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Predictability
PREDICTABILITY is the degree to which a correct prediction or forecast of a system 's state can be made either qualitatively or quantitatively. CONTENTS* 1 Predictability and Causality * 1.1 Laplace\'s Demon * 2 In statistical physics * 3 In mathematics * 4 In human–computer interaction * 5 In human sentence processing * 6 In biology * 7 In popular culture * 8 Techniques * 9 In climate * 9.1 The Spring Predictability Barrier * 10 In macroeconomics * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links PREDICTABILITY AND CAUSALITY Causal determinism
Causal determinism
has a strong relationship with predictability. Perfect predictability implies strict determinism, but lack of predictability does not necessarily imply lack of determinism. Limitations on predictability could be caused by factors such as a lack of information or excessive complexity
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Eyetracking
EYE TRACKING is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. An EYE TRACKER is a device for measuring eye positions and eye movement . Eye trackers are used in research on the visual system , in psychology, in psycholinguistics , marketing, as an input device for human-computer interaction , and in product design. There are a number of methods for measuring eye movement. The most popular variant uses video images from which the eye position is extracted. Other methods use search coils or are based on the electrooculogram . Yarbus eye tracker from the 1960s CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Tracker types * 2.1 Eye-attached tracking * 2.2 Optical tracking * 2.3 Electric potential measurement * 3 Technologies and techniques * 4 Data presentation * 5 Eye-tracking vs
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Event-related Potentials
An EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory , cognitive , or motor event. More formally, it is any stereotyped electrophysiological response to a stimulus. The study of the brain in this way provides a noninvasive means of evaluating brain functioning. ERPs are measured by means of electroencephalography (EEG). The magnetoencephalography (MEG) equivalent of ERP is the ERF, or event-related field. Evoked potentials and induced potentials are subtypes of ERPs
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Genetics
GENETICS is the study of genes , genetic variation , and heredity in living organisms . It is generally considered a field of biology , but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems . The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian
Augustinian
friar . Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene . Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes
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Psycholinguistics
PSYCHOLINGUISTICS or PSYCHOLOGY OF LANGUAGE is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language . Initial forays into psycholinguistics were largely philosophical or educational schools of thought, due mainly to their location in departments other than applied sciences (e.g., cohesive data on how the human brain functioned). Modern research makes use of biology , neuroscience , cognitive science , linguistics , and information science to study how the brain processes language, and less so the known processes of social sciences , human development , communication theories and infant development , among others. There are a number of subdisciplines with non-invasive techniques for studying the neurological workings of the brain; for example, neurolinguistics has become a field in its own right
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Human–computer Interaction
HUMAN–COMPUTER INTERACTION (commonly referred to as HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users ) and computers. Researchers in the field of HCI both observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that let humans interact with computers in novel ways. As a field of research, human-computer interaction is situated at the intersection of computer science , behavioral sciences , design , media studies , and several other fields of study . The term was popularized by Stuart K. Card , Allen Newell , and Thomas P. Moran in their seminal 1983 book, The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, although the authors first used the term in 1980 and the first known use was in 1975
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Stochastic Process
In probability theory and related fields, a STOCHASTIC or RANDOM PROCESS is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables . Historically, the random variables were associated with or indexed by a set of numbers, usually viewed as points in time, giving the interpretation of a stochastic process representing numerical values of some system randomly changing over time , such as the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise , or the movement of a gas molecule . Stochastic processes are widely used as mathematical models of systems and phenomena that appear to vary in a random manner. They have applications in many disciplines including sciences such as biology , chemistry , ecology , neuroscience , and physics as well as technology and engineering fields such as image processing , signal processing , information theory , computer science , cryptography and telecommunications
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Predictable Process
