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Populus
See text POPULUS is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae , native to most of the Northern Hemisphere . English names variously applied to different species include POPLAR /ˈpɒp.lər/ , ASPEN , and COTTONWOOD . In the September 2006 issue of Science Magazine , the Joint Genome Institute announced that the western balsam poplar (P. trichocarpa ) was the first tree whose full DNA code had been determined by DNA sequencing . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Ecology * 3 Classification * 3.1 Selected species * 4 Cultivation * 4.1 India * 5 Uses * 5.1 Manufacturing * 5.2 Energy * 5.3 Art and literature * 5.4 Susceptible to termites * 5.5 Land management * 5.6 Agriculture * 6 See also * 7 References DESCRIPTIONThe genus has a large genetic diversity, and can grow from 15–50 m (49–164 ft) tall, with trunks up to 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in diameter
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Plant Sexuality
PLANT REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology ) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction . Among all living organisms, flowers , which are the reproductive structures of angiosperms , are the most varied physically and show a correspondingly great diversity in methods of reproduction. Plants that are not flowering plants (green algae , mosses , liverworts , hornworts , ferns and gymnosperms such as conifers ) also have complex interplays between morphological adaptation and environmental factors in their sexual reproduction. The breeding system, or how the sperm from one plant fertilizes the ovum of another, depends on the reproductive morphology, and is the single most important determinant of the genetic structure of nonclonal plant populations
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Calyx (botany)
A SEPAL (/ˈsɛpəl/ or /ˈsiːpəl/ ) is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants). Usually green, sepals typically function as protection for the flower in bud, and often as support for the petals when in bloom. The term sepalum was coined by Noël Martin Joseph de Necker in 1790, and derived from the Greek σκεπη (skepi), a covering. Collectively the sepals are called the CALYX (plural calyces), the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower. The word calyx was adopted from the Latin calyx, not to be confused with calix, a cup or goblet. Calyx derived from the Greek κάλυξ (kalyx), a bud, a calyx, a husk or wrapping, (cf Sanskrit kalika, a bud) while calix derived from the Greek κυλιξ (kylix), a cup or goblet, and the words have been used interchangeably in botanical Latin. After flowering, most plants have no more use for the calyx which withers or becomes vestigial
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Corolla (flower)
PETALS are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers . They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators . Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a COROLLA. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals , that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth . When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals . Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe
Aloe
and Tulipa
Tulipa
. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots , orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals
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Flower
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a BLOOM or BLOSSOM , is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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Petiole (botany)
In botany , the PETIOLE (/ˈpiːtᵻoʊl/ ) is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem . :87 The petiole is the transition between the stem and the leaf blade. :171 Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules . Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile or EPETIOLATE. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Etymology * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June 2015) Harvested rhubarb petioles with leaves attached The petiole is a stalk that attaches a leaf to the plant stem. In PETIOLATE leaves, the leaf stalk (petiole) may be long, as in the leaves of celery and rhubarb, short or completely absent, in which case the blade attaches directly to the stem and is said to be SESSILE. SUBPETIOLATE leaves are nearly petiolate, or have an extremely short petiole, and may appear sessile
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DNA Sequencing
DNA
DNA
SEQUENCING is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine , guanine , cytosine , and thymine —in a strand of DNA. The advent of rapid DNA
DNA
sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery. Knowledge of DNA
DNA
sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis , biotechnology , forensic biology , virology and biological systematics
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Lenticel
A LENTICEL is a porous tissue consisting of cells with large intercellular spaces in the periderm of the secondarily thickened organs and the bark of woody stems and roots of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It functions as a pore, providing a pathway for the direct exchange of gases between the internal tissues and atmosphere through the bark, which is otherwise impermeable to gases. The name lenticel, pronounced with an , derives from its lenticular (lens -like) shape. The shape of lenticels is one of the characteristics used for tree identification. CONTENTS * 1 Formation * 2 Fruits * 3 Tubers * 4 Gallery * 5 Notes * 6 References FORMATION Lenticel
Lenticel
formation usually begins beneath stomatal complexes during primary growth preceding the development of the first periderm . Lenticels are found as raised circular, oval, or elongated areas on stems and roots
