HOME
The Info List - Byblos


--- Advertisement ---



Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (Arabic: جبيل‎  Lebanese Arabic pronunciation: [ʒbejl]; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
Governorate, Lebanon. It is believed to have been occupied first between 8800 and 7000 BC,[1] and according to fragments attributed to the semi-legendary pre- Homeric
Homeric
Phoenician priest Sanchuniathon, it was built by Cronus
Cronus
as the first city in Phoenicia.[2] It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world;[3][4] the site has been continuously inhabited since 5000 BCE.[5] It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[6]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
levels

2.1.1 Five levels stratigraphy

2.2 Egyptian period 2.3 Ancient history 2.4 Crusader, Mamluk, Ottoman period 2.5 Contemporary history

3 Demographics 4 Education 5 Tourism 6 The Byblos
Byblos
archaeological site[44] 7 Other historic buildings 8 Bibliography 9 International relations

9.1 Twin towns – sister cities

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Name[edit]

Old City of Byblos

Byblos
Byblos
harbor by night

The old souk in Byblos, Lebanon

Byblos

Terracotta jug from Byblos
Byblos
(now in the Louvre), Late Bronze Age (1600–1200 BC)

Gubal was a Canaanite city during the Bronze Age, at which time it also appears as Gubla (𒁺𒆷) in the Amarna letters. Early Egyptian records going back to the time of Senefru
Senefru
called the city Kebny (𓎡𓃀𓈖𓈉)[7].During the Iron Age
Iron Age
the city is called Gebal in Phoenician (𐤂𐤁𐤋) and appears in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
under the name Geval (Hebrew: גבל‎).[8] It was much later referred to as Gibelet, during the Crusades. The city's Canaanite/Phoenician name (GBL, i.e. Gubal, Gebal, etc.) can be derived from gb, meaning "well" or "origin", and El, the name of the supreme god of Byblos' pantheon. The present-day city is known by the Arabic name Jbail or Jbeil (جبيل), a direct descendant of the Canaanite name. However, the Arabic name is most likely derived from the Phoenician word GBL [clarification needed] meaning "boundary", "district" or "mountain peak"; in the Ugaritic
Ugaritic
GBL can mean "mountain", similarly to Arabic jabal. The Ancient Greek Βύβλος, whence we get our Byblos, was the interpretation of Gubla/Gebal. Papyrus
Papyrus
received its early Greek name βύβλος (bublos) from its importation to the Aegean through this city. The Ancient Greek words βίβλος, diminutive βιβλίον (biblos, biblion), plural βίβλοι, diminutive βιβλία (bibli, biblia), and ultimately the word "Bible" ("the (papyrus) book") hence the Holy Bible, derive from that name.[9][10][11] The Phoenician city of Byblos
Byblos
was important for the export of papyrus from Egypt
Egypt
to Greece.[12] The Greek word "biblio" may come from the city's name, or conversely, its name might come from a Greek mispronunciation of the Egyptian word "papyrus."[13] Another theory is that "biblio" was the word for a codex, or early type of bound book: "the word Bible
Bible
comes from the town where the Byzantine monks established their first scriptorium, Byblos, in modern Lebanon."[14][better source needed] History[edit] Byblos
Byblos
is located about 42 kilometres (26 mi) north of Beirut. It is attractive to archaeologists because of the successive layers of debris resulting from centuries of human habitation. It was first excavated by Pierre Montet
Pierre Montet
from 1921 until 1924, followed by Maurice Dunand from 1925 over a period of forty years.[15][16] The site first appears to have been settled during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Neolithic
B period, approximately 8800 to 7000 BC.[1][17] Neolithic remains of some buildings can be observed at the site. According to the writer Philo of Byblos (quoting Sanchuniathon, and quoted in Eusebius), Byblos
Byblos
had the reputation of being the oldest city in the world, founded by Cronus. During the 3rd millennium BC, the first signs of a town can be observed, with the remains of well-built houses of uniform size. This was the period when the Canaanite civilization began to develop. Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
levels[edit] Jacques Cauvin published studies of flint tools from the stratified Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
sites in 1962.[18] Remains of humans found in Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
burials have been published by Henri Victor Vallois in 1937.[19] Tombs from this era were discussed by Emir M. Chehab in 1950.[20] Early pottery found at the tell was published by E.S. Boynton in 1960 with further studies by R. Erich in 1954 and Van Liere and Henri de Contenson
Henri de Contenson
in 1964.[21][22][23] Five levels stratigraphy[edit] Prehistoric settlements at Byblos
Byblos
were divided up by Dunand into the following five periods, which were recently expanded and re-calibrated by Yosef Garfinkel
Yosef Garfinkel
to correlate with Jericho;