In stochastic analysis , a part of the mathematical theory of probability , a PREDICTABLE PROCESS is a stochastic process whose value is knowable at a prior time. The predictable processes form the smallest class that is closed under taking limits of sequences and contains all adapted left-continuous processes. CONTENTS* 1 Mathematical definition * 1.1 Discrete-time process * 1.2 Continuous-time process * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References MATHEMATICAL DEFINITIONDISCRETE-TIME PROCESSGiven a filtered probability space ( , F , ( F n ) n N , P ) {displaystyle (Omega ,{mathcal {F}},({mathcal {F}}_{n})_{nin mathbb {N} },mathbb {P} )} , then a stochastic process ( X n ) n N {displaystyle (X_{n})_{nin mathbb {N} }} is predictable if X n + 1 {displaystyle X_{n+1}} is measurable with respect to the σ-algebra F n {displaystyle {mathcal {F}}_{n}} for each n
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Neuroscience
NEUROSCIENCE (or NEUROBIOLOGY) is the scientific study of the nervous system . It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology , that deals with the anatomy , biochemistry , molecular biology , and physiology of neurons and neural circuits . It also draws upon other fields, with the most obvious being pharmacology , psychology , and medicine . The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the molecular , cellular , developmental , structural , functional , evolutionary , computational , psychosocial and medical aspects of the nervous system. Neuroscience has also given rise to such other disciplines as neuroeducation , neuroethics , and neurolaw . The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain . Recent theoretical advances in neuroscience have also been aided by the study of neural networks
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Isaac Newton
SIR ISAAC NEWTON PRS (/ˈnjuːtən/ ; 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27 ) was an English mathematician , astronomer , and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher ") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution . His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics . Newton also made seminal contributions to optics , and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
for developing the infinitesimal calculus . Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries
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ENSO
In Zen
Zen
, ENSō (円相, , "circle") is a circle that is hand-drawn in one or two uninhibited brushstrokes to express a moment when the mind is free to let the body create. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Use outside of Zen
Zen
Buddhism * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References DESCRIPTIONThe ensō symbolizes absolute enlightenment , strength, elegance, the universe, and mu (the void). It is characterised by a minimalism born of Japanese aesthetics . Drawing ensō is a disciplined-creative practice of Japanese ink painting—sumi-e (墨絵, "ink painting"). The tools and mechanics of drawing the ensō are the same as those used in traditional Japanese calligraphy : One uses a brush (筆, fude) to apply ink to washi (a thin Japanese paper). The circle may be open or closed. In the former case, the circle is incomplete, allowing for movement and development as well as the perfection of all things
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Contingency (philosophy)
In philosophy and logic , CONTINGENCY is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies ) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions ). A contingent proposition is neither necessarily true nor necessarily false. Propositions that are contingent may be so because they contain logical connectives which, along with the truth value of any of its atomic parts, determine the truth value of the proposition. This is to say that the truth value of the proposition is contingent upon the truth values of the sentences which comprise it. Contingent propositions depend on the facts , whereas analytic propositions are true without regard to any facts about which they speak
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO
ISO
. An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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El Niño–Southern Oscillation
EL NIñO–SOUTHERN OSCILLATION (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase is known as El Niño
El Niño
and the cooling phase as La Niña . Southern Oscillation is the accompanying atmospheric component, coupled with the sea temperature change: El Niño
El Niño
is accompanied with high, and La Niña
La Niña
with low air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific. The two periods last several months each (typically occurring every few years) and their effects vary in intensity. The two phases relate to the Walker circulation
Walker circulation
, discovered by Gilbert Walker during the early twentieth century
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IPCC
The INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations
United Nations
, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts. It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations
United Nations
organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations
United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly through Resolution 43/53. Membership of the IPCC
IPCC
is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP
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Pierre-Simon Laplace
PIERRE-SIMON, MARQUIS DE LAPLACE (/ləˈplɑːs/ ; French: ; 23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was an influential French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics , statistics, physics and astronomy . He summarised and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics ) (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus , opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace. Laplace formulated Laplace\'s equation , and pioneered the Laplace transform which appears in many branches of mathematical physics , a field that he took a leading role in forming. The Laplacian differential operator , widely used in mathematics, is also named after him
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