CARTHAGE (/ˈkɑːrθɪdʒ/ , from
Latin : Carthāgō; Phoenician :
Qart-ḥadašt ("New city") was the center or capital city of the
ancient Carthaginian civilization , on the eastern side of the Lake of
Tunis in what is now the
Tunis Governorate in
The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an
empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC.
The legendary Queen
Dido is regarded as the founder of the city,
though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by
Timaeus of Tauromenium , she purchased from a local tribe the amount
of land that could be covered by an oxhide. Cutting the skin into
strips, she laid out her claim and founded an empire that would
become, through the
Punic Wars , the only existential threat to the
Roman Empire until the coming of the
Vandals several centuries later.
The ancient city was destroyed by the
Roman Republic in the Third
Punic War in 146 BC then re-developed as
Roman Carthage , which became
the major city of the
Roman Empire in the province of Africa . The
Roman city was again occupied by the
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb ,
in 698. The site remained uninhabited, the regional power shifting to
Medina of Tunis
Medina of Tunis in the medieval period, until the early 20th
century, when it began to develop into a coastal suburb of Tunis,
Carthage municipality in 1919.
The archaeological site was first surveyed in 1830, by Danish consul
Christian Tuxen Falbe . Excavations were performed in the second half
of the 19th century by
Charles Ernest Beulé and by Alfred Louis
Delattre . The
Carthage National Museum
Carthage National Museum was founded in 1875 by
Charles Lavigerie . Excavations performed by French
archaeologists in the 1920s attracted an extraordinary amount of
attention because of the evidence they produced for child sacrifice ,
in Greco-Roman and Biblical tradition associated with the Canaanite
Baal Hammon . The open-air
Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum
Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum has
exhibits excavated under the auspices of
UNESCO from 1975 to 1984.
* 1 Name
* 2 Topography
* 3 Ancient history
* 3.1 Punic Republic
* 3.3 Islamic period
* 4 Modern history
* 4.1 Archaeological site
* 4.2 Commune
* 5 Trade and business
* 6 Constitution of state
* 7 Contemporary sources
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 External links
Phoenicia § Etymology
Carthage /ˈkarθɪdʒ/ is the Early Modern anglicisation of
Carthage /kaʁ.taʒ/, from
Latin Carthāgō (cf. Greek
Karkhēdōn (Καρχηδών) and Etruscan *Carθaza) from the Punic
qrt-ḥdšt (𐤒𐤓𐤕 𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕) "new city", implying
it was a "new Tyre ". The
Latin adjective pūnicus, meaning
"Phoenician", is reflected in English in some borrowings from
Punic Wars and the
Punic language .
Modern Standard Arabic form قرطاج ( Qarṭāj ) is an
adoption of French Carthage, replacing an older local toponym reported
as Cartagenna that directly continued the
Archaeological map Archaeological Site of
Archaeological Site of
Carthage View of two columns at Carthage
Carthage was built on a promontory with sea inlets to the north and
the south. The city's location made it master of the Mediterranean's
maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had to pass between Sicily
and the coast of Tunisia, where
Carthage was built, affording it great
power and influence. Two large, artificial harbors were built within
the city, one for harboring the city's massive navy of 220 warships
and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both
harbors. The city had massive walls, 37 km (23 mi) in length, longer
than the walls of comparable cities. Most of the walls were located on
the shore, thus could be less impressive, as Carthaginian control of
the sea made attack from that direction difficult. The 4.0 to 4.8 km
(2.5 to 3 mi) of wall on the isthmus to the west were truly massive
and were never penetrated. The city had a huge necropolis or burial
ground, religious area, market places, council house, towers, and a
theater, and was divided into four equally sized residential areas
with the same layout. Roughly in the middle of the city stood a high
citadel called the
Carthage was one of the largest cities of the
Hellenistic period and
was among the largest cities in preindustrial history. Whereas by AD
14, Rome had at least 750,000 inhabitants and in the following century
may have reached 1 million, the cities of Alexandria and Antioch
numbered only a few hundred thousand or less. According to the not
always reliable history of
Carthage rivaled Alexandria for
second place in the Roman empire. Punic ruins in
On top of
Byrsa hill, the location of the Roman Forum , a residential
area from the last century of existence (early second century BCE.) of
the Punic city was excavated by the French archaeologist Serge Lancel.
The neighborhood, with its houses, shops, and private spaces, is
significant for what it reveals about daily life there over 2100 years
The remains have been preserved under embankments, the substructures
of the later Roman forum, whose foundation piles dot the district. The
housing blocks are separated by a grid of straight streets about 6 m
(20 ft) wide, with a roadway consisting of clay; in situ stairs
compensate for the slope of the hill. Construction of this type
presupposes organization and political will, and has inspired the name
of the neighborhood, "
Hannibal district", referring to the legendary
Punic general or sufet (consul) at the beginning of the second century
The habitat is typical, even stereotypical. The street was often used
as a storefront/shopfront; cisterns were installed in basements to
collect water for domestic use, and a long corridor on the right side
of each residence led to a courtyard containing a sump , around which
various other elements may be found. In some places, the ground is
covered with mosaics called punica pavement, sometimes using a
characteristic red mortar.
The merchant harbor at
Carthage was developed, after settlement of
the nearby Punic town of Utica . Eventually the surrounding
countryside was brought into the orbit of the Punic urban centres,
first commercially, then politically. Direct management over
cultivation of neighbouring lands by Punic owners followed. A
28-volume work on agriculture written in Punic by Mago , a retired
army general (c. 300), was translated into
Latin and later into Greek.
The original and both translations have been lost; however, some of
Mago's text has survived in other
Olive trees (e.g.,
grafting ), fruit trees (pomegranate , almond , fig , date palm ),
viniculture , bees , cattle , sheep , poultry , implements, and farm
management were among the ancient topics which Mago discussed. As
well, Mago addresses the wine-maker's art (here a type of sherry ).
In Punic farming society, according to Mago, the small estate owners
were the chief producers. They were, two modern historians write, not
absent landlords. Rather, the likely reader of Mago was "the master of
a relatively modest estate, from which, by great personal exertion, he
extracted the maximum yield." Mago counselled the rural landowner, for
the sake of their own 'utilitarian' interests, to treat carefully and
well their managers and farm workers, or their overseers and slaves.
Yet elsewhere these writers suggest that rural land ownership provided
also a new power base among the city's nobility, for those resident in
their country villas. By many, farming was viewed as an alternative
endeavour to an urban business. Another modern historian opines that
more often it was the urban merchant of
Carthage who owned rural
farming land to some profit, and also to retire there during the heat
of summer. It may seem that Mago anticipated such an opinion, and
instead issued this contrary advice (as quoted by the Roman writer
"The man who acquires an estate must sell his house, lest he prefer
to live in the town rather than in the country. Anyone who prefers to
live in a town has no need of an estate in the country." "One who has
bought land should sell his town house, so that he will have no desire
to worship the household gods of the city rather than those of the
country; the man who takes greater delight in his city residence will
have no need of a country estate."
The issues involved in rural land management also reveal underlying
features of Punic society, its structure and stratification . The
hired workers might be considered 'rural proletariat', drawn from the
local Berbers. Whether or not there remained Berber landowners next to
Punic-run farms is unclear. Some
Berbers became sharecroppers. Slaves
acquired for farm work were often prisoners of war. In lands outside
Punic political control, independent
Berbers cultivated grain and
raised horses on their lands. Yet within the Punic domain that
surrounded the city-state of Carthage, there were ethnic divisions in
addition to the usual quasi feudal distinctions between lord and
peasant, or master and serf. This inherent instability in the
countryside drew the unwanted attention of potential invaders. Yet
for long periods
Carthage was able to manage these social
The many amphorae with Punic markings subsequently found about
ancient Mediterranean coastal settlements testify to Carthaginian
trade in locally made olive oil and wine . Carthage's agricultural
production was held in high regard by the ancients, and rivaled that
of Rome—they were once competitors, e.g., over their olive harvests.
