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Phoenicians
Coordinates: 34°07′25″N 35°39′04″E / 34.12361°N 35.65111°E / 34.12361; 35.65111Phoeniciaknʿn / kanaʿan  (Phoenician) Φοινίκη / Phoiníkē  (Greek)1500 BC[1]–539 BCMap of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and its Mediterranean trade routesCapital Not specifiedLanguages Phoenician, PunicReligion Canaanite religionGovernment City-states ruled by kingsWell-known kings of Phoenician cities •  c. 1000 BC Ahiram •  969 – 936 BC Hiram I 
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Phoenicia (other)
Phoenicia
Phoenicia
was an ancient civilization in the north of Canaan in parts of Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine. Phoenicia
Phoenicia
may also refer to:History of ancient Lebanon, in antiquity (also called "Syro-Phoenicia
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Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 square miles).[2][3] It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia
Eurasia
and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. As one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
in the southwest, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica)
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American English
American English
American English
(AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US),[3] sometimes called United States
United States
English or U.S. English,[4][5] is the set of dialects of the English language
English language
native to the United States
United States
of America.[6] English is the most widely spoken language in the United States
United States
and is the common language used by the federal government, to the extent that all laws and compulsory education are practiced in English
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Purple
Purple
Purple
is a color intermediate between blue and red.[1][2] It is similar to violet, but unlike violet, which is a spectral color with its own wavelength on the visible spectrum of light, purple is a composite color made by combining red and blue.[3] According to surveys in Europe
Europe
and the U.S., purple is the color most often associated with royalty, magic, mystery, and piety.[4] When combined with pink, it is associated with eroticism, femininity, and seduction.[5] Purple
Purple
was the color worn by Roman magistrates; it became the imperial color worn by the rulers of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Holy Roman Empire, and later by Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
bishops
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Thalassocracy
A thalassocracy (from Classical Greek
Classical Greek
θάλασσα (thalassa), meaning "sea", and κρατεῖν (kratein), meaning "power", giving Koine Greek
Koine Greek
θαλασσοκρατία (thalassokratia), "sea power") is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea (such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities) or a seaborne empire.[1] Traditional thalassocracies seldom dominate interiors, even in their home territories: Phoenician Tyre, Sidon
Sidon
and Carthage or Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Majapahit
Majapahit
in Southeast Asia
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Eastern Mediterranean
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
(Levantine Seabasin)
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Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent
Crescent
(also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer
Sumer
and
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Iberomaurusian
The Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.[1] Its name, meaning "of Iberia and Mauritania", is based on Pallary (1909)'s belief[2] that it extended over the strait of Gibraltar into Spain and Portugal, a theory now generally discounted (Garrod 1938).[3] Pallary (1909) originally described the industry based on material found at the site of Abri Mouillah.[2] Because the name of the
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Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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Berytus
Berytus
Berytus
(Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus) was a Roman colonia
Roman colonia
that was the center of Roman presence in the eastern Mediterranean shores south of Anatolia. Roman Berytus
Berytus
(modern Beirut) was the capital of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
during Roman times.Contents1 History 2 Recent discoveries 3 Notes 4 Bibliography 5 See alsoHistory[edit] In 140 BC the Phoenician village called "Biruta" was destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon
Diodotus Tryphon
in his contest with Antiochus VII Sidetes
Antiochus VII Sidetes
for the throne of the Macedonian Seleucid monarchy
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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Writing System
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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