe
and to the western United States. Embothrium
Embothrium
coccineum (Chilean Firetree or Notro) is highly valued in the British Isles
British Isles
for its dark red flowers and can be found as far north as the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
at a latitude of 62° north. Among the banksias, many of which grow in temperate and Mediterranean climates, the vast majority are shrubs; only a few are trees that are valued for their height. Among the tallest species are: B. integrifolia with its subspecies B. integrifolia subsp. monticola, which is noteworthy as the plants that form the subspecies are the tallest trees of the banksias and they are the more frost-resistant than other banksias, B. seminuda, B. littoralis, B. serrata; among those that can be considered small trees or large shrubs: B. grandis, B. prionotes, B. marginata, B. coccinea and B. speciosa; all of these are planted in parks and gardens and even along roadsides because of their size. The rest of the species of this genus, around 170 species, are shrubs, although some of them are valued for their flowers. Another species that is cultivated in some parts of the world, although it is smaller, is Telopea speciosissima
Telopea speciosissima
(Waratah), from the mountains of New South Wales, Australia. Some temperate climate species are cultivated more locally in Australia
Australia
for their attractive appearance: Persoonia
Persoonia
pinifolia (Pine-leaved Geebung) is highly valued for its vivid yellow flowers and grape-like fruit. Adenanthos
Adenanthos
sericeus (Woolly Bush) is planted for its attractive soft leaves and its small red or orange flowers. Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia
Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia
( Beef
Beef
Nut or Red Bauple Nut) is commonly planted for its foliage and edible nuts. Parasites[edit]

Hakea
Hakea
purpurea

The Proteaceae
Proteaceae
are particularly susceptible to certain parasites, in particular the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes severe root rot in the plants that grow in Mediterranean climates. Fusarium oxysporum causes a disease called fusariosis in roots that causes a yellowing and wilting, with serious ecological damages to woodland plants and economic losses in plants of commercial interest. Other common infections are caused by species of Botryosphaeria, Rhizoctonia, Armillaria, Botrytis, Calonectria and other fungi. Conservation status[edit] The IUCN[8] considers that 47 Proteaceae
Proteaceae
species are threatened, of which one species, Stenocarpus dumbeensis
Stenocarpus dumbeensis
Guillaumin, 1935, from New Caledonia, is thought to be extinct. The species of this family are particularly susceptible to the destruction or fragmentation of their habitat, fire, parasitic diseases, competition from introduced plants, soil degradation and other damage provoked by humans and their domesticated animals. The species are also affected by climate change. Fossils[edit]

Lambertia
Lambertia
multiflora

The proteaceae have a rich fossil record, despite the inherent difficulties in identifying remains that do not show diagnostic characteristics. Identification usually comes from using a combination of brachy-paracytic stomata and the unusual trichome bases or, in other cases, the unusual structure of pollen tetrads. Fossils attributable to this family have been found on the majority of areas that formed the Gondwana
Gondwana
supercontinent. A wide variety of pollen belonging to this family dating back to the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) from the south east of Australia
Australia
and pollen from the Middle Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(Cenomanian-Turonian) from northern Africa and Peru described as Triorites africaensis. The first macrofossils appear twenty million years later in the Palaeocene
Palaeocene
of South America and the north east of Australia. The fossil record of some areas, such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and Tasmania, show a greater biodiversity for Proteaceae
Proteaceae
than currently exists, which supports the fact that the distribution of many taxa has changed drastically with the passage of time and that the family has suffered a general decline, including high levels of extinction during the Cenozoic. Taxonomy[edit] First described by French botanist Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, the family Proteaceae
Proteaceae
is a fairly large one, with around 80 genera, but less than 2000 species. It is recognised by virtually all taxonomists. Firmly established under classical Linnaean taxonomy, it is also recognised by the cladistics-based APG and APG II systems. It is placed in the order Proteales, whose placement has itself varied. The framework for classification of the genera within Proteaceae
Proteaceae
was laid by Lawrie Johnson and Barbara Briggs in their influential 1975 monograph "On the Proteaceae: the evolution and classification of a southern family".[9] Their classification has been refined somewhat over the ensuing three decades, most notably by Peter H. Weston and Nigel Barker in 2006. Proteaceae
Proteaceae
are now divided into five subfamilies: Bellendenoideae, Persoonioideae, Symphionematoideae, Proteoideae
Proteoideae
and Grevilleoideae.[10] In 2008 Mast and colleagues updated Macadamia
Macadamia
and related genera in tribe Macadamieae. Furthermore, Orites
Orites
megacarpus was found as polyphyletic with and not in the Orites
Orites
genus, nor in the tribe Roupaleae, instead in the tribe Macadamieae
Macadamieae
also, hence given the new genus Nothorites and species name combination of Nothorites megacarpus.[11] The full arrangement, according to Weston and Barker (2006) with the updates to genera from Mast et al. (2008), is as follows:

Flowers, leaves and fruit of Banksia
Banksia
coccinea, from Ferdinand Bauer's 1813 flora Illustrationes Florae Novae Hollandiae

Family Proteaceae

Subfamily Bellendenoideae

Bellendena

Subfamily Persoonioideae

Tribe Placospermeae

Placospermum

Tribe Persoonieae

Toronia — Garnieria — Acidonia — Persoonia

Subfamily Symphionematoideae

Agastachys — Symphionema

Subfamily Proteoideae

incertae sedis

Eidothea — Beauprea — Beaupreopsis — Dilobeia — Cenarrhenes — Franklandia

Tribe Conospermeae

Subtribe Stirlingiinae

Stirlingia

Subtribe Conosperminae

Conospermum — Synaphea

Tribe Petrophileae

Petrophile — Aulax

Tribe Proteeae

Protea — Faurea

Tribe Leucadendreae

Subtribe Isopogoninae

Isopogon

Subtribe Adenanthinae

Adenanthos

Subtribe Leucadendrinae

Leucadendron — Serruria — Paranomus — Vexatorella — Sorocephalus — Spatalla — Leucospermum — Mimetes — Diastella — Orothamnus