Néolithique Ancien (Early Phase) (Ancient Neolithic) corresponding to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
(PPNB) of Jericho, represented by plastered floors and naviforme technology, dated between 8800 and 7000 BC; Néolithique Ancien (Late Phase) corresponding to the PNA of Jericho IX (also Yarmukian) between 6400 and 5800 BC represented by pottery, sickle blades, figurines and small points, dated between 6400 and 5800 BC; Néolithique Moyen (Middle Neolithic) corresponding to the PNB of Jericho
Jericho
VIII and represented by pottery, dated between 5800 and 5300 BC; Néolithique Récent (Late Neolithic) corresponding to the Middle Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
of Beth Shean
Beth Shean
and represented by pottery, stone vessels, silos, chamber tombs and seals, dated between 5300 and 4500 BC; Énéolithique Ancient (Ancient Chalcolithic) corresponding to the Late Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
of Ghassulian, represented by jar burials, pierced flint, churn and a violin figurine, dated to between 4500 and 3600 BC and, Énéolithique Récent (Late Chalcolithic) corresponding to the Early Bronze Age, represented by architecture and cylinder seal impressions, dated to between 3600 and 3100 BC.[1]

Néolithique Ancien was a later settlement than others in the Beqaa Valley such as Labweh
Labweh
and Ard Tlaili. It was located on the seaward slope of the larger of the two hills that used to compose ancient Byblos, with a watered valley in between.[24] The original site spread down into the valley and covered an area of 1.2 hectares (12,000 m2) providing fertile soils and a protected landing place for boats. Dunand discovered around twenty houses although some of the settlement was suggested to have been lost to the sea, robbed or destroyed.[16][25][26][27][28][29][30] Dwellings were rectangular with plastered floors, pottery was usually Dark faced burnished ware with some shell impressions.[31] Néolithique Moyen was a smaller settlement of no more than 0.15 hectares (1,500 m2) adjacent to the older site. The pottery was more developed with red washes and more varied forms and elaborate decorations, buildings were poorer with unplastered floors. The Néolithique Récent period showed development from the Moyen in building design, a wider range of more developed flint tools and a far larger variety of pottery with fabrication including silica. Énéolithique Ancien featured developments of "Canaanean blades" and fan scrapers. Adult burials in jars started to appear along with metal in the form of one copper hook, found in a jar. Some jars were lined with white plaster that was applied and self-hardened after firing.[32] Copper
Copper
appeared more frequently in the Énéolithique Récent period along with multiple burials in tombs and jar handles with impressed signs.[21] Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
remains were characterized by the development of Byblos
Byblos
combed ware and a lithic assemblage studied by Jacques Cauvin.[24][33] According to Lorenzo Nigro, Byblos
Byblos
moved from being a fishermen's village to its earlier urban form at the beginning of the third millennium BC.[34] Egyptian period[edit] Watson Mills and Roger Bullard suggest that during the Old Kingdom, Byblos
Byblos
was virtually an Egyptian colony.[15] The growing city was evidently a wealthy one and seems to have been an ally (among "those who are on his waters") of Egypt
Egypt
for many centuries. First Dynasty tombs used timbers from Byblos. One of the oldest Egyptian words for an oceangoing boat was " Byblos
Byblos
ship". Archaeologists have recovered Egyptian-made artifacts as old as a vessel fragment bearing the name of the Second dynasty ruler Khasekhemwy, although this "may easily have reached Byblos
Byblos
through trade and/or at a later period".[35] Objects have been found at Byblos
Byblos
naming the 13th Dynasty Egyptian king Neferhotep I, and the rulers of Byblos
Byblos
maintained close relationships with the New Kingdom pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. Around 1350 BC, the Amarna tablets
Amarna tablets
include 60 letters from Rib-Hadda and his successor Ili-Rapih who were rulers of Byblos, writing to the Egyptian government. This is mainly due to Rib-Hadda's constant pleas for military assistance from Akhenaten. They also deal with the conquest of neighboring city-states by the Hapiru. It appears Egyptian contact peaked during the 19th dynasty, only to decline during the 20th and 21st dynasties. In addition, when the New Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
collapsed, in the 11th century BCE, Byblos
Byblos
ceased being a colony and became the foremost city of Phoenicia.[36] Although the archaeological evidence seems to indicate a brief resurgence during the 22nd and 23rd dynasties, it is clear after the Third Intermediate Period the Egyptians started favoring Tyre and Sidon instead of Byblos.[37] Archaeological evidence at Byblos, particularly the five Byblian royal inscriptions dating back to around 1200-1000 BC, shows existence of a Phoenician alphabetic script of twenty-two characters; an important example is the sarcophagus of king Ahiram. The use of the alphabet was spread by Phoenician merchants through their maritime trade into parts of North Africa and Europe. One of the most important monuments of this period is the temple of Resheph, a Canaanite war god, but this had fallen into ruins by the time of Alexander.