Under Roman rule, however, grain production ( and barley ) for export
increased dramatically in 'Africa'; yet these later fell with the rise
in Roman Egypt 's grain exports. Thereafter olive groves and vineyards
were re-established around Carthage. Visitors to the several growing
regions that surrounded the city wrote admiringly of the lush green
gardens, orchards, fields, irrigation channels, hedgerows (as
boundaries), as well as the many prosperous farming towns located
across the rural landscape.
Accordingly, the Greek author and compiler
Diodorus Siculus (fl. 1st
century BCE), who enjoyed access to ancient writings later lost, and
on which he based most of his writings, described agricultural land
near the city of
Carthage circa 310 BC:
"It was divided into market gardens and orchards of all sorts of
fruit trees, with many streams of water flowing in channels irrigating
every part. There were country homes everywhere, lavishly built and
covered with stucco. ... Part of the land was planted with vines, part
with olives and other productive trees. Beyond these, cattle and sheep
were pastured on the plains, and there were meadows with grazing
The Chora (farm lands of Carthage) encompassed a limited area: the
north coastal tell, the lower Bagradas river valley (inland from
Cape Bon , and the adjacent sahel on the east coast. Punic
culture here achieved the introduction of agricultural sciences first
developed for lands of the eastern Mediterranean, and their adaptation
to local African conditions.
The urban landscape of
Carthage is known in part from ancient
authors, augmented by modern digs and surveys conducted by
archeologists. The "first urban nucleus" dating to the seventh
century, in area about 10 hectares (25 acres), was apparently located
on low-lying lands along the coast (north of the later harbors). As
confirmed by archaeological excavations,
Carthage was a "creation ex
nihilo", built on 'virgin' land, and situated at the end of a
peninsula (per the ancient coastline). Here among "mud brick walls and
beaten clay floors" (recently uncovered) were also found extensive
cemeteries, which yielded evocative grave goods like clay masks.
"Thanks to this burial archaeology we know more about archaic Carthage
than about any other contemporary city in the western Mediterranean."
Already in the eighth century, fabric dyeing operations had been
established, evident from crushed shells of murex (from which the
'Phoenician purple' was derived). Nonetheless, only a "meager picture"
of the cultural life of the earliest pioneers in the city can be
conjectured, and not much about housing, monuments or defenses. The
Virgil (70–19 BC) imagined early Carthage, when his
legendary character Aeneas had arrived there: Walled city-state
of Carthage, before its fiery fall in 146 B.C.
"Aeneas found, where lately huts had been,
marvelous buildings, gateways, cobbled ways,
and din of wagons. There the Tyrians
were hard at work: laying courses for walls,
rolling up stones to build the citadel,
while others picked out building sites and plowed
a boundary furrow. Laws were being enacted,
magistrates and a sacred senate chosen.
Here men were dredging harbors, there they laid
the deep foundations of a theatre,
and quarried massive pillars... ."
The two inner harbours were located in the southeast; one being
commercial, and the other for war. Their definite functions are not
entirely known, probably for the construction, outfitting, or repair
of ships, perhaps also loading and unloading cargo. Larger
anchorages existed to the north and south of the city. North and west
of the cothon were located several industrial areas, e.g.,
metalworking and pottery (e.g., for amphora ), which could serve both
inner harbours, and ships anchored to the south of the city.
Byrsa , the citadel area to the north, considering its
importance our knowledge of it is patchy. Its prominent heights were
the scene of fierce combat during the fiery destruction of the city in
146 BC. The
Byrsa was the reported site of the Temple of
healing god), at the top of a stairway of sixty steps. A temple of
Tanit (the city's queen goddess) was likely situated on the slope of
the 'lesser Byrsa' immediately to the east, which runs down toward the
sea. Also situated on the
Byrsa were luxury homes.
South of the citadel, near the cothon (the inner harbours) was the
tophet , a special and very old cemetery , which when begun lay
outside the city's boundaries. Here the Salammbô was located, the
Sanctuary of Tanit, not a temple but an enclosure for placing stone
stelae . These were mostly short and upright, carved for funeral
purposes. The presence of infant skeletons from here may indicate the
occurrence of child sacrifice, as claimed in the Bible, although there
is considerable doubt among archeologists as to this interpretation
and many consider it simply a cemetery devoted to infants. Probably
the tophet burial fields were "dedicated at an early date, perhaps by
the first settlers."
Between the sea-filled cothon for shipping and the
Byrsa heights lay
the agora , the city-state's central marketplace for business and
commerce. The agora was also an area of public squares and plazas,
where the people might formally assemble, or gather for festivals. It
was the site of religious shrines, and the location of whatever were
the major municipal buildings of Carthage. Here beat the heart of
civic life. In this district of the Carthage, more probably, the
ruling suffets presided, the council of elders convened, the tribunal
of the 104 met, and justice was dispensed at trials in the open air.
Early residential districts wrapped around the
Byrsa from the south
to the north east. Houses usually were whitewashed and blank to the
street, but within were courtyards open to the sky. In these
neighborhoods multistory construction later became common, some up to
six stories tall according to an ancient Greek author. Several
architecutural floorplans of homes have been revealed by recent
excavations , as well as the general layout of several city blocks .
Stone stairs were set in the streets, and drainage was planned, e.g.,
in the form of soakways leaching into the sandy soil. Along the
Byrsa's southern slope were located not only fine old homes, but also
many of the earliest grave-sites, juxtaposed in small areas,
interspersed with daily life.
Artisan workshops were located in the city at sites north and west of
the harbours. The location of three metal workshops (implied from iron
slag and other vestiges of such activity) were found adjacent to the
naval and commercial harbours, and another two were further up the
hill toward the
Byrsa citadel. Sites of pottery kilns have been
identified, between the agora and the harbours, and further north.
Earthenware often used Greek models. A fuller 's shop for preparing
woolen cloth (shrink and thicken) was evidently situated further to
the west and south, then by the edge of the city.
produced objects of rare refinement. During the 4th and 3rd centuries,
the sculptures of the sarcophagi became works of art. "Bronze
engraving and stone-carving reached their zenith."
The elevation of the land at the promontory on the seashore to the
north-east (now called
Sidi Bou Saïd
Sidi Bou Saïd ), was twice as high above sea
level as that at the
Byrsa (100 m and 50 m). In between runs a ridge,
several times reaching 50 m; it continues northwestward along the
seashore, and forms the edge of a plateau-like area between the Byrsa
and the sea. Newer urban developments lay here in these northern
Carthage were walls "of great strength" said in places to
rise above 13 m, being nearly 10 m thick, according to ancient
authors. To the west, three parallel walls were built. The walls
altogether ran for about 33 kilometres (21 miles) to encircle the
city. The heights of the
Byrsa were additionally fortified ; this
area being the last to succumb to the Romans in 146 BC . Originally
the Romans had landed their army on the strip of land extending
southward from the city.
History of Carthage
History of Carthage A Carthaginian shekel , dated
237-227 BC, depicting the Punic god
Melqart (equivalent of Hercules
Heracles ), most likely with the features of
Hamilcar Barca , father
Hannibal Barca ; on the reverse is a man riding an elephant
Greek cities contested with
Carthage for the Western Mediterranean
culminating in the
Sicilian Wars and the
Pyrrhic War over
while the Romans fought three wars against Carthage, known as the
Punic Wars .
