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In politics, PRESIDENT is a title given to leaders of republican states . In the modern world, it is a common title for the head of state in most republics.

The functions exercised by a president vary according to the form of government. In parliamentary and semi-presidential republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial. In presidential republics , the role of the president is more prominent, encompassing also (in most cases) the functions of the head of government . In authoritarian regimes, a dictator or leader of a one-party state may also be called a president, often charismatically.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description

* 1.1 Presidential systems * 1.2 Semi-presidential systems * 1.3 Parliamentary systems * 1.4 Collective presidency * 1.5 Dictatorships * 1.6 Presidential symbols * 1.7 Presidential chronologies

* 2 Titles for non-heads of state

* 2.1 As head of government

* 2.2 Other executive positions

* 2.2.1 Sub-national

* 2.2.1.1 Poland * 2.2.1.2 Russia

* 2.2.1.3 United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* 2.2.1.3.1 Dependencies

* 2.2.1.4 Spain
Spain

* 2.2.2 Deputies

* 2.3 Legislatures

* 2.3.1 France
France
* 2.3.2 United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* 3 See also * 4 References

DESCRIPTION

The title _president_ is derived from the Latin
Latin
_prae-_ "before" + _sedere_ "to sit." As such, it originally designated the officer who presides over or "sits before" a gathering and ensures that debate is conducted according to the rules of order (_see also_ chairman and speaker ), but today it most commonly refers to an executive official in any social organization. Early examples are from the universities of Oxford and Cambridge (from 1464) and the founding President
President
of the Royal Society William Brouncker in 1660. This usage survives today in the title of such offices as " President of the Board of Trade " and " Lord President of the Council " in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, as well as " President
President
of the Senate" in the United States
United States
(one of the roles constitutionally assigned to the vice president ). The officiating priest at certain Anglican religious services, too, is sometimes called the "president" in this sense. However, the most common modern usage is as the title of a head of state in a republic .

In pre-revolutionary France
France
, the president of a _ Parlement
Parlement
_ evolved into a powerful magistrate , a member of the so-called _noblesse de robe _ ("nobility of the gown"), with considerable judicial as well as administrative authority. The name referred to his primary role of presiding over trials and other hearings. In the 17th and 18th centuries, seats in the _Parlements,_ including presidencies, became effectively hereditary, since the holder of the office could ensure that it would pass to an heir by paying the crown a special tax known as the _paulette _. The post of "first president" (_premier président_), however, could only be held by the King 's nominees. The _Parlements_ were abolished by the French Revolution . In modern France
France
the chief judge of a court is known as its president (_président de la cour_).

The first usage of the word _president_ to denote the highest official in a government was during the Commonwealth of England . After the abolition of the monarchy the English Council of State , whose members were elected by the House of Commons, became the executive government of the Commonwealth. The Council of State was the successor of the Privy Council
Privy Council
, which had previously been headed by the Lord President
President
; its successor the Council of State was also headed by a Lord President, the first of which was John Bradshaw . However, the Lord President
President
alone was not head of state, because that office was vested in the council as a whole.

The modern usage of the term _president_ to designate a single person who is the head of state of a republic can be traced directly to the United States
United States
Constitution of 1787, which created the office of President
President
of the United States
United States
. Previous American governments had included "presidents" (such as the president of the Continental Congress or the president of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress
Massachusetts Provincial Congress
), but these were presiding officers in the older sense, with no executive authority. It has been suggested that the executive use of the term was borrowed from early American colleges and universities, which were usually headed by a _president._ British universities were headed by an official called the " Chancellor
Chancellor
" (typically a ceremonial position) while the chief administrator held the title of "Vice- Chancellor
Chancellor
". But America's first institutions of higher learning (such as Harvard University
Harvard University
and Yale University
Yale University
) didn't resemble a full-sized university so much as one of its constituent colleges. A number of colleges at Cambridge University featured an official called the "president". The head, for instance, of Magdalene College, Cambridge was called the _master_ and his second the _president._ The first president of Harvard, Henry Dunster , had been educated at Magdalene. Some have speculated that he borrowed the term out of a sense of humility, considering himself only a temporary place-holder. The presiding official of Yale College, originally a "rector" (after the usage of continental European universities), became "president" in 1745.