Subfamily Grevilleoideae

incertae sedis

Sphalmium — Carnarvonia

Tribe Roupaleae

incertae sedis

Megahertzia — Knightia — Eucarpha — Triunia

Subtribe Roupalinae

Roupala — Neorites — Orites

Subtribe Lambertiinae

Lambertia — Xylomelum

Subtribe Heliciinae

Helicia — Hollandaea

Subtribe Floydiinae

Darlingia — Floydia

Tribe Banksieae

Subtribe Musgraveinae

Musgravea — Austromuellera

Subtribe Banksiinae

Banksia — Dryandra

Tribe Embothrieae

Subtribe Lomatiinae

Lomatia

Subtribe Embothriinae

Embothrium — Oreocallis — Alloxylon — Telopea

Subtribe Stenocarpinae

Stenocarpus — Strangea

Subtribe Hakeinae

Opisthiolepis — Buckinghamia — Hakea — Grevillea — Finschia

Tribe Macadamieae

Subtribe Macadamiinae

Macadamia — Lasjia — Nothorites — Panopsis — Brabejum

Subtribe Malagasiinae

Malagasia — Catalepidia

Subtribe Virotiinae

Virotia — Athertonia — Heliciopsis

Subtribe Gevuininae

Cardwellia — Sleumerodendron — Euplassa — Gevuina — Bleasdalea — Hicksbeachia — Kermadecia — Turrillia

References[edit]

Isopogon
Isopogon
anemonifolius

^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.  ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.  ^ Mast, A. R. & Givnish, T. J. (2002). "Historical Biogeography and the Origin of Stomatal Distributions in Banksia
Banksia
& Dryandra (Proteaceae) Based on Their cpDNA Phylogeny". American Journal of Botany. 89 (8): 1311–1323. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.8.1311. PMID 21665734.  ^ Watson, L. & Dallwitz, M. J. (3 May 2006). "Proteaceae". The Families of Flowering Plants: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, Information retrieval. Retrieved 2006-06-26.  Check date values in: year=, year= / date= mismatch (help); External link in work= (help) ^ a b Orchard, Anthony E. (ed.). "Proteaceae". Flora of Australia, Volume 16: Elaeagnaceae, Proteaceae
Proteaceae
1. Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study / CSIRO Publishing. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Pole M (1998). "The Proteaceae
Proteaceae
record in New Zealand". Australian Systematic Botany. 11 (4): 343–372. doi:10.1071/SB97019.  ^ Weston, P. H. & Crisp, M. D. (1996). "Trans-Pacific biogeographic patterns in the Proteaceae". In Keast, A. & Miller, S. E. The origin and evolution of Pacific Island Biotas, New Guinea to eastern Polynesia: Patterns and processes. Amsterdam: SPB Academic Publishing. pp. 215–232. ISBN 90-5103-136-X.  ^ IUCN
IUCN
2006. 2006 IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 February 2007 ^ L. A. S. Johnson and Briggs, B. G. (1975). "On the Proteaceae: the evolution and classification of a southern family". Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Botany. 70 (2): 83–182. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1975.tb01644.x.  ^ Weston, Peter H.; Barker, Nigel P. (2006). "A new suprageneric classification of the Proteaceae, with an annotated checklist of genera". Telopea. 11 (3): 314–344. doi:10.7751/telopea20065733.  ^ Mast, Austin R.; Willis, Crystal L.; Jones, Eric H.; Downs, Katherine M.; Weston, Peter H. (July 2008). "A smaller Macadamia
Macadamia
from a more vagile tribe: inference of phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and diaspore evolution in Macadamia
Macadamia
and relatives (tribe Macadamieae; Proteaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 95 (7): 843–870. doi:10.3732/ajb.0700006. ISSN 1537-2197. PMID 21632410. Retrieved 4 Apr 2013. 

Weston, P.H. (2007). "Proteaceae". Kubitzki, K. (Editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IX. Flowering Plants - Eudicots. Springer-Verlag: Berlín. ISBN 3-540-32214-0.  Hoot, S.B. & Douglas, A.W. (1998). "Phylogeny of the Proteaceae based on atpB and atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer region sequences". Australian Systematic Botany. 11 (4): 301–320. doi:10.1071/sb98027.  Ramsey, H.P.. (1963). " Chromosome
Chromosome
numbers in the proteaceae". Australian Journal of Botany. 11 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1071/BT9630001.  Watson, L. & Dallwitz, M.J. (1992). "The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 29th July 2006". Retrieved 31 January 2007.  Brown,R. On the Proteaceae of Jussieu Proceedings of the Linnean Society 10:15-216.

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Proteaceae

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Proteaceae.

Images of Proteaceae
Proteaceae
from the Australian National Botanical Gardens Map

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q157228 EoL: 4370 EPPO: 1PROF FloraBase: 22793 FoC: 10730 Fossilworks: 55681 GBIF: 2414 GRIN: 922 IPNI: 30004394-2 ITIS: 27781 NCBI: 4328 Tropicos: 42000186 Watson & Dallwitz: proteace

Authority control

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