Traditional Lebanese house overlooking the Mediterranean sea, Byblos. This house is within the antiquities complex and illustrates the modern ground level with respect to excavations

Ruins at port.

Ancient history[edit] In the Assyrian period, Sibittibaal of Byblos
Byblos
became tributary to Tiglath-pileser III
Tiglath-pileser III
in 738 BC, and in 701 BC, when Sennacherib conquered all Phoenicia, the king of Byblos
Byblos
was Urumilki. Byblos
Byblos
was also subject to Assyrian kings Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
(r. 681–669 BC) and Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
(r. 668–627 BC), under its own kings Milkiasaph and Yehawmelek. In the Persian period (538–332 BC), Byblos
Byblos
was the fourth of four Phoenician vassal kingdoms established by the Persians; the first three being Sidon, Tyre, and Arwad. Hellenistic
Hellenistic
rule came with the arrival of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in the area in 332 BC. Coinage was in use, and there is abundant evidence of continued trade with other Mediterranean countries.

map of Roman era Phoenicia.

During the Greco-Roman period, the temple of Resheph
Resheph
was elaborately rebuilt, and the city, though smaller than its neighbours such as Tyre and Sidon, was a center for the cult of Adonis. In the 3rd century, a small but impressive theater was constructed. With the rise of Christianity, a bishopric was established in Byblos, and the town grew rapidly. Although a Persian colony is known to have been established in the region following the Moslem conquest of 636, there is little archaeological evidence for it. Trade with Europe
Europe
effectively dried up, and it was not until the coming of the First Crusade
First Crusade
in 1098 that prosperity returned to Byblos, known then as Gibelet or Jebail. Crusader, Mamluk, Ottoman period[edit]

The Crusades-era Church of St. John-Mark in Byblos

In the 12th and 13th century Byblos
Byblos
became part of the County of Tripoli, a Crusader state connected to, but largely independent from, the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Known by the Crusader name of Gibelet or Giblet, it came under the rule of the Genoese Embriaco family, who created for themselves the lordship of Gibelet. Their residence, the Crusader castle of Gibelet, along with the fortified town, served as an important military base for the Crusaders. The remains of the castle are among the most impressive architectural structures now visible in the town centre. The town was taken by Saladin
Saladin
in 1187, re-taken by the Crusaders, conquered by Baibars
Baibars
in 1266, but it remained in the possession of the Embriacos until around 1300. Its fortifications were subsequently restored.[dubious – discuss] From 1516 until 1918, the town and the whole region became part of the Ottoman Empire. Contemporary history[edit]