A common style of address for presidents, "Mr/Mrs. President
President
," is borrowed from British Parliamentary tradition, in which the presiding Speaker of the House of Commons is referred to as "Mr/Mrs. Speaker." Coincidentally, this usage resembles the older French custom of referring to the president of a _parlement_ as "_Monsieur/Madame le Président_", a form of address that in modern France
France
applies to both the President
President
of the Republic
Republic
and to chief judges. Similarly, the Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons is addressed by francophone parliamentarians as "_Monsieur/Madame Président(e)_". In Pierre Choderlos de Laclos 's novel _ Les Liaisons Dangereuses _ of 1782, the character identified as _Madame la Présidente de Tourvel_ ("Madam President
President
of Tourvel") is the wife of a magistrate in a _parlement_. The fictional name Tourvel refers not to the _parlement_ in which the magistrate sits, but rather, in imitation of an aristocratic title, to his private estate.

Once the United States
United States
adopted the title of "president" for its republican head of state, many other nations followed suit. Haiti became the first presidential republic in Latin
Latin
America when Henri Christophe assumed the title in 1807. Almost all of the American nations that became independent from Spain
Spain
in the early 1810s and 1820s chose a US-style president as their chief executive. The first European president was the president of the Italian Republic
Republic
of 1802 , a client state of revolutionary France, in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte . The first African president was the President
President
of Liberia (1848), while the first Asian president was the President
President
of the Republic
Republic
of China (1912).

In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, the powers of presidencies have varied from country to country. The spectrum of power has included presidents-for-life and hereditary presidencies to ceremonial heads of state.

Presidents in the countries with a democratic or representative form of government are usually elected for a specified period of time and in some cases may be re-elected by the same process by which they are appointed, i.e. in many nations, periodic popular elections. The powers vested in such presidents vary considerably. Some presidencies, such as that of Ireland , are largely ceremonial, whereas other systems vest the president with substantive powers such as the appointment and dismissal of prime ministers or cabinets , the power to declare war , and powers of veto on legislation. In many nations the president is also the commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces, though once again this can range from a ceremonial role to one with considerable authority.

PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS

Main article: President
President
of the Republic
Republic

In almost all states with a presidential system of government, the president exercises the functions of head of state and head of government , i.e. the president directs the executive branch of government. When a President
President
not only is head of state, but also head of government, is this, _in Europe_ known to be a _ President
President
of Counsel_ From the French PRéSIDENTE DU CONSEIL, used 1871-1940 and 1944-1958, as the Third and Fourth French Republics . In the United States has the President
President
always been both _ Head
Head
of State_ and _ Head
Head
of Government_ and has always had the title of President.

Presidents in this system are either _directly_ elected by popular vote or _indirectly_ elected by an electoral college or some other democratically elected body.

In the United States
United States
, the President
President
is _indirectly_ elected by the Electoral College made up of electors chosen by voters in the presidential election. In most United States
United States
states, each elector is committed to voting for a specified candidate determined by the popular vote in each state, so that the people, in voting for each elector, are in effect voting for the candidate. However, for various reasons the numbers of electors in favour of each candidate are unlikely to be proportional to the popular vote. Thus, in five close United States
United States
elections (1824 , 1876 , 1888 , 2000 , and 2016 ), the candidate with the most popular votes still lost the election.

In Mexico
Mexico
, the president is _directly_ elected for a six-year term by popular vote. The candidate who wins the most votes is elected president even without an absolute majority. The president may never get another term. The 2006 Mexican elections had a fierce competition, the electoral results showed a minimal difference between the two most voted candidates and such difference was just about the 0.58% of the total vote. The Federal Electoral Tribunal declared an elected president after a controversial post-electoral process.

In Brazil
Brazil
, the president is _directly_ elected for a four-year term by popular vote. A candidate has to have more than 50% of the valid votes. If no candidates achieve a majority of the votes, there is a runoff election between the two candidates with most votes. Again, a candidate needs a majority of the vote to be elected. In Brazil, a president cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the number of terms a president can serve.

Many South American , Central American , African and some Asian nations follow the presidential model.

SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS

A second system is the semi-presidential system , also known as the French model. In this system, as in the parliamentary system, there are both a president and a prime minister; but unlike the parliamentary system, the president may have significant day-to-day power. For example, in France, when his party controls the majority of seats in the National Assembly , the president can operate closely with the parliament and prime minister , and work towards a common agenda. When the National Assembly is controlled by his opponents, however, the president can find himself marginalized with the opposition party prime minister exercising most of the power. Though the prime minister remains an appointee of the president, the president must obey the rules of parliament, and select a leader from the house's majority holding party. Thus, sometimes the president and prime minister can be allies, sometimes rivals; the latter situation is known in France
France
as cohabitation . Variants of the French semi-presidential system, developed at the beginning of the Fifth Republic
Republic
by Charles de Gaulle , are used in France
France
, Portugal
Portugal
, Romania
Romania
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and several post-colonial countries which have emulated the French model. In Finland, although the 2000 constitution moved towards a ceremonial presidency, the system is still formally semi-presidential, with the President of Finland retaining e.g. foreign policy and appointment powers.

PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEMS

See also: Parliamentary system and Parliamentary republic

The parliamentary republic , is a parliamentary system in which the presidency is largely ceremonial with either _de facto _ or no significant executive authority (such as the President of Austria
President of Austria
) or _de jure _ no significant executive power (such as the President
President
of Ireland ), and the executive powers rests with the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
who automatically assumes the post as head of a majority party or coalition, but takes oath of office administered by the president. However, the president is head of the civil service, commander in chief of the armed forces and can dissolve parliament. Countries using this system include Austria
Austria
, Albania
Albania
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Czech Republic
Republic
, Germany
Germany
, Greece
Greece
, Hungary
Hungary
, Iceland
Iceland
, India
India
, Ireland , Israel
Israel
, Italy
Italy
, Malta
Malta
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Singapore
Singapore
.

A variation of the parliamentary republic is a system with an executive president in which the president is the head of state and the government but unlike a presidential system , is elected by and accountable to a parliament, and referred to as president. Countries using this system include Botswana
Botswana
, South Africa
Africa
and Suriname
Suriname
.

COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY

Only a tiny minority of modern republics do not have a single head of state. Some examples of this are:

* Switzerland
Switzerland
, where the headship of state is collectively vested in the seven-member Swiss Federal Council , although there is also a President
President
of the Confederation , who is a member of the Federal Council elected by the Federal Assembly (the Swiss Parliament
Parliament
) for a year (constitutional convention mandates that the post rotates every New Year\'s Day ). * The Captains Regent of San Marino
San Marino
elected by the Grand and General Council . * In the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, while the real power was exercised by the general secretary of the Communist Party , the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet executed powers of collective head of state , and its chairman was often called "president" in the West . * Yugoslavia after the death of Josip Broz Tito until its breakup . * Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina * National Council of Government
Government
(Uruguay) * Junta of National Reconstruction in Nicaragua

DICTATORSHIPS

In dictatorships , the title of president is frequently taken by self-appointed or military-backed leaders. Such is the case in many states: Idi Amin
Idi Amin
in Uganda
Uganda
, Mobutu Sese Seko in Zaire
Zaire
, Ferdinand Marcos in Philippines
Philippines
and Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
in Iraq
Iraq
are some examples. Other presidents in authoritarian states have wielded only symbolic or no power such as Craveiro Lopes in Portugal
Portugal
and Joaquín Balaguer under the "Trujillo Era" of the Dominican Republic
Republic
.

President for Life is a title assumed by some dictators to try to ensure that their authority or legitimacy is never questioned. Ironically, most leaders who proclaim themselves President for Life do not in fact successfully serve a life term. On the other hand, presidents like Alexandre Pétion , Rafael Carrera , Josip Broz Tito and François Duvalier died in office. Kim Il-sung was named Eternal President
President
of the Republic
Republic
after his death.

In ancient Rome, Lucius Cornelius Sulla appointed himself in 82 BC to an entirely new office, _dictator rei publicae constituendae causa_ ("dictator for the making of laws and for the settling of the constitution"), which was functionally identical to the dictatorate _rei gerundae causa_ ("for the matter to be done," e.g., a military command against a specific enemy) except that it lacked any set time limit, although Sulla held this office for over two years before he voluntarily abdicated and retired from public life.

The second well-known incident of a leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, who made himself "Perpetual Dictator
Dictator
" (commonly mistranslated as 'Dictator-for-life') in 45 BC. His actions would later be mimicked by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed "First Consul for life" in 1802.

Several presidents have ruled until their death, but they have not proclaimed themselves as President
President
for Life. For instance, Nicolae Ceauşescu of Romania
Romania
, who ruled until his execution (see Romanian Revolution ).