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Leaf
A LEAF is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem . The leaves and stem together form the shoot . Leaves are collectively referred to as FOLIAGE, as in "autumn foliage". Diagram of a simple leaf. * Apex * Midvein (Primary vein) * Secondary vein. * Lamina. * Leaf
Leaf
margin * Petiole * Bud * StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ , borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis . In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll , is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Stamen
The STAMEN (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen -producing reproductive organ of a flower . Collectively the stamens form the ANDROECIUM. CONTENTS * 1 Morphology and terminology * 2 Etymology * 3 Variation in morphology * 4 Pollen
Pollen
production * 5 Sexual reproduction in plants * 6 Descriptive terms * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGYA stamen typically consists of a stalk called the FILAMENT and an ANTHER which contains microsporangia . Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the CONNECTIVE. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte . The stamens in a flower are collectively called the ANDROECIUM. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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Anther
The STAMEN (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen -producing reproductive organ of a flower . Collectively the stamens form the ANDROECIUM. CONTENTS * 1 Morphology and terminology * 2 Etymology * 3 Variation in morphology * 4 Pollen
Pollen
production * 5 Sexual reproduction in plants * 6 Descriptive terms * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGYA stamen typically consists of a stalk called the FILAMENT and an ANTHER which contains microsporangia . Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the CONNECTIVE. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte . The stamens in a flower are collectively called the ANDROECIUM. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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Larva
A LARVA (plural larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/ ) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults . Animals with indirect development such as insects , amphibians , or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle . The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies ). A larva often has unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs . By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Lepidoptera
Aglossata Glossata Heterobathmiina Zeugloptera LEPIDOPTERA (/ˌlɛpɪˈdɒptərə/ lep-i-DOP-tər-ə ) is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called LEPIDOPTERANS). About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies , 10% of the total described species of living organisms. It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera , Diptera
Diptera
, and Coleoptera
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Hybrid (biology)
In biology , a HYBRID, or crossbreed , is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction . Hybrids are not always intermediates between their parents (such as in blending inheritance ), but can show hybrid vigour , often growing larger or taller than either parent. The concept of a hybrid is interpreted differently in animal and plant breeding, where there is interest in the individual parentage. In genetics , attention is focused on the numbers of chromosomes . In taxonomy, a key question is how closely related the parent species are. Species
Species
are reproductively isolated by strong barriers to hybridisation, which include morphological differences, differing times of fertility, mating behaviors and cues, and physiological rejection of sperm cells or the developing embryo. Some act before fertilization and others after it
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Boreal Ecosystem
A BOREAL ECOSYSTEM is an ecosystem with a subarctic climate in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
, roughly between latitude 50° to 70°N. Boreal forests are also known as the taiga , particularly in Europe
Europe
and Asia . The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was a major international research program in the Canadian boreal forest. NASA sponsored the program, and most research took place between 1994 and 1996. Its primary goals were to determine how the boreal forest interacts with the atmosphere, how climate change will affect the forest, and how changes in the forest affect weather and climate. The ecosystems that lie immediately to the south (in the Northern Hemisphere) of boreal zones are often called hemiboreal . The Köppen symbols of boreal ecosystems are DFC, DWC, DFD, and DWD
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Capsule (fruit)
In botany a CAPSULE is a type of simple, dry rarely fleshy, dehiscent fruit produced by many species of Angiosperms (flowering plants ). CONTENTS * 1 Origins and structure * 2 Dehiscence * 3 Specialised capsules * 4 Nuts * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography ORIGINS AND STRUCTUREThe capsule ( Latin
Latin
: capsula, small box) is derived from a compound (multicarpeled) ovary . A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels . In (flowering plants), the term locule (or cell) is used to refer to a chamber within the fruit . Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, fruit can be classified as UNI-LOCULAR (unilocular), BI-LOCULAR, TRI-LOCULAR or MULTI-LOCULAR. The number of locules present in a gynoecium may be equal to or less than the number of carpels. The locules contain the ovules or seeds and are separated by septa
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