Byblos
Byblos
Historic Quarter

Byblos
Byblos
and all of Lebanon
Lebanon
was placed under French Mandate from 1920 until 1943 when Lebanon
Lebanon
achieved independence. The 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War negatively affected the ancient city by covering its harbor and town walls with an oil slick that was the result of an oil spill from a nearby power-plant.[38] This however has been cleared and the coastal area has since then become a destination for beach goers, especially in the late spring and throughout the summer season. Demographics[edit] Jbeil's inhabitants are predominantly Christians, mostly Maronites, with minorities of Armenian Apostolic, Greek Orthodox, and Greek Catholics. There is also a minority of Shia Muslims. It is said that the city of Bint Jbeil
Bint Jbeil
("daughter of Jbeil") in southern Lebanon
Lebanon
was founded by those Shi'i Muslims. Byblos
Byblos
has three representatives in the Parliament of Lebanon: two Maronites
Maronites
and one Shi'i.[39][40] Education[edit] Byblos
Byblos
is home to the professional schools of the Lebanese American University. The LAU Byblos
Byblos
Campus houses the Medical School, the Engineering School, the School of Architecture
Architecture
and Design, the only US-accredited Pharmacy School in the Middle East,[citation needed], the School of Business, and the School of Arts and Sciences. The Campus is situated on a hill overlooking the city and the Mediterranean Sea. Tourism[edit]

Byblos
Byblos
public beach

Byblos
Byblos
is re-emerging as an upscale touristic hub.[41] With its ancient port, Phoenician, Roman, and Crusader ruins, sandy beaches and the picturesque mountains that surround it make it an ideal tourist destination. The city is known for its fish restaurants, open-air bars, and outdoor cafes. Yachts cruise into its harbor today as they did in the 1960s and 1970s when Marlon Brando and Frank Sinatra were regular visitors to the city.[41] Byblos
Byblos
was crowned as the "Arab Tour Capital" for the year 2016 by the Lebanese minister of tourism in the Grand Serail in Beirut. Byblos
Byblos
was chosen by Condé Nast Traveler
Condé Nast Traveler
as the second best city in the Middle East
Middle East
for 2012, beating Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Dubai,[42] and by the World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization
as the best Arab tourist city for 2013.[43]

The King’s Spring

The Byblos
Byblos
archaeological site[44][edit]

The about 20 m deep Ain el-Malik or King’s Spring is a large cavity accessible by spiral stairs. Once it supplied the city with water. According to Plutarch’s version of the Egyptian Osiris
Osiris
myth, the king’s servants met Isis
Isis
around the stairs of the spring and took her to the royal palace, where she found the body of her husband Osiris
Osiris
embedded in one of the palace pillars.[45]

The L-shaped Temple

The L-shaped Temple, so called due to his shape, was erected about 2700 BCE.

The Temple of the Obelisks

The Temple of the Obelisks, originally built 1600-1200 BCE on top of the “L-shaped temple” was moved by archaeologists to its present location. The many small obelisks found in this temple were used as religious offerings. A large number of human figurines made of bronze covered with gold leaf and now displayed in the National Museum of Beirut, were buried in the sanctuary.

The necropolis dates back to the second millennium BCE and contains tombs of the Byblos
Byblos
kings amongst other things that of King Ahiram.

A Roman theater, built around 218 CE.

Other historic buildings[edit]

Byblos
Byblos
Wax Museum

Main article: Byblos
Byblos
Wax Museum The Byblos Wax Museum displays wax statues of characters whose dates of origin range from Phoenician times to current days.

Byblos
Byblos
Fossil Museum

Main article: Byblos
Byblos
Fossil Museum The Byblos Fossil Museum has a collection of fossilized fish, sharks, eel, flying fish, and other marine life, some of which are millions of years old.

Crusader Fort

Medieval city wall

The old medieval part of Byblos
Byblos
is surrounded by walls running about 270m from east to west and 200m from north to south.

Byblos
Byblos
Castle

Main article: Byblos
Byblos
Castle Byblos Castle
Byblos Castle
was built by the Crusaders in the 12th century. It is located in the archaeological site near the port.