Ancient Carthage Downfall of the Carthaginian
Empire Lost to Rome in the First Punic War (264 – 241 BC) Won
after the First Punic War, lost in the
Second Punic War
Second Punic War Lost in the
Second Punic War
Second Punic War (218 – 201 BC) Conquered by Rome in the Third
Punic War (149 – 146 BC) Carthaginian-held territory in the
early 3rd century BC
The Carthaginian republic was one of the longest-lived and largest
states in the ancient Mediterranean. Reports relay several wars with
Syracuse and finally, Rome, which eventually resulted in the defeat
and destruction of
Carthage in the Third Punic War. The Carthaginians
were Phoenician settlers originating in the Mediterranean coast of the
Near East . They spoke Canaanite , a Semitic language , and followed a
local variety of the ancient Canaanite religion . Ruins of
The fall of
Carthage came at the end of the
Third Punic War in 146 BC
at the Battle of
Carthage . Despite initial devastating Roman naval
losses and Rome's recovery from the brink of defeat after the terror
of a 15-year occupation of much of Italy by
Hannibal , the end of the
series of wars resulted in the end of Carthaginian power and the
complete destruction of the city by
Scipio Aemilianus . The Romans
pulled the Phoenician warships out into the harbor and burned them
before the city, and went from house to house, capturing and enslaving
the people. About 50,000 Carthaginians were sold into slavery . The
city was set ablaze and razed to the ground, leaving only ruins and
rubble. After the fall of Carthage, Rome annexed the majority of the
Carthaginian colonies, including other North African locations such as
Volubilis , Lixus ,
Chellah , and
The legend that the city was sown with salt remains widely accepted
despite a lack of evidence among ancient historical accounts;
According to R.T. Ridley, the earliest such claim is attributable to
B.L. Hallward's chapter in Cambridge Ancient History, published in
1930. Ridley contended that Hallward's claim may have gained traction
due to historical evidence of other salted-earth instances such as
Abimelech 's salting of
Shechem in Judges 9:45. B.H. Warmington
admitted he had repeated Hallward's error, but posited that the legend
precedes 1930 and inspired repetitions of the practice. He also
suggested that it is useful to understand how subsequent historical
narratives have been framed and that the symbolic value of the legend
is so great and enduring that it mitigates a deficiency of concrete
Starting in the 19th century, various texts claim that after
defeating the city of
Carthage in the
Third Punic War (146 BC), the
Scipio Aemilianus Africanus ordered the city be sacked,
forced its surviving inhabitants into slavery , plowed it over and
sowed it with salt. However, no ancient sources exist documenting the
salting itself. The element of salting is therefore probably a later
invention modeled on the Biblical story of
Shechem . The ritual of
symbolically drawing a plow over the site of a city is mentioned in
ancient sources, but not in reference to
Carthage specifically. When
Boniface VIII destroyed
Palestrina in 1299, he issued a papal
bull that it be plowed "following the old example of
Africa" and also salted. "I have run the plough over it, like the
Carthage of Africa, and I have had salt sown upon it...."
Roman Carthage Main article:
Carthage fell, its nearby rival Utica , a Roman ally, was made
capital of the region and replaced
Carthage as the leading center of
Punic trade and leadership. It had the advantageous position of being
situated on the outlet of the
Medjerda River , Tunisia's only river
that flowed all year long. However, grain cultivation in the Tunisian
mountains caused large amounts of silt to erode into the river. This
silt accumulated in the harbor until it became useless, and Rome was
forced to rebuild Carthage.
By 122 BC,
Gaius Gracchus founded a short-lived colony , called
Colonia Iunonia , after the
Latin name for the Punic goddess
Iuno Caelestis. The purpose was to obtain arable lands for
impoverished farmers. The Senate abolished the colony some time later,
to undermine Gracchus' power.
After this ill-fated attempt, a new city of
Carthage was built on the
same land by
Julius Caesar in the period from 49 to 44 BC, and by the
first century, it had grown to be the second-largest city in the
western half of the
Roman Empire , with a peak population of 500,000.
It was the center of the province of Africa , which was a major
breadbasket of the Empire. Among its major monuments was an
Carthage also became a center of early Christianity (see Carthage
(episcopal see) ). In the first of a string of rather poorly reported
Carthage a few years later, no fewer than 70 bishops
Tertullian later broke with the mainstream that was
increasingly represented in the West by the primacy of the Bishop of
Rome , but a more serious rift among Christians was the Donatist
controversy , which
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo spent much time and parchment
arguing against. At the
Council of Carthage (397)
Council of Carthage (397) , the biblical canon
for the western Church was confirmed . The
Vandal Kingdom in 500,
The political fallout from the deep disaffection of African
Christians is supposedly a crucial factor in the ease with which
Carthage and the other centers were captured in the fifth century by
Genseric , king of the
Vandals , who defeated the Roman general
Bonifacius and made the city the capital of the
Vandal Kingdom .
Genseric was considered a heretic, too, an Arian , and though Arians
commonly despised Catholic Christians, a mere promise of toleration
might have caused the city's population to accept him.
After a failed attempt to recapture the city in the fifth century,
Roman Empire finally subdued the
Vandals in the Vandalic
War in 533–534. Thereafter, the city became the seat of the
praetorian prefecture of Africa , which was made into an exarchate
during the emperor Maurice\'s reign, as was
Ravenna on the Italian
Peninsula. These two exarchates were the western bulwarks of the
Byzantine Empire, all that remained of its power in the West. In the
early seventh century
Heraclius the Elder , the exarch of Carthage,
overthrew the Byzantine emperor
Phocas , whereupon his son Heraclius
succeeded to the imperial throne.
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb and Battle of Carthage
Exarchate of Africa was not able to withstand the
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb . The Umayyad Caliphate
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan in 686 sent a force led by Zuhayr ibn
Qais, who won a battle over the Romans and
Berbers led by King Kusaila
Kingdom of Altava
Kingdom of Altava on the plain of
Kairouan , but he could not
follow that up. In 695, Hasan ibn al-Nu\'man captured
advanced into the
Atlas Mountains . An imperial fleet arrived and
retook Carthage, but in 698, Hasan ibn al-Nu\'man returned and
Tiberios III at the 698 Battle of
Carthage . Roman
imperial forces withdrew from all of Africa except
Ceuta . Roman
Carthage was destroyed—its walls torn down, its water supply cut
off, and its harbors made unusable. The destruction of the Exarchate
of Africa marked a permanent end to the Byzantine Empire's influence
in the region.
Medina of Tunis
Medina of Tunis , originally a Berber settlement, was established
as the new regional center under the
Umayyad Caliphate in the early
8th century. Under the Aghlabids , the people of
numerous times, but the city profited from economic improvements and
quickly became the second most important in the kingdom. It was
briefly the national capital, from the end of the reign of Ibrahim II
in 902, until 909, when the Shi\'ite
Berbers took over
Fatimid Caliphate .
Carthage remained a residential see until the high medieval period ,
mentioned in two letters of
Pope Leo IX dated 1053, written in reply
to consultations regarding a conflict between the bishops of Carthage
and Gummi . In each of the two letters, Pope Leo declares that, after
the Bishop of Rome, the first archbishop and chief metropolitan of the
whole of Africa is the bishop of Carthage. Later, an archbishop of
Carthage named Cyriacus was imprisoned by the Arab rulers because of
an accusation by some Christians.
Pope Gregory VII wrote him a letter
of consolation, repeating the hopeful assurances of the primacy of the
Church of Carthage, "whether the Church of
Carthage should still lie
desolate or rise again in glory". By 1076, Cyriacus was set free, but
there was only one other bishop in the province. These are the last of
whom there is mention in that period of the history of the see.
Historical map of the
Tunis area (1903), showing St. Louis of
Sidi Bou Said and
Le Kram .
Carthage is some 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) east-northeast of Tunis;
the settlements nearest to
Carthage were the town of
Sidi Bou Said to
the north and the village of
Le Kram to the south. Sidi Bou Saint was
a village which had grown around the tomb of the eponymous sufi saint
(d. 1231), which had been developed into a town under Ottoman rule in
the 18th century.
