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Predictability
Predictability is the degree to which a correct prediction or forecast of a system's state can be made either qualitatively or quantitatively.Contents1 Predictability and Causality1.1 Laplace's Demon2 In statistical physics 3 In mathematics 4 In human–computer interaction 5 In human sentence processing 6 In biology 7 In popular culture 8 Techniques 9 In climate9.1 The Spring Predictability Barrier10 In macroeconomics 11 See also 12 References 13 External links
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Prediction In Language Comprehension
Linguistic prediction is a phenomenon in psycholinguistics occurring whenever information about a word or other linguistic unit is activated before that unit is actually encountered. Evidence from eyetracking, event-related potentials, and other experimental methods indicates that in addition to integrating each subsequent word into the context formed by previously encountered words, language users may, under certain conditions, try to predict upcoming words. In particular, prediction seems to occur regularly when the context of a sentence greatly limits the possible words that have not yet been revealed. For instance, a person listening to a sentence like, "In the summer it is hot, and in the winter it is..." would be highly likely to predict the sentence completion "cold" in advance of actually hearing it
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Stochastic Analysis
Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes. It allows a consistent theory of integration to be defined for integrals of stochastic processes with respect to stochastic processes
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Contingency (philosophy)
In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions). A contingent proposition is neither necessarily true nor necessarily false. Propositions that are contingent may be so because they contain logical connectives which, along with the truth value of any of its atomic parts, determine the truth value of the proposition
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ENSO
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Niño and the cooling phase as La Niña. Southern Oscillation is the accompanying atmospheric component, coupled with the sea temperature change: El Niño
El Niño
is accompanied with high, and La Niña
La Niña
with low air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific.[1][2] The two periods last several months each (typically occurring every few years) and their effects vary in intensity.[3] The two phases relate to the Walker circulation, discovered by Gilbert Walker during the early twentieth century
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El Niño–Southern Oscillation
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Niño and the cooling phase as La Niña. Southern Oscillation is the accompanying atmospheric component, coupled with the sea temperature change: El Niño
El Niño
is accompanied with high, and La Niña
La Niña
with low air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific.[1][2] The two periods last several months each (typically occurring every few years) and their effects vary in intensity.[3] The two phases relate to the Walker circulation, discovered by Gilbert Walker during the early twentieth century
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IPCC
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations,[1][2] set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.[3] It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations
United Nations
organizations, the World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution 43/53
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Climate Change
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category)Climatology Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal)v t e Climate
Climate
change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate
Climate
change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather within the context of longer-term average conditions
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Pierre-Simon Laplace
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace
Laplace
(/ləˈplɑːs/; French: [pjɛʁ simɔ̃ laplas]; 23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy. He summarised and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace.[2] Laplace
Laplace
formulated Laplace's equation, and pioneered the Laplace transform which appears in many branches of mathematical physics, a field that he took a leading role in forming. The Laplacian differential operator, widely used in mathematics, is also named after him
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Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
PRS (/ˈnjuːtən/;[6] 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27[1]) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made pathbreaking contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
for developing the infinitesimal calculus. Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries
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Neuroscience
Neuroscience
Neuroscience
(or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.[1] It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology,[2] that deals with the anatomy, biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology of neurons and neural circuits. It also draws upon other fields, with the most obvious being pharmacology, psychology, and medicine.[3][4][5][6][7][8] The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the molecular, cellular, developmental, structural, functional, evolutionary, computational, psychosocial and medical aspects of the nervous system. Neuroscience
Neuroscience
has also given rise to such other disciplines as neuroeducation,[9] neuroethics, and neurolaw. The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain
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Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.[1][2] It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian
Augustinian
friar. Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene. Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes
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Event-related Potentials
An event-related potential (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event.[1] More formally, it is any stereotyped electrophysiological response to a stimulus. The study of the brain in this way provides a noninvasive means of evaluating brain functioning. ERPs are measured by means of electroencephalography (EEG)
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Eyetracking
Eye tracking
Eye tracking
is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. An eye tracker is a device for measuring eye positions and eye movement. Eye trackers are used in research on the visual system, in psychology, in psycholinguistics, marketing, as an input device for human-computer interaction, and in product design. There are a number of methods for measuring eye movement. The most popular variant uses video images from which the eye position is extracted. Other methods use search coils or are based on the electrooculogram.Yarbus eye tracker from the 1960s.Contents1 History 2 Tracker types2.1 Eye-attached tracking 2.2 Optical tracking 2.3 Electric potential measurement3 Technologies and techniques 4 Data presentation 5 Eye-tracking vs
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Psycholinguistics
Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. The discipline is mainly concerned with the mechanisms in which languages are processed and represented in the brain.[1] Initial forays into psycholinguistics were largely philosophical or educational schools of thought, due mainly to their location in departments other than applied sciences (e.g., cohesive data on how the human brain functioned). Modern research makes use of biology, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, and information science to study how the brain processes language, and less so the known processes of social sciences, human development, communication theories and infant development, among others
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Human–computer Interaction
Human–Computer Interaction
Interaction
(commonly referred to as HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers. Researchers in the field of HCI both observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that let humans interact with computers in novel ways. As a field of research, human-computer interaction is situated at the intersection of computer science, behavioral sciences, design, media studies, and several other fields of study. The term was popularized by Stuart K. Card, Allen Newell, and Thomas P
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