St John the Baptist Church

Work on the church started during the Crusades
Crusades
in 1116. It was considered a cathedral and was partially destroyed during an earthquake in 1176 AD. When Islamic forces captured the city, it was transformed into a set of stables. It was later given to the Maronites as a gift by Prince Youssef Chehab of Lebanon
Lebanon
in the mid-1700s, after they aided him in capturing the city.

Sultan Abdul Majid mosque in Byblos, Lebanon

Sultan Abdul Majid Mosque

The old mosque by the Castle dates back to Mamlouk times in mid 1600, and adopted the name of Sultan Abdul Majid after he renovated it.

Historic Quarter and Souks

In the southeast section of the historic city, near the entrance of the archaeological site, is an old market where tourists can shop for souvenirs and antiques, or simply stroll along the old cobblestone streets and enjoy the architecture.

Byblos
Byblos
International Festival

Main article: Byblos
Byblos
International Festival This summer music festival is an annual event that takes place in the historic quarter. Bibliography[edit]

Nina Jidéjian, Byblos
Byblos
through the ages, Dar al Machreq, Beirut, 1968 Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Je m'appelle Byblos, H & D, Paris, 2005 (ISBN 2-914266-04-9)

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Lebanon Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Byblos
Byblos
is twinned with:

Tripoli, Lebanon

Patras, Greece Tripoli, Greece Sparta, Greece

Orange, France Valletta, Malta

Cádiz, Spain İzmir, Turkey

See also[edit]

Bazaar Bazaari Byblos
Byblos
syllabary Cities of the ancient Near East Embriaco family War of Saint Sabas Souq

References[edit]