Le Kram was developed in the late 19th century under
French administration as a settlement close to the port of La Goulette
Tunisia became a French protectorate , and in the same year
Charles Lavigerie , who was archbishop of Algiers, became apostolic
administrator of the vicariate of Tunis. In the following year,
Lavigerie became a cardinal . He "saw himself as the reviver of the
ancient Christian Church of Africa, the Church of Cyprian of
Carthage", and, on 10 November 1884, was successful in his great
ambition of having the metropolitan see of
Carthage restored, with
himself as its first archbishop. In line with the declaration of Pope
Leo IX in 1053,
Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII acknowledged the revived Archdiocese of
Carthage as the primatial see of Africa and Lavigerie as primate.
Acropolium of Carthage (Saint Louis Cathedral of Carthage) was
Byrsa hill in 1884.
The Danish consul
Christian Tuxen Falbe conducted a first survey of
the topography of the archaeological site (published in 1833).
Antiquarian interest was intensified following the publication of
Flaubert's Salammbô in 1858.
Charles Ernest Beulé performed some
preliminary excavations of Roman remains on
Byrsa hill in 1860. A
more systematic survey of both Punic and Roman-era remains is due to
Alfred Louis Delattre , who was sent to
Tunis by cardinal Charles
Lavigerie in 1875 on both an apostolic and an archaeological mission.
Audollent (1901, p. 203) cites Delattre and Lavigerie to the effect
that in the 1880s, locals still knew the area of the ancient city
under the name of Cartagenna (i.e. reflecting the
Auguste Audollent divides the area of
Roman Carthage into four
quarters, Cartagenna, Dermèche,
Byrsa and La Malga . Cartagenna and
Dermèche correspond with the lower city, including the site of Punic
Byrsa is associated with the upper city, which in Punic
times was a walled citadel above the harbour; and La Malga is linked
with the more remote parts of the upper city in Roman times.
French-led excavations at
Carthage began in 1921, and from 1923
reported finds of a large quantity of urns containing a mixture of
animal and children's bones.
René Dussaud identified a 4th-century BC
stela found in
Carthage as depicting a child sacrifice.
A temple at
Amman (1400–1250 BC) excavated and reported upon by
J.B. Hennessy in 1966, shows the possibility of bestial and human
sacrifice by fire. While evidence of child sacrifice in Canaan was the
object of academic disagreement, with some scholars arguing that
merely children's cemeteries had been unearthed in Carthage, the
mixture of children's with animal bones as well as associated
epigraphic evidence involving mention of mlk led to a consensus that,
at least in Carthage, child sacrifice was indeed common practice.
In 2016, an ancient Carthaginian individual, who was excavated from a
Punic tomb in
Byrsa Hill, was found to belong to the rare U5b2c1
maternal haplogroup. The Young Man of
Byrsa specimen dates from the
late 6th century BCE, and his lineage is believed to represent early
gene flow from
Iberia to the
In 1920, the first seaplane base was built on the
Lake of Tunis for
the seaplanes of Compagnie Aéronavale. The
Tunis Airfield opened in
1938, serving around 5,800 passengers annually on the Paris-Tunis
route. During World War II, the airport was used by the United States
Air Force Twelfth
Air Force as a headquarters and command control
base for the Italian Campaign of 1943. Construction on the
Tunis-Carthage Airport , which was fully funded by France, began in
1944, and in 1948 the airport become the main hub for
In the 1950s the Lycée Français de
Carthage was established to
serve French families in Carthage. In 1961 it was given to the
Tunisian government as part of the Independence of
Tunisia , so the
nearby Collège Maurice Cailloux in
La Marsa , previously an annex of
the Lycée Français de Carthage, was renamed to the Lycée Français
La Marsa and began serving the lycée level. It is currently the
Lycée Gustave Flaubert .
After Tunisian independence in 1956, the
Tunis conurbation gradually
extended around the airport, and
Carthage (قرطاج Qarṭāj) is
now a suburb of Tunis, covering the area between
Sidi Bou Said and Le
Kram. Its population as of January 2013 was estimated at 21,276,
mostly attracting the more wealthy residents. If
Carthage is not the
capital, it tends to be the political pole, a « place of emblematic
power » according to Sophie Bessis , leaving to
Tunis the economic
and administrative roles. The
Carthage Palace (the Tunisian
presidential palace) is located in the coast.
The suburb has six train stations of the
TGM line between
Le Kram and
Sidi Bou Said:
Carthage Salammbo (named for
Salambo , the fictional
daughter of Hamilcar),
Byrsa (named for
Byrsa hill), Carthage
Hannibal (named for
Hannibal ), Carthage
Présidence (named for the Presidential Palace ) and
TRADE AND BUSINESS
Map of the Mediterranean in 218 BC
The merchants of
Carthage were in part heirs of the Mediterranean
trade developed by Phoenicia, and so also heirs of the rivalry with
Greek merchants. Business activity was accordingly both stimulated and
Cyprus had been an early site of such commercial contests.
The Phoenicians then had ventured into the western Mediterranean,
founding trading posts, including Utica and Carthage. The Greeks
followed, entering the western seas where the commercial rivalry
continued. Eventually it would lead, especially in
Sicily , to several
centuries of intermittent war. Although Greek-made merchandise was
generally considered superior in design,
Carthage also produced trade
goods in abundance. That
Carthage came to function as a manufacturing
colossus was shown during the
Third Punic War with Rome. Carthage,
which had previously disarmed, then was made to face the fatal Roman
siege. The city "suddenly organised the manufacture of arms" with
great skill and effectiveness. According to
Strabo (63 BC – AD 21)
" each day produced one hundred and forty finished shields, three
hundred swords, five hundred spears, and one thousand missiles for the
catapults... . Furthermore, built one hundred and twenty decked ships
in two months... for old timber had been stored away in readiness, and
a large number of skilled workmen, maintained at public expense."
The textiles industry in
Carthage probably started in private homes,
but the existence of professional weavers indicates that a sort of
factory system later developed. Products included embroidery, carpets,
and use of the purple murex dye (for which the Carthaginian isle of
Djerba was famous). Metalworkers developed specialized skills, i.e.,
making various weapons for the armed forces, as well as domestic
articles, such as knives, forks, scissors, mirrors, and razors (all
articles found in tombs). Artwork in metals included vases and lamps
in bronze, also bowls, and plates. Other products came from such
crafts as the potters , the glassmakers , and the goldsmiths .
Inscriptions on votive stele indicate that many were not slaves but
Trade routes of
Phoenicia (Byblos, Sidon, Tyre)
(b) do the negotiations overseas, either by barter or buy and sell, of
(i) their own manufactured commodities and trade goods, and (ii)
native products (metals, foodstuffs, etc.) to carry and trade
elsewhere; and (c) send their agents to stay at distant outposts in
order to make lasting local contacts, and later to establish a
warehouse of shipped goods for exchange, and eventually perhaps a
settlement. Over generations, such activity might result in the
creation of a wide-ranging network of trading operations. Ancillary
would be the growth of reciprocity between different family firms,
foreign and domestic.
State protection was extended to its sea traders by the Phoenician
city of Tyre and later likewise by the daughter city-state of
Carthage. Stéphane Gsell, the well-regarded French historian of
ancient North Africa, summarized the major principles guiding the
civic rulers of
Carthage with regard to its policies for trade and
* (1) to open and maintain markets for its merchants, whether by
entering into direct contact with foreign peoples using either treaty
negotiations or naval power, or by providing security for isolated
* (2) the reservation of markets exclusively for the merchants of
Carthage, or where competition could not be eliminated, to regulate
trade by state-sponsored agreements with its commercial rivals;
* (3) suppression of piracy , and promotion of Carthage's ability to
freely navigate the seas.
