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Poaceae
Gramineae Juss. Blades of grass POACEAE or GRAMINEAE is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as GRASSES. Poaceae
Poaceae
includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks. The lower part of each leaf encloses the stem, forming a leaf-sheath. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species, Poaceae
Poaceae
are the fifth-largest plant family , following the Asteraceae
Asteraceae
, Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
, Fabaceae
Fabaceae
and Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae

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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Commelinids
In plant taxonomy, COMMELINIDS (originally COMMELINOIDS ) (plural, not capitalised) is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots , which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms . The commelinids are the only clade that the APG has informally named within the monocots. The remaining monocots are a paraphyletic unit. Also known as the COMMELINID MONOCOTS it forms one of three groupings within the monocots, and the final branch, the other two groups being the alismatid monocots and the lilioid monocots . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Subdivision * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONMembers of the commelinid clade have cell walls containing UV -fluorescent ferulic acid . TAXONOMYThe commelinids were first recognized as a formal group in 1967 by Armen Takhtajan , who named them the Commelinidae and assigned them to a subclass of the monocots
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Neogene
The NEOGENE ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/ ) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs , the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene . Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary . During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids , the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa
Africa
near the end of the period
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Paleogene
The PALEOGENE ( /ˈpæliːədʒiːn/ or /ˈpeɪliːədʒiːn/ ; also spelled PALAEOGENE or PALæOGENE; informally LOWER TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Neogene Period 23.03 Mya. It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic Eon. The Paleogene is most notable for being the time during which mammals diversified from relatively small, simple forms into a large group of diverse animals in the wake of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
that ended the preceding Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period. This period consists of the Paleocene , Eocene , and Oligocene epochs
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Juss.
ANTOINE LAURENT DE JUSSIEU (French pronunciation: ​ ; 12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist , notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants ; much of his system remains in use today. His classification was based on and extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Selected publications * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 Wikimedia LIFEJussieu was born in Lyon
Lyon
. He went to Paris
Paris
to study medicine , graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826. His son Adrien-Henri also became a botanist. In his study of flowering plants, Genera plantarum (1789), Jussieu adopted a methodology based on the use of multiple characters to define groups, an idea derived from naturalist Michel Adanson
Michel Adanson

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John Hendley Barnhart
JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART (October 4, 1871 – November 11, 1949) was an American botanist and author, specializing in biographies of botanists. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 3 Final Years * 4 Works * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONBarnhart was born in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, New York to John Wesley Barnhart and Emma Miller Barnhart. He attended Wesleyan University
Wesleyan University
in Middletown, Connecticut , receiving an A.B. in 1892 and an A.M. the following year. In 1896 he graduated from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons receiving an M.D., though he never practiced medicine. His decision not to practice medicine was apparently made possible by substantial private income. 1897 found him in Jessamine, Florida where he married Emma Gertrude Platt of Southampton, New York. The couple lived in Tarrytown, New York, eventually moving to the Bronx in 1914
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Asteraceae
Asteroideae Lindley Barnadesioideae Bremer & Jansen Carduoideae Sweet Cichorioideae Chevallier Corymbioideae Panero & Funk Famatinanthoideae S.E. Freire, Ariza & Panero Gochnatioideae Panero & Funk Gymnarrhenoideae Panero & Funk Hecastocleidoideae Panero & Funk Mutisioideae
Mutisioideae
Lindley Pertyoideae Panero & Funk Stifftioideae Panero Wunderlichioideae Panero "> Compositae Giseke Acarnaceae Link Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Aposeridaceae Raf. Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Artemisiaceae Martinov Athanasiaceae Martinov Calendulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Carduaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Cassiniaceae Sch. Bip. Cichoriaceae Juss. Coreopsidaceae Link Cynaraceae Spenn. Echinopaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J
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Orchidaceae
The ORCHIDACEAE are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants , with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the ORCHID FAMILY. Along with the Asteraceae
Asteraceae
, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants. The Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
have about 28,000 currently accepted species , distributed in about 763 genera . The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux. Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species. The family also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants
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Fabaceae
The FABACEAE, LEGUMINOSAE or PAPILIONACEAE, commonly known as the LEGUME, PEA, or BEAN FAMILY, are a large and economically important family of flowering plants . It includes trees , shrubs , and perennial or annual herbaceous plants , which are easily recognized by their fruit (legume ) and their compound, stipulated leaves. Many legumes have characteristics of flowers and fruits. The family is widely distributed, and is the third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind only the Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
and Asteraceae , with about 751 genera and some 19,000 known species. The five largest of the genera are Astragalus (over 3,000 species), Acacia (over 1000 species), Indigofera
Indigofera
(around 700 species), Crotalaria (around 700 species) and Mimosa
Mimosa
(around 500 species), which constitute about a quarter of all legume species. The ca
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Rubiaceae
See text The RUBIACEAE are a family of flowering plants , commonly known as the COFFEE, MADDER, or BEDSTRAW FAMILY. It consists of terrestrial trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs that are recognizable by simple, opposite leaves with interpetiolar stipules . The family contains about 13,500 species in 611 genera , which makes it the fourth-largest angiosperm family. Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
has a cosmopolitan distribution ; however, the largest species diversity is concentrated in the (sub)tropics. Economic importance includes Coffea , the source of coffee , Cinchona , the source of the antimalarial alkaloid quinine , some dye plants (e.g. Rubia
Rubia
), and ornamental cultivars (e.g. Gardenia , Ixora , Pentas )
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Cretaceous
The CRETACEOUS ( /krᵻˈteɪʃəs/ , krə-TAY-shəs ) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya ) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era . The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate , resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas . These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles , ammonites and rudists , while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds , as well as flowering plants , appeared
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Jurassic
The JURASSIC ( /dʒuːˈræsɪk/ ; from Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
) was a geologic period and system that spanned for 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic Era , also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event . Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian/ Toarcian event in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian
Tithonian
event at the end; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions
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Silurian
The SILURIAN is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period, at 443.8 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Devonian
Devonian
Period, 419.2 Mya. As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the peri