^ a b c E. J. Peltenburg; Alexander Wasse; Council for British Research in the Levant (2004). Garfinkel, Yosef., "Néolithique" and "Énéolithique" Byblos
Byblos
in Southern Levantine Context* in Neolithic revolution: new perspectives on southwest Asia in light of recent discoveries on Cyprus. Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-84217-132-5. Retrieved 18 January 2012.  ^ "The Theology of the Phœnicians: From Sanchoniatho". www.sacred-texts.com.  ^ "Byblos". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ "The world's 20 oldest cities". The Telegraph. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2006). Cities of the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. ISBN 1-57607-919-8. Retrieved 2009-07-22. Archaeological excavations at Byblos
Byblos
indicate that the site has been continually inhabited since at least 5000 B.C.  ^ "Byblos". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ Wilkinson, Toby (2011). The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt
Egypt
book. New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0553384901.  ^ Yechezkel (Ezekiel) 27:9 ^ Brake, Donald L. (2008). A visual history of the English Bible: the tumultuous tale of the world's bestselling book. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8010-1316-4.  ^ " Byblos
Byblos
(ancient city, Lebanon) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-10-31.  ^ Beekes, R. S. P. (2009). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Leiden and Boston: Brill. pp. 246–7.  ^ https://phoenicia.org/byblosmart.html ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=tuacAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA198 ^ Bookbinding ^ a b Watson E. Mills; Roger Aubrey Bullard (1990). Mercer dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ a b Moore, A.M.T. (1978). The Neolithic
Neolithic
of the Levant. Oxford University, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. pp. 329–339.  ^ Vogel, J.C. Waterbolk, H.T., Groningen Radiocarbon Dates X, Radiocarbon, 14, 6–110 / 105, 1972. ^ Cauvin, Jacques., Les industries lithiques du tell de Byblos (Liban), L'Anthropologie, vol. 66, 5–6, 1962. ^ Vallois, H.V., Note sur les ossements humains de la nécropole énéolithique de Byblos
Byblos
(avec 2 planches). Bulletin du musée de Beyrouth. Tome I, 1937. Beyrouth, in 4° br., 1 f.n.c., 104 pages, 7 planches hors-texte. ^ Chehab, Emir M., Tombes des chefs d'époque énéolithique trouvés à Byblos, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth. Tome IX, 1949–1950, Beyrouth, in-4° br., 117 pages et 9 pages de texte arabe, 14 planches hors-texte et 1 carte dépliante. ^ a b Boynton, E.S., The Ceramic Industry of Ancient Lebanon. (Available in MS in American University of Beirut
Beirut
and in microfilm in Harvard
Harvard
Library) 1960. ^ Erich, R., Relative chronologies in Old World Archaeology, Chicago, 1954. ^ Van Liere, W. and Contenson, Henri de, "Holocene Environment and Early Settlement in the Levant", Annales archéologiques de Syrie, volume 14, pp. 125–128, 1964. ^ a b Lorraine Copeland; P. Wescombe (1965). Inventory of Stone-Age sites in Lebanon, p. 78-79. Imprimerie Catholique. Retrieved 21 July 2011.  ^ Dunand, Maurice., Rapport préliminaire sure les fouilles de Byblos en 1948, 1949, BULLETIN DU MUSEE DE BEYROUTH. Tome IX, 1949–1950, Beyrouth, in-4° br., 117 pages et 9 pages de texte arabe, 14 planches hors-texte et 1 carte dépliante. ^ Dunand, Maurice., Fouilles de Byblos, vol II, Atlas, Paris, 1950d (also part I, 1954 – part II, 1958) ^ Dunand, Maurice., Chronologie des plus anciennes installations de Byblos, Revue Biblique, vol. 57, 1950b ^ Dunand, Maurice., Rapport préliminaire sure les fouilles de Byblos en 1950, 1951 & 1952, Bulletin du musée de Beyrouth. Tome XII, 1955, Beyrouth, in-4° br., 58 pages, 16 pages de texte arabe, 20 planches hors-texte. ^ Dunand, Maurice., Rapport préliminaire sure les fouilles de Byblos en 1954, 1955, Bulletin du musée de Beyrouth. Tome XIII, 1956, Beyrouth, in-4° br., 95 pages, 3 figures ou plans, 28 planches hors-texte dont 2 transcriptions de texte. ^ Fleisch, Henri., Préhistoire au Liban en 1950, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Français, vol. 48, 1–2, p. 26. (Contains report on Byblos
Byblos
presented by Maurice Dunand to the 3rd C.I.S.E.A., Brussels, 1948), 1951. ^ Dunand, Maurice., Rapport préliminaire sure les fouilles de Byblos en 1960, 1961 & 1962, Bulletin du musée de Beyrouth. Tome XVII, 1964, Beyrouth, in-4° br., 110 pages, 7 planches. ^ Dunand, Maurice., Rapport préliminaire sure les fouilles de Byblos en 1957, 1958 & 1959, Bulletin du musée de Beyrouth. Tome XVI, 1961, Beyrouth, in-4° br., 135 pages. 26 figures, 40 planches hors-texte, 8 planches hors-texte en dépliant. ^ Fleisch, Henri., Néolithique du Proche-Orient, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Français, vol. 49, 5–6, p. 212. (Contains report on Byblos
Byblos
excavations of 1951 by Maurice Dunand), 1952. ^ Lorenzo Nigro (2007). "Aside the spring: Byblos
Byblos
and Jericho
Jericho
from village to town". In Nigro, Lorenzo. Byblos
Byblos
and Jericho
Jericho
in the early bronze I : social dynamics and cultural interactions : proceedings of the international workshop held in Rome on March 6th 2007 by Rome "La Sapienza" University. Università di Roma "La Sapienza". p. 35. ISBN 978-88-88438-06-1. Retrieved 17 February 2017.  ^ Wilkinson, Toby, 1999, Early Dynastic Egypt
Egypt
p.78. ^ "Byblos" in: Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 2, p. 692. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-85229-553-7 ^ Shaw, Ian: "The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt", page 321. Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-280458-7 ^ Dr. Lina G. Tahan. " ICOMOS
ICOMOS
Heritage at Risk 2006/2007" (PDF). ICOMOS.  ^ " Lebanon
Lebanon
Elections 2005". Proud-to-be-lebanese.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2012-10-31.  ^ "Elections municipales et ikhtiariah au Mont-Liban" (PDF). Localiban. Localiban. 2010. p. 19. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2015-07-24. Retrieved 2016-02-12.  ^ a b Beehner, Lionel (2010-01-03). "Byblos, Lebanon's Ancient Port, Is Reborn". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-27.  ^ "Middle East: Top 5 Cities: Readers' Choice Awards : Condé Nast Traveler". Cntraveler.com. 2012-10-16. Archived from the original on 2013-05-15. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Byblos
Byblos
crowned best Arab tourist city". Retrieved 20 June 2013.  ^ The Byblos
Byblos
archaeological site ^ The Isis
Isis
and Osiris
Osiris
legend