Both the Phoenicians and the Cathaginians were well known in
antiquity for their secrecy in general, and especially pertaining to
commercial contacts and trade routes . Both cultures excelled in
Strabo (63BC-AD21) the Greek geographer wrote
that before its fall (in 146 BC)
Carthage enjoyed a population of
700,000, and directed an alliance of 300 cities. The Greek historian
Polybius (c.203–120) referred to
Carthage as "the wealthiest city in
CONSTITUTION OF STATE
A "suffet" (possibly two) was elected by the citizens, and held
office with no military power for a one-year term. Carthaginian
generals marshalled mercenary armies and were separately elected. From
about 550 to 450 the Magonid family monopolized the top military
position; later the Barcid family acted similarly. Eventually it came
to be that, after a war, the commanding general had to testify
justifying his actions before a court of 104 judges.
Aristotle (384–322) discusses
Carthage in his work, Politica ; he
begins: "The Carthaginians are also considered to have an excellent
form of government." He briefly describes the city as a "mixed
constitution", a political arrangement with cohabiting elements of
monarchy , aristocracy , and democracy , i.e., a king (Gk : basileus),
a council of elders (Gk: gerusia), and the people (Gk: demos). Later
Polybius of Megalopolis (c.204–122, Greek) in his Histories would
Roman Republic in more detail as a mixed constitution in
which the Consuls were the monarchy, the Senate the aristocracy, and
the Assemblies the democracy.
Carthage also had an institution of elders who advised the
Suffets, similar to a Greek gerusia or the
Roman Senate . We do not
have a Punic name for this body. At times its members would travel
with an army general on campaign. Members also formed permanent
committees . The institution had several hundred members drawn from
the wealthiest class who held office for life. Vacancies were probably
filled by recruitment from among the elite, i.e., by co-option . From
among its members were selected the 104 Judges mentioned above. Later
the 104 would come to evaluate not only army generals but other office
holders as well.
Aristotle regarded the 104 as most important; he
compared it to the ephorate of
Sparta with regard to control over
security. In Hannibal's time, such a Judge held office for life. At
some stage there also came to be independent self-perpetuating boards
of five who filled vacancies and supervised (non-military) government
Popular assemblies also existed at Carthage. When deadlocked the
Suffets and the quasi-senatorial institution of elders might request
the assembly to vote; also, assembly votes were requested in very
crucial matters in order to achieve political consensus and popular
coherence. The assembly members had no legal wealth or birth
qualification. How its members were selected is unknown, e.g., whether
by festival group or urban ward or another method.
The Greeks were favourably impressed by the constitution of Carthage;
Aristotle had a separate study of it made which unfortunately is lost.
In his Politica he states: "The government of
oligarchical, but they successfully escape the evils of oligarchy by
enriching one portion of the people after another by sending them to
their colonies." "heir policy is to send some to their dependent
towns, where they grow rich." Yet
Aristotle continues, "f any
misfortune occurred, and the bulk of the subjects revolted, there
would be no way of restoring peace by legal means."
"Many of the Carthaginian institutions are excellent. The superiority
of their constitution is proved by the fact that the common people
remain loyal to the constitution; the Carthaginians have never had any
rebellion worth speaking of, and have never been under the rule of a
Here one may remember that the city-state of Carthage, who citizens
were mainly Libyphoenicians (of Phoenician ancestry born in Africa),
dominated and exploited an agricultural countryside composed mainly of
native Berber sharecroppers and farmworkers, whose affiliations to
Carthage were open to divergent possibilities. Beyond these more
Berbers and the Punic farming towns and rural manors, lived
the independent Berber tribes, who were mostly pastoralists.
In the brief, uneven review of government at
Carthage found in his
Aristotle mentions several faults. Thus, "that the same
person should hold many offices , which is a favorite practice among
Aristotle disapproves, mentioning the flute-player
and the shoemaker. Also, that "magistrates should be chosen not only
for their merit but for their wealth." Aristotle's opinion is that
focus on pursuit of wealth will lead to oligarchy and its evils.
"urely it is a bad thing that the greatest offices... should be
bought. The law which allows this abuse makes wealth of more account
than virtue, and the whole state becomes avaricious. For, whenever the
chiefs of the state deem anything honorable, the other citizens are
sure to follow their example; and, where virtue has not the first
place, their aristocracy cannot be firmly established."
Carthage the people seemed politically satisfied and submissive,
according to the historian Warmington. They in their assemblies only
rarely exercised the few opportunities given them to assent to state
decisions. Popular influence over government appears not to have been
an issue at Carthage. Being a commercial republic fielding a mercenary
army, the people were not conscripted for military service, an
experience which can foster the feel for popular political action. But
perhaps this misunderstands the society; perhaps the people, whose
values were based on small-group loyalty, felt themselves sufficiently
connected to their city's leadership by the very integrity of the
person-to-person linkage within their social fabric.
Carthage was very
stable; there were few openings for tyrants . Only after defeat by
Rome devastated Punic imperial ambitions did the people of Carthage
seem to question their governance and to show interest in political
In 196, following the
Second Punic War
Second Punic War (218–201),
Hannibal Barca ,
still greatly admired as a Barcid military leader, was elected suffet
. When his reforms were blocked by a financial official about to
become a judge for life,
Hannibal rallied the populace against the 104
judges. He proposed a one-year term for the 104, as part of a major
civic overhaul. Additionally, the reform included a restructuring of
the city's revenues, and the fostering of trade and agriculture. The
changes rather quickly resulted in a noticeable increase in
prosperity. Yet his incorrigible political opponents cravenly went to
Rome, to charge
Hannibal with conspiracy, namely, plotting war against
Rome in league with Antiochus the Hellenic ruler of Syria . Although
Scipio Africanus resisted such manoeuvre, eventually
intervention by Rome forced
Hannibal to leave Carthage. Thus, corrupt
city officials efficiently blocked
Hannibal Barca in his efforts to
reform the government of Carthage.
Mago (6th century) was King of Carthage; the head of state , war
leader, and religious figurehead. His family was considered to possess
a sacred quality. Mago's office was somewhat similar to that of a
pharaoh , but although kept in a family it was not hereditary, it was
limited by legal consent. Picard, accordingly, believes that the
council of elders and the popular assembly are late institutions.
Carthage was founded by the king of Tyre who had a royal monopoly on
this trading venture. Thus it was the royal authority stemming from
this traditional source of power that the King of
Later, as other Phoenician ship companies entered the trading region,
and so associated with the city-state, the King of
Carthage had to
keep order among a rich variety of powerful merchants in their
negotiations among themselves and over risky commerce across the
Mediterranean. Under these circumstance, the office of king began to
be transformed. Yet it was not until the aristocrats of Carthage
became wealthy owners of agricultural lands in Africa that a council
of elders was institutionalized at Carthage.
Most ancient literature concerning
Carthage comes from Greek and
Roman sources as Carthage's own documents were destroyed by the
Romans. Apart from inscriptions , hardly any Punic literature has
survived, and none in its own language and script. A brief catalogue
* three short treaties with Rome (
* several pages of
Hanno the Navigator 's log-book concerning his
fifth century maritime exploration of the Atlantic coast of west
Africa (Greek translation);
* fragments quoted from Mago 's fourth/third century 28-volume
treatise on agriculture (
* the Roman playwright
Plautus (c. 250 – 184) in his Poenulus
incorporates a few fictional speeches delivered in Punic , whose
written lines are transcribed into
Latin letters phonetically;
* the thousands of inscriptions made in Punic script, thousands, but
many extremely short, e.g., a dedication to a deity with the personal
name(s) of the devotee(s).
"rom the Greek author
Plutarch we learn of the 'sacred books' in
Punic safeguarded by the city's temples. Few Punic texts survive,
however." Once "the City Archives, the Annals, and the scribal lists
of suffets" existed, but evidently these were destroyed in the
horrific fires during the Roman capture of the city in 146 BC.
Yet some Punic books (Latin: libri punici) from the libraries of
Carthage reportedly did survive the fires. These works were
apparently given by Roman authorities to the newly augmented Berber
rulers. Over a century after the fall of Carthage, the Roman
politician-turned-author Gaius Sallustius Crispus or
reported his having seen volumes written in Punic, which books were
said to be once possessed by the Berber king,
Hiempsal II (r.