PRESIDENTIAL SYMBOLS

As the country's head of state, in most countries the president is entitled to certain perquisites, and may have a prestigious residence, often a lavish mansion or palace, sometimes more than one (e.g. summer and winter residences, or a country retreat) Customary symbols of office may include an official uniform, decorations, a presidential seal, coat of arms, flag and other visible accessories, as well as military honours such as gun salutes , ruffles and flourishes , and a presidential guard. A common presidential symbol is the presidential sash worn most often by presidents in Latin
Latin
America and Africa
Africa
as a symbol of the continuity of the office.

PRESIDENTIAL CHRONOLOGIES

Main article: List of current presidents

United Nations
United Nations
member countries in columns, other entities at the beginning:

* European Commission * List of presidents of European Union institutions * List of Presidents of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Leaders )

TITLES FOR NON-HEADS OF STATE

AS HEAD OF GOVERNMENT

Some countries with parliamentary systems use a term meaning/translating as "president" (in some languages indistinguishable from chairman) for the head of parliamentary government, often as President
President
of the Government, President
President
of the Council of Ministers or President
President
of the Executive Council .

However, such an official is explicitly not the president of the _country_. Rather, he/she is called a president in an older sense of the word, to denote the fact that he/she heads the _cabinet _. A separate head of state generally exists in their country that instead serves as the president or monarch of the country.

Thus, such officials are really premiers , and to avoid confusion are often described simply as 'prime minister' when being mentioned internationally.

There are several examples for this kind of presidency:

* The official title of the Italian Prime Minister
Prime Minister
is President
President
of the Council of Ministers (_Italian Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri_) * Under the French Third and the Fourth Republics , the "President of the Council " (of ministers – or prime minister) was the head of government, with the President
President
of the Republic
Republic
a largely symbolic figurehead. * The Prime minister
Prime minister
of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1937 was titled President
President
of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State . At the same time, the Irish Free State was a constitutional monarchy with a reigning monarch, the King of Ireland , as well as a resident Governor-General
Governor-General
carrying out many head of state functions. * Under the constitutional monarchies of Brazil
Brazil
and Portugal
Portugal
, the President of the Council of Ministers (_Portuguese Presidente do Conselho de Ministros_) was the head of government, with the Monarch being the head of State. Under the Portuguese First and Second Republics , the head of government was the President
President
of the Ministry (_Portuguese Presidente do Ministério_) and then the President
President
of the Council of Ministers, with the President
President
of the Republic
Republic
as the head of State. * The Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Spain
Spain
is officially referred to as the President
President
of the Government
Government
of Spain
Spain
, and informally known as the "president". Spain
Spain
is also a kingdom with a reigning king . * The official title of the Croatian prime minister is President
President
of the Government
Government
of the Republic
Republic
of Croatia (Croatian : _Predsjednik Vlade Republike Hrvatske_). * The official title of the Polish prime minister is President
President
of the Council of Ministers (_Polish Prezes Rady Ministrów_). * In British constitutional practice, the chairman of an Executive Council , acting in such a capacity, is known as a President
President
of the Executive Council. Usually this person is the Governor
Governor
and it always stays like that. * Between 1918 and 1934, Estonia
Estonia
had no separate head of state. Both Prime Ministers (1918-1920) and State Elders (1920-1934) often translated as "Presidents") were elected by the parliament.

OTHER EXECUTIVE POSITIONS

Sub-national

_President_ can also be the title of the chief executive at a lower administrative level, such as the parish presidents of the parishes of the U.S. state of Louisiana
Louisiana
, the presiding member of city council for villages in the U.S. state of Illinois
Illinois
, or the municipal presidents of Mexico
Mexico
's municipalities . Perhaps the best known sub-national presidents are the borough presidents of the Five Boroughs of New York City .

Poland

In Poland the _ President
President
of the City_ (Polish : _Prezydent miasta_) is the executive authority of the municipality elected in direct elections, the equivalent of the mayor . The Office of the President (Mayor) is also found in Germany
Germany
and Switzerland.

Russia

Governors of ethnic republics in the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
used to have the title of President, occasionally alongside other, secondary titles such as _ Chairman
Chairman
of the Government_ (also used by Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Russia ). This likely reflects the origin of Russian republics as homelands for various ethnic groups: while all federal subjects of Russia are currently _de jure _ equal , their predecessors, the ASSRs , used to enjoy more privileges than the ordinary krais and oblasts of the RSFSR (such as greater representation in the Soviet of Nationalities ). Thus, the ASSRs and their eventual successors would have more in common with nation-states than with ordinary administrative divisions, at least in spirit, and would choose titles accordingly.