Library resources about Byblos

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Aubet, Maria Eugenia. The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. 2d ed. Translated by Mary Turton. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Baumgarten, Albert I., and Philo. The Phoenician History of Philo of Byblos: A Commentary. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1981. Elayi, Josette, and A. G. Elayi. A Monetary and Political History of the Phoenician City of Byblos: In the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C.E. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2014. Kaufman, Asher S. Reviving Phoenicia: In Search of Identity In Lebanon. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004. Moscati, Sabatino. The World of the Phoenicians. London: Phoenix Giant, 1999. Nibbi, Alessandra. Ancient Byblos
Byblos
Reconsidered. Oxford: DE Publications, 1985.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Byblos.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Byblos.

Lebanon, the Cedars' Land: Byblos Byblos
Byblos
info Embassy of Lebanon
Lebanon
in Canada Byblos
Byblos
in Belarus University of Cologne Radio Carbon Context Database

v t e

Jbeil
Jbeil
District, Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
Governorate

Capital: Jbeil

Towns and villages

Aabaydat Almat el-Chmaliyeh Almat el-Jnoubiyeh Amsheet Annaya Aqoura Adonis Afqa Ain ed-Delbeh Ain el-Ghouaybeh Ain Jrain Ain Kfaa Bazyoun Bchilleh Beer el-Hit Behdidat Bejjeh Bekhaaz Berbara Beithabbak Bichtlida -Fidar Bentael Birket Hjoula Blat Boulhos Brayj Chatine Chikhane Chmout Edde Ehmej Fatreh Ferhet Fghal Ghabat Ghalboun Gharzouz Ghorfine Habil Halat Haqel Hay el-Arabeh Hbaline Hboub Hdayneh Hjoula Hosrayel Hsarat Hsoun Jaj Janneh Jbeil Jeddayel Jenjol Jlisseh Jouret el-Qattine Kafr Kfar Baal Kfar Hitta Kfar Kiddeh Kfar Masshoun Kfar Qouas Kfoun Laqlouq Lassa Lehfed Maad Majdel Marj Mastita Mayfouq Mazraat es-Siyad Mechane Mghayreh Mish Mish Mounsef Nahr Ibrahim Qahmez Qartaba Qartaboun Qorqraiya Ram Ras Osta Rihaneh Seraaita Souaneh Tartej Tourzaiya Yanouh Zibdine

Landmarks

Byblos
Byblos
Castle Laqlouq
Laqlouq
skiing resort Abraham River Jaj
Jaj
Cedar National Park

v t e

Phoenician cities and colonies

Algeria

Cirta Malaca Igigili Hippo Regius Icosium Iol Tipasa Timgad

Cyprus

Kition Dhali Marion

Greece

Callista Paxi Rhodes

Italy

Karalis Lilybaeum Motya Neapolis Nora Olbia Panormus Solki Soluntum Tharros

Lebanon

Amia Ampi Arqa Baalbek Berut Botrys Gebal Sarepta Sur Sydon Tripolis

Libya

Leptis Magna Oea Sabratha

Malta

Gozo Għajn Qajjet Mtarfa Maleth Ras il-Wardija Tas-Silġ

Mauritania / Morocco

Cerne  /  Arambys Caricus Murus Chellah Lixus Tingis

Israel

Achziv Acre Arsuf Caesarea

Portugal

Olissipona Ossonoba

Spain

Abdera Abyla Akra Leuke Gadir Herna Ibossim Sa Caleta, Ibiza Mahón Malaca Onoba Qart Hadašt Rusadir Sexi Tyreche