88–81). By way of Berber informants and Punic translators,
Sallust had used these surviving books to write his brief sketch of
Juba II , reigned 25 BCE – 23 CE
Probably some of Hiempsal II's libri punici, that had escaped the
fires that consumed
Carthage in 146 BC, wound up later in the large
royal library of his grandson
Juba II (r.25 BC-AD 24).
Juba II not
only was a Berber king , and husband of
Cleopatra 's daughter, but
also a scholar and author in Greek of no less than nine works. He
wrote for the Mediterranean-wide audience then enjoying classical
literature . The libri punici inherited from his grandfather surely
became useful to him when composing his Libyka, a work on North Africa
written in Greek. Unfortunately, only fragments of Libyka survive,
mostly from quotations made by other ancient authors. It may have
Juba II who 'discovered' the five-centuries-old 'log book' of
Hanno the Navigator , called the Periplus, among library documents
saved from fallen Carthage.
In the end, however, most Punic writings that survived the
Carthage "did not escape the immense wreckage in which
so many of Antiquity's literary works perished." Accordingly, the
long and continuous interactions between Punic citizens of Carthage
and the Berber communities that surrounded the city have no local
historian. Their political arrangements and periodic crises, their
economic and work life, the cultural ties and social relations
established and nourished (infrequently as kin), are not known to us
directly from ancient Punic authors in written accounts. Neither side
has left us their stories about life in Punic-era Carthage.
Regarding Phoenician writings, few remain and these seldom refer to
Carthage. The more ancient and most informative are cuneiform tablets,
ca. 1600–1185, from ancient
Ugarit , located to the north of
Phoenicia on the Syrian coast; it was a Canaanite city politically
affiliated with the Hittites. The clay tablets tell of myths, epics,
rituals, medical and administrative matters, and also correspondence.
The highly valued works of
Sanchuniathon , an ancient priest of
Beirut, who reportedly wrote on Phoenician religion and the origins of
civilization, are themselves completely lost, but some little content
endures twice removed.
Sanchuniathon was said to have lived in the
11th century, which is considered doubtful. Much later a Phoenician
Philo of Byblos (64–141) reportedly existed, written in
Greek, but only fragments of this work survive. An explanation
proffered for why so few Phoenician works endured: early on (11th
century) archives and records began to be kept on papyrus , which does
not long survive in a moist coastal climate. Also, both Phoenicians
and Carthaginians were well known for their secrecy .
Thus, of their ancient writings we have little of major interest left
to us by Carthage, or by
Phoenicia the country of origin of the city
founders. "Of the various Phoenician and Punic compositions alluded to
by the ancient classical authors, not a single work or even fragment
has survived in its original idiom." "Indeed, not a single Phoenician
manuscript has survived in the original or in translation." We
cannot therefore access directly the line of thought or the contour of
their worldview as expressed in their own words, in their own voice.
Ironically, it was the Phoenicians who "invented or at least perfected
and transmitted a form of writing that has influenced dozens of
cultures including our own."
As noted, the celebrated ancient books on agriculture written by Mago
Carthage survives only via quotations in
Latin from several later
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Carthage (episcopal see)
* ^ Hitchner, R., DARMC, R. Talbert, S. Gillies, J. Åhlfeldt, R.
Warner, J. Becker, T. Elliott. "Places: 314921 (Carthago)". Pleiades.
Retrieved 7 April 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link
* ^ "F-LE
Dido and the Foundation of Carthage". Illustrative
Mathematics. Illustrative Mathematics. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
* ^ c.f. Marlowes Dido, Queen of
Carthage (c. 1590); Middle English
still used the
Latin form Carthago, e.g.,
John Trevisa , Polychronicon
(1387) 1.169: That womman
Dido that founded Carthago was comlynge.
* ^ adjective qrt-ḥdty "Carthaginian"; compare Aramaic קרת
חדתה, Qeret Ḥadatha, and Hebrew קרת חדשה, Qeret
Ḥadašah. Wolfgang David Cirilo de Melo (ed), Amphitryon, Volume 4
of The Loeb Classical Library: Plautus, Harvard University Press,
2011, p. 210; D. Gary Miller,
Ancient Greek Dialects and Early
Authors: Introduction to the Dialect Mixture in Homer, with Notes on
Lyric and Herodotus, Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 39.
* ^ "Carthage: new excavations in a Mediterranean capital".
* ^ Audollent (1901:203)
* ^ Martin Percival Charlesworth; Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards;
John Boardman; Frank William Walbank (2000). "Rome+was+larger" The
Cambridge Ancient History: The fourth century B.C., 2nd ed., 1994.
University Press. p. 813.
* ^ Robert McQueen Grant (1 January 2004). Augustus to Constantine:
The Rise and Triumph of Christianity in the Roman World. Westminster
John Knox Press. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-664-22772-2 .
* ^ Serge Lancel and Jean-Paul Morel, "Byrsa. Punic vestiges"; To
save Carthage. Exploration and conservation of the city Punic, Roman
and Byzantine, Unesco / INAA, 1992, pp. 43–59
* ^ Stéphanie Gsell, Histoire ancienne de l'Afrique du Nord,
volume four (Paris 1920).
* ^ Serge Lancel, Carthage. A History (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992;
Oxford: Blackwell 1995) at 273–274 (Mago quoted by Columella),
278–279 (Mago and Cato 's book), 358 (translations).
* ^ Gilbert and
Colette Picard , La vie quotidienne à
Hannibal (Paris: Librairie Hachette 1958), translated as Daily
Carthage (London: George Allen reprint Macmillan, New York
1968) at 83–93: 88 (Mago as retired general), 89–91 (fruit trees),
90 (grafting), 89–90 (vineyards), 91–93 (livestock and bees),
148–149 (wine making). Elephants also, of course, were captured and
reared for war (at 92).
* ^ Sabatino Moscati, Il mondo dei Fenici (1966), translated as The
World of the Phoenicians (London: Cardinal 1973) at 219–223.
Hamilcar is named as another Carthaginian writing on agriculture (at
* ^ Serge Lancel,
Carthage (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992; Oxford:
Blackwell 1995), discussion of wine making and its 'marketing' at
273–276. Lancel says (at 274) that about wine making, Mago was
silent. Punic agriculture and rural life are addressed at 269–302.
* ^ G. and C. Charles-Picard, La vie quotidienne à
Hannibal (Paris: Librairie Hachette 1958) translated as Daily
Carthage (London: George Allen and Unwin 1961; reprint
Macmillan 1968) at 83–93: 86 (quote); 86–87, 88, 93 (management);
* ^ G. C. and C. Picard, Vie et mort de
Carthage (Paris: Librairie
Hachette 1970) translated (and first published) as The Life and Death
Carthage (New York: Taplinger 1968) at 86 and 129.
* ^ Charles-Picard, Daily Life in
Carthage (1958; 1968) at 83–84:
the development of a "landed nobility".
* ^ B. H. Warmington, in his
Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960;
reprint Penguin 1964) at 155.
* ^ Mago , quoted by
Columella at I, i, 18; in Charles-Picard,
Daily Life in
Carthage (1958; 1968) at 87, 101, n37.
* ^ Mago, quoted by
Columella at I, i, 18; in Moscati, The World of
the Phoenicians (1966; 1973) at 220, 230, n5.
* ^ Gilbert and Colette Charles-Picard, Daily Life in Carthage
(1958; 1968) at 83–85 (invaders), 86–88 (rural proletariat).