Over the course of the 2010s
2010s
the presidents of Russian republics would progressively change their title to that of Head
Head
(Russian : глава), a proposition suggested by the President
President
of Chechnya Ramzan Kadyrov and later made law by the Parliament
Parliament
of Russia and President
President
Dmitriy Medvedev in 2010
2010
. Despite this, however, Presidents of Tatarstan would reject this change and, as of 2017, retain their title in defiance of Russian law. The new title did not result in any changes in the powers wielded by the governors.

United Kingdom

The Lord President of the Council is one of the Great Officers of State in England
England
who presides over meetings of British Privy Council
Privy Council
; the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
is technically a committee of the Council, and all decisions of the Cabinet are formally approved through Orders in Council . Although the Lord President
President
is a member of the Cabinet, the position is largely a ceremonial one and is traditionally given to either the Leader of the House of Commons or the Leader of the House of Lords .

Historically the President of the Board of Trade was a cabinet member.

Dependencies

In Alderney , the elected head of government is called the President of the States of Alderney .

In the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, there is a President of Tynwald .

Spain

In Spain
Spain
, the executive leaders of the autonomous communities (regions) are called presidents. In each community, they can be called _Presidente de la Comunidad_ or _Presidente del Consejo_ among others. They are elected by their respective regional assemblies and have similar powers to a state president or governor.

Deputies

Below a president, there can be a number of or "vice presidents" (or occasionally "deputy presidents") and sometimes several "assistant presidents" or "assistant vice presidents", depending on the organisation and its size. These posts do not hold the same power but more of a subordinate position to the president. However, power can be transferred in special circumstances to the deputy or vice president. Normally vice presidents hold some power and special responsibilities below that of the president. The difference between vice/deputy presidents and assistant/associate vice presidents is the former are legally allowed to run an organisation, exercising the same powers (as well as being second in command) whereas the latter are not.

LEGISLATURES

In some countries the speaker of their unicameral legislatures, or of one or both houses of bicameral legislatures, the speakers have the title of president of "the body".

France

In French legal terminology, the president of a court consisting of multiple judges is the foremost judge; he chairs the meeting of the court and directs the debates (and this thus addressed as "Mrs President", "Madame la Présidente", Mr President", or _Monsieur le Président_. In general, a court comprises several chambers, each with its own president; thus the most senior of these is called the "first president" (as in: "the First President
President
of the Court of Cassation is the most senior judge in France"). Similarly in English legal practice the most senior judge in each division uses this title (e.g. President of the Family Division, President
President
of the Court of Appeal).

United Kingdom

In the recently established Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the most senior judge is called the President
President
of the Supreme Court . The Lady/Lord President
President
of the Court of Session is head of the judiciary in Scotland
Scotland
, and presiding judge (and Senator) of the College of Justice and Court of Session , as well as being Lady/Lord Justice General of Scotland
Scotland
and head of the High Court of Justiciary
High Court of Justiciary
, the offices having been combined in 1784.

SEE ALSO

* Mr. President (title) * Presidents Day * Presidential system * Requirements for becoming a president * Vice president
Vice president

HEAD OF STATE:

* Head of state * Governor-General
Governor-General
* Monarch
Monarch
* Supreme Leader * List of state leaders

OTHER HEAD OF GOVERNMENT:

* Prime minister
Prime minister
* Minister-President (a head of government, not of state)

REFERENCES

* ^ But presidential moral suasion is increasingly confirming that the "neutral powers", in this country, often find in the head of state the best defender from executive interference: Buonomo, Giampiero (2014). "Autorità indipendenti e sistema costituzionale". _L'ago e il filo_. – via Questia (subscription required) * ^ McCullough, J. J. "Presidential Sashes". Retrieved 19 February 2017.

* v * t * e

Titles used for heads of government

* Chancellor
Chancellor
* Chief executive * Chief minister * First minister (and deputy First Minister ) * Minister-president * Premier
Premier
* President * President
President
of the Executive Council * President of the Council of Ministers * President of the government * Prime minister
Prime minister
* State Elder * _ Statsminister
Statsminister
_ * _ Taoiseach _

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* NDL : 00561231

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President
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