Syria

Amrit Arwad Safita Shuksi Ugarit

Tunisia

Carthage Hadrumetum Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Kerkouane Leptis Parva Sicca Thanae Thapsus Utica

Turkey / others

Myriandrus Phoenicus  /  Gibraltar

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Lebanon

Byblos Anjar Baalbek Ouadi Qadisha (the Holy Valley) Forest of the Cedars of God
Cedars of God
(Horsh Arz el-Rab) Tyre

v t e

Archaeological sites in Lebanon

Aadloun Aaiha Aammiq Aaqbe Ain Aata Ain Choaab Ain Harcha Akbiyeh Akkar plain foothills Al-Bireh Amioun Amlaq Qatih Anjar, Lebanon Antelias cave Apheca Ard Saouda Ard Tlaili Arqa Baalbek Baidar ech Chamout Batroumine Batroun Bechamoun Beirut Beit Mery Berytus
Berytus
(Roman Beirut) Bustan Birke Byblos Canalizations of Zenobia Dahr El Ahmar Dakoue Deir El Aachayer Deir el Ahmar Deir Mar Maroun Dekwaneh Douris (Baalbek) Elaea (Lebanon) Flaoui Fadous Sud Hebbariye Hadeth south Haret ech Cheikh Hashbai Heliopolis of Phoenicia Hermel plains Iaat Jabal es Saaïdé Jbaa Jdeideh Jebel Aabeby Jeita Grotto Joub Jannine Jieh Kafr Zabad Kamid al lawz Kamouh el Hermel Karak Nuh Kaukaba Kefraya Kafr Tebnit Kfar Qouq Kfarhata Khallet Michte Khirbet El-Knese Kouachra
Kouachra
megalith field Ksar Akil Labweh Lake Qaraoun
Lake Qaraoun
(Ain Jaouze) Libbaya Lion Tower Majdal Anjar Mansourieh Maronite mummies Mayrouba Mdoukha
Mdoukha
(Jebel Kassir) Moukhtara Mtaileb Nabi Zair Nachcharini Nahle, Lebanon Neba'a Faour Nebi Safa Niha Bekaa Phoenician port of Beirut Plain of Zgharta Qaa Qal'at Bustra Qalaat Tannour Qaraoun Qasr el Banat Ras Baalbek
Baalbek
I Ras Beirut Ras El Kelb Rashaya Roman Forum of Berytus Roman hippodrome of Berytus Sands of Beirut Saraain El Faouqa Shheem Sidon Sin el Fil Sarepta Stone of the Pregnant Woman Tahun ben Aissa Taire Tayibe Tell Aalaq Tell Ablah Tell Addus Tell Ahle Tell Ain Cerif Tell Ain el Meten Tell Ain Ghessali Tell Ain Nfaikh Tell Ain Saouda Tell Ain Sofar Tell Ayoub Tell Bar Elias Tell Beshara Tell Bir Dakoue Tell Deir Tell Delhamieh Tell Derzenoun Tell Dibbine Tell el-Burak Tell El Ghassil Tell El Hadeth Tell Fadous Tell Hazzine Tell Hoch Rafqa Tell Karmita Tell Khardane Tell Kirri Tell Jezireh Tell Jisr Tell Kabb Elias Tell Majdaloun Tell Masoud Tell Mekhada Tell Meouchi Tell Mureibit Tell Murtafa Tell Nahariyah Tell Neba'a Chaate Tell Neba'a Litani Tell Qasr Labwe Tell Rasm El Hadeth Tell Rayak Tell Saatiya Tell Safiyeh Tell Saoudhi Tell Serhan Tell Shaikh Hassan al Rai Tell Shamsine Tell Sultan Yakoub Tell Taalabaya Tell Wardeen Tell Zenoub Tell Zeitoun Temnin el-Foka Temples of Mount Hermon Temples of the Beqaa Valley Temple of Bacchus Temple of Eshmun Temple of Jupiter Tlail megaliths Toron Tripolis (region of Phoenicia) Tyre Necropolis Tyre, Lebanon Wadi Boura Wadi Koura Wadi Yaroun Yammoune Yanta Ain W Zain Zahlé

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236822

.