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President
The PRESIDENT is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states . The functions exercised by a president vary according to the form of government . In parliamentary and semi-presidential republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial. In presidential republics , the role of the president is more prominent, encompassing also (in most cases) the functions of the head of government . In authoritarian regimes, a dictator or leader of a one-party state may also be called a president, often charismatically
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Rules Of Order
PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE is the body of rules , ethics and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs , organizations , legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies . In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Canada
Canada
, Ireland , Australia
Australia
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, South Africa
South Africa
and other English-speaking countries it is often called chairmanship, chairing, the law of meetings, procedure at meetings or the conduct of meetings. In the United States, parliamentary procedure is also referred to as parliamentary law, parliamentary practice, legislative procedure or rules of order. At its heart is the rule of the majority with respect for the minority. Its object is to allow deliberation upon questions of interest to the organization and to arrive at the sense or the will of the assembly upon these questions
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State (polity)
In terms of a political entity , a STATE is any politically organized community living under a single system of government . States may or may not be sovereign . For instance, federated states are members of a federal union , and may have only partial sovereignty, but are, nonetheless, states. Some states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony , in which ultimate sovereignty lies in another state. States that are sovereign are known as sovereign states . The term "state" can also refer to the secular branches of government within a state, often as a manner of contrasting them with churches and civilian institutions . Speakers of American English
American English
often use the terms state and government as synonyms , with both words referring to an organized political group that exercises authority over a particular territory. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, but others have been stateless societies
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Aut Simul Stabunt Aut Simul Cadent
The Latin brocard AUT SIMUL STABUNT AUT SIMUL CADENT (or SIMUL SIMUL for short), meaning they will either stand together, or fall together, is used in law to express those cases in which the end of a certain situation automatically brings upon the end of another one, and vice versa. The first use of this expression in the mass media, which made it known to the non-specialists, was in occasion of one of the first crises between fascist Italy and the Vatican concerning the Concordat . Pope Pius XI is believed to have pronounced the sentence to express the fact that challenging the Concordat would have swept away the whole Lateran treaty , reopening the Roman question
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Cabinet Collective Responsibility
CABINET COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY, also known as COLLECTIVE MINISTERIAL RESPONSIBILITY, is a constitutional convention in governments using the Westminster System , that members of the cabinet must publicly support all governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them. This support includes voting for the government in the legislature. Some Communist political parties apply a similar convention of democratic centralism to their central committee . If a member of the cabinet does wish to openly object to a cabinet decision then they are obliged to resign from their position in the cabinet. Cabinet collective responsibility is related to the fact that, if a vote of no confidence is passed in parliament , the government is responsible collectively, and thus the entire government resigns
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown ) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication
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Dictator
A DICTATOR is a political leader who wields absolute power . A state ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship . The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium ). Like the term "tyrant " (which was originally a respectable Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree "autocrat ", "dictator" came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive, even abusive rule, yet it had rare modern titular use. In modern usage, the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds and/or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power , especially the power to make laws without effective restraint by a legislative assembly
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One-party State
A ONE-PARTY STATE, SINGLE-PARTY STATE, ONE-PARTY SYSTEM, SINGLE-PARTY SYSTEM is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term DE FACTO ONE-PARTY STATE is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections
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University Of Oxford
Coordinates : 51°45′40″N 1°15′12″W / 51.7611°N 1.2534°W / 51.7611; -1.2534 University of Oxford
Oxford
Coat of arms Latin
Latin
: Universitas Oxoniensis MOTTO Dominus Illuminatio Mea ( Latin
Latin
) MOTTO IN ENGLISH "The Lord is my Light " ESTABLISHED c. 1096; 922 years ago (1096) ENDOWMENT £ 5.069 billion (inc
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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Systems Of Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature , administration , and judiciary . Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy . While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth
Earth
, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy , timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny
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University Of Cambridge
The UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE (informally CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY) is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge
Cambridge
, England
England
. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge
Cambridge
is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university . The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
after a dispute with the townspeople. The two medieval universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as " Oxbridge ". The history and influence of the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world
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Forms Of Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature , executive , and judiciary . Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy . While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth
Earth
, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy , timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny
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Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature , executive , and judiciary . Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy . While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth
Earth
, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy , timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny
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Minister (government)
A MINISTER is a politician who holds public office in a national or regional government , making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers. In some jurisdictions the head of government is also a Minister and is designated the "prime minister ", "premier", "chief minister", "Chancellor" or other title. In Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
jurisdictions which use the Westminster system of government, Ministers are usually required to be members of one of the houses of Parliament
Parliament
or legislature , and are usually from the political party that controls a majority in the lower house of the legislature
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