* ^ E.g., Gilbert Charles Picard and Colette Picard, The Life and
Carthage (Paris 1970; New York 1968) at 168–171, 172–173
(invasion of Agathocles in 310 BC). The mercenary revolt (240–237)
following the First Punic War was also largely and actively, though
unsuccessfully, supported by rural Berbers. Picard (1970; 1968) at
Plato (c. 427 – c. 347) in his Laws at 674, a-b, mentions
Carthage restricting the consumption of wine in
specified circumstances. Cf., Lancel,
Carthage (1997) at 276.
* ^ Warmington,
Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960, 2d ed. 1969) at
* ^ Serge Lancel,
Carthage (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992) translated
by Antonia Nevill (Oxford: Blackwell 1997) at 269–279: 274–277
(produce), 275–276 (amphora), 269–270 & 405 (Rome), 269–270
(yields), 270 per Soren, Khader, Slim,,
Carthage (1990) at 88.
* ^ Lancel,
Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 277.
* ^ Charles-Picard, Daily Life in
Carthage (1958; 1968) at 85
(limited area), at 88 (imported skills).
* ^ e.g., the Greek writers:
Diodorus Siculus ,
and, the Latin:
* ^ Serge Lancel,
Carthage (Paris 1992), as translated by A. Nevill
(Oxford 1997), at 38–45 and 76–77 (archaic Carthage): maps of
early city at 39 and 42; burial archaeology quote at 77; short quotes
at 43, 38, 45, 39; clay masks at 60–62 (photographs); terracotta and
ivory figurines at 64–66, 72–75 (photographs). Ancient coastline
from Utica to Cartage: map at 18.
* ^ Cf., B. H. Warmington,
Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960; 2d
ed. 1969) at 26–31.
Virgil (70–19 BC),
The Aeneid , translated by Robert
Fitzgerald . Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 31–32.
Ships then could also be beached on the sand.
* ^ Cf., Lancel,
Carthage (1992; 1997) at 139–140, city map at
* ^ The lands immediately south of the hill is often also included
by the term Byrsa.
* ^ Serge Lancel, Carthage. A history (Paris: Librairie Arthème
Fayard 1992; Oxford: Blackwell 1995) at 148–152; 151 and 149 map
(leveling operations on the Byrsa, circa 25 BC, to prepare for new
construction), 426 (Temple of Eshmun), 443 (
Byrsa diagram, circa
Byrsa had been destroyed during the Third Punic War
* ^ Charles-Picard, Daily Life in
Carthage (Paris 1958; London
1961, reprint Macmillan 1968) at 8 (city map showing the Temple of
Eshmoun, on the eastern heights of the Byrsa).
* ^ E. S. Bouchier, Life and Letters in Roman Africa (Oxford: B. H.
Blackwell 1913) at 17, and 75. The Roman temple to Juno Caelestis is
said to be later erected on the site of the ruined temple to
* ^ On the
Byrsa some evidence remains of quality residential
construction of 2nd century BC. Soren, Khader, Slim,
* ^ Jeffrey H. Schwartz, Frank Houghton, Roberto Macchiarelli, Luca
Bondioli “Skeletal Remains from Punic
Carthage Do Not Support
Systematic Sacrifice of Infants”
* ^ B. H. Warmington,
Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960; reprint
Penguin 1964) at 15 (quote), 25, 141; (London: Robert Hale, 2d ed.
1969) at 27 (quote), 131–132, 133 (enclosure).
* ^ See the section on Punic religion below.
* ^ Cf., Warmington,
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 141.
* ^ Modern archeologists on the site have not yet 'discovered' the
ancient agora. Lancel,
Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 141.
* ^ Warmington,
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 142.
Appian of Alexandria (c.95 – c.160s), Pomaika known as the
Roman History, at VII (Libyca), 128.
* ^ Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 133 Oxford 1997)
at 152–172, e.g., 163–165 (floorplans), 167–171 (neighborhood
diagrams and photographs).
* ^ Warmington,
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 139 (map of city, re the
* ^ Lancel,
Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 138–140. These
findings mostly relate to the 3rd century BC.
* ^ Picard, The Life and Death of
Carthage (Paris 1970; New York
1968) at 162–165 (carvings described), 176–178 (quote).
* ^ Lancel,
Carthage (1992; 1997) at 138 and 145 (city maps).
* ^ This was especially so, later in the Roman era. E.g., Soren,
Carthage (1990) at 187–210.
* ^ Warmington,
Carthage (1964) at 138–140, map at 139; at
273n.3, he cites the ancients:
Diodorus Siculus ,
* ^ Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963), text at 34, maps
at 31 and 34. According to Harden, the outer walls ran several
kilometres to the west of that indicated on the map here.
* ^ Picard and Picard, The Life and Death of
Carthage (1968, 1969)
* ^ For an ample discussion of the ancient city: Serge Lancel,
Carthage (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992; Oxford: Blackwell 1995, 1997)
at 134–172, ancient harbours at 172–192; archaic
* ^ Herodotus, V2. 165–7
* ^ Polybius, World History: 1.7–1.60
* ^ Pellechia, Thomas (2006). Wine: The 8,000-Year-Old Story of the
Wine Trade. London: Running Press. ISBN 1-56025-871-3 .
* ^ "Ancient History". infoplease.com.
* ^ C. Michael Hogan (2007) Volubilis, The Megalithic Portal, ed.
by A. Burnham
* ^ A B Warmington, B. H. (1988). "The Destruction of
Carthage : A
Retractatio". Classical Philology. 83 (4): 308–310. doi
* ^ Ridley, R. T. (1986). "To Be Taken with a Pinch of Salt: The
Destruction of Carthage". Classical Philology. 81 (2): 140–146. doi
* ^ George Ripley;
Charles Anderson Dana (1863). The new American
encyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. D. Appleton
and company. p. 497.
* ^ Ripley, George ;
Charles Anderson Dana (1863). The New American
Cyclopædia: a Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. 4. p. 39.
* ^ Ridley, 1986
* ^ Stevens, 1988, p. 39-40.
* ^ Warmington, 1988
* ^ Sedgwick, Henry Dwight (2005). Italy In The Thirteenth Century,
Part Two. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. p. 324. ISBN 978-1-4179-6638-7 .
* ^ Bridges That Babble On: 15 Amazing Roman Aqueducts, Article by
Steve, filed under Abandoned Places in the Architecture category
* ^ Bosworth, C. Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic
World. Brill Academic Press. p. 436. ISBN 978-9004153882 .
Patrologia Latina vol. 143, coll. 727–731
* ^ Bouchier, E.S. (1913). Life and Letters in Roman Africa.
Oxford: Blackwells. p. 117. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
* ^ François Decret, Early Christianity in North Africa(James
Clarke & Co, 2011) p200.
* ^ Hastings, Adrian (2004) . "The Victorian Missionary". The
Church in Africa, 1450–1950. history of the Christian Church.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 255. doi
:10.1093/0198263996.003.0007 . ISBN 9780198263999 .
* ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lavigerie, Charles Martial
Allemand". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University
* ^ Joseph Sollier, "Charles-Martial-Allemand Lavigerie" in
Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1910) Jenkins, Philip (2011). The
next christendom : the coming of global Christianity (3rd ed.). Oxford
: Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780199767465 .
* ^ Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1910). "Lavigerie, Charles
Martial Allemand". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious
Knowledge . 6 (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls. p.
425. In 1964, the episcopal see of
Carthage had to be de-established
again, in a compromise reached with the government of Habib Bourguiba
, which permitted the
Catholic Church in
Tunisia to retain legal
personality and representation by the prelate nullius of Tunis.
* ^ Charles Ernest Beulé, Fouilles à Carthage, éd. Imprimerie
impériale, Paris, 1861.
* ^ Azedine Beschaouch, La légende de Carthage, éd. Découvertes
Gallimard, Paris, 1993, p. 94.
* ^ Dussaud, Bulletin Archéologique (1922), p. 245.
* ^ J.B. Hennessey, Palestine Exploration Quarterly (1966)
* ^ Matisoo-Smith EA, Gosling AL, Boocock J, Kardailsky O,
Kurumilian Y, Roudesli-Chebbi S, et al. (May 25, 2016). "A European
Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from
Carthage, North Africa" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 11 (5): e0155046. doi
:10.1371/journal.pone.0155046 . PMC 4880306 . PMID 27224451 .
Retrieved 27 May 2016.
* ^ Philippe Bonnichon; Pierre Gény; Jean Nemo (2012). Présences
françaises outre-mer, XVIe-XXIe siècles. KARTHALA Editions. p. 453.
ISBN 978-2-8111-0737-6 .
* ^ Encyclopedie Mensuelle d'Outre-mer staff (1954).
Negro Universities Press. p. 166.
* ^ "Qui sommes nous ?" (Archive). Lycée Gustave Flaubert (La
Marsa) . Retrieved on February 24, 2016.
* ^ Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (January 1996).
International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa.
Taylor & Francis. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-884964-03-9 .
* ^ Illustrated Encyclopaedia of World History. Mittal
Publications. p. 1615. GGKEY:C6Z1Y8ZWS0N.
* ^ "Statistical Information: Population". National Institute of
Statistics – Tunisia. Retrieved 3 January 2014. ; up from 15,922 in
2004 ("Population, ménages et logements par unité administrative"
(in French). National Institute of Statistics – Tunisia. Archived
from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014. )
* ^ David Lambert, Notables des colonies. Une élite de
circonstance en Tunisie et au Maroc (1881–1939), éd. Presses
universitaires de Rennes, Rennes, 2009, pp. 257–258
* ^ (in French) Sophie Bessis, « Défendre Carthage, encore et
toujours », Le Courrier de l\'Unesco, September 1999
* ^ "More
Tunisia unrest: Presidential palace gunbattle".
philSTAR.com. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
* ^ Cf., Charles-Picard, Daily Life in
Carthage (Paris 195; Oxford
1961, reprint Macmillan 1968) at 165, 171–177.
* ^ Donald Harden, The Phoenicians (New York: Praeger 1962, 2d ed.
1963) at 57–62 (
Cyprus and Aegean), 62–65 (western Mediterranean);
157–170 (trade); 67–70, 84–85, 160–164 (the Greeks).
Geographica , XVII,3,15; as translated by H. L. Jones
(Loeb Classic Library 1932) at VIII: 385.
* ^ Sabatino Moscati, The World of the Phoenicians (1966; 1973) at
* ^ Richard J. Harrison, Spain at the Dawn of History (London:
Thames and Hudson 1988), "Phoenician colonies in Spain" at 41–50,
* ^ Cf., Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 157–166.
* ^ E.g., during the reign of Hiram (tenth century) of Tyre.
Sabatino Moscati, Il Mondo dei Fenici (1966), translated as The World
of the Phoenicians (1968, 1973) at 31–34.
* ^ Stéphane Gsell, Histoire ancienne de l'Afrique du Nord (Paris:
Librairie Hachette 1924) at volume IV: 113.
Strabo (c.63 B.C. – A.D. 20s), Geographia at III, 5.11.
* ^ Walter W. Hyde,
Ancient Greek Mariners (Oxford Univ. 1947) at
* ^ Warmington,
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 81 (secretive), 87
Geographica , XVII,3,15; in the Loeb Classic Library
edition of 1932, translated by H. L. Jones, at VIII: 385.
* ^ Cf.,
Theodor Mommsen , Römische Geschicht (Leipzig: Reimer and
Hirzel 1854–1856), translated as the History of Rome (London
1862–1866; reprinted by J. M. Dent 1911) at II: 17–18 (Mommsen's
Book III, Chapter I).
* ^ Warmington, B. H. (1964) . Carthage. Robert Hale, Pelican. pp.
* ^ Aristotle, Politica at Book II, Chapter 11, (1272b–1274b); in
The Basic Works of
Aristotle edited by R. McKeon, translated by B.
Jowett (Random House 1941), Politica at pages 1113–1316, "Carthage"
* ^ Polybius, Histories VI, 11–18, translated as The Rise of the
Roman Empire (Penguin 1979) at 311–318.
* ^ Warmington,
Carthage (1960; Penguin 1964) at 147–148.
* ^ Warmington,
Carthage (1960; Penguin 1964) at 148.
Aristotle presents a slightly more expansive interpretation of
the role of assemblies. Politica II, 11, (1273a/6–11); McKeon, ed.,
Basic Works of
Aristotle (1941) at 1172.
* ^ Compare
Roman assemblies .
* ^ Aristotle, Politica at II, 11, (1273b/17–20), and at VI, 5,
(1320b/4–6) re colonies; in McKeon, ed., Basic Works of Aristotle
(1941) at 1173, and at 1272.
* ^ "
Aristotle said that the oligarchy was careful to treat the
masses liberally and allow them a share in the profitable exploitation
of the subject territories." Warmington,
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 149,
citing Aristotle's Politica as here.
* ^ Aristotle, Politica at II, 11, (1273b/23–24) re misfortune
and revolt, (1272b/29–32) re constitution and loyalty; in McKeon,
ed., Basic Works of
Aristotle (1941) at 1173, 1171.
* ^ Aristotle, Politica at II, 11, (1273b/8–16) re one person
many offices, and (1273a/22–1273b/7) re oligarchy; in McKeon, ed.,
Basic Works of
Aristotle (1941) at 1173, 1172–1273.
* ^ Warmington,
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 143–144, 148–150. "The
fact is that compared to Greeks and Romans the Carthaginians were
essentially non-political." Ibid. at 149.
* ^ H. H. Scullard, A History of the Roman World, 753–146 BC
(London: Methuen 1935, 4th ed. 1980; reprint Routledge 1991) at
* ^ Warmington,
Carthage at 240–241, citing the Roman historian
* ^ Picard, Life and Death of
Carthage (1968) at 80–86
* ^ Picard, Life and Death of
Carthage (1968, 1969) at 40–41
* ^ Cf., Warmington,
Carthage (1960; Penguin 1964) at 24–25
(Greeks), 259–260 (Romans).
* ^ B.H.Warmington, "The Carthiginian Period" at 246–260, 246
("No Carthaginian literature has survived."), in General History of
Africa, volume III. Ancient Civilizations of Africa (
* ^ R. Bosworth Smith,
Carthage and the Carthaginians (London:
Longmans, Green 1878, 1902) at 12. Smith's catalogue has not been
appreciably augmented since, but for newly found inscriptions.
* ^ Picard, Life and Death of
Carthage (1968, 1969) at 72–73:
translation of Romano-Punic Treaty, 509 BC; at 72–78: discussion.
Polybius (c. 200 – 118), Istorion at III, 22–25, selections
translated as Rise of the
Roman Empire (Penguin 1979) at 199–203.
Polybius died well over 70 years before the start of the
* ^ Cf.,
Arnold J. Toynbee , Hannibal's Legacy (1965) at I: 526,
Appendix on the treaties.
* ^ Hanno's log translated in full by Warmington,
* ^ E.g., by Varro (116–27) in his De re rustica; by Columella
(fl. AD 50–60) in his On trees and On agriculture, and by Pliny
(23–79) in his Naturalis Historia. See below, paragraph on Mago's
* ^ Harden, The Phoenicians (New York: Praeger 1962, 2d ed. 1963)
at 122–123 (28 books), 140 (quotation of paragraph).
* ^ Cf., H. J. Rose, A Handbook of Lanin Literature (London:
Methuen 1930, 3d ed. 1954; reprint Dutton, New York 1960) at 51–52,
where a plot summary of
Poenulus (i.e., "The Man from Carthage") is
given. Its main characters are Punic.
* ^ Eighteen lines from
Poenulus are spoken in Punic by the
character Hanno in Act 5, scene 1, beginning "Hyth alonim vualonuth
sicorathi si ma com sith... ."
Plautus gives a
Latin paraphrase in the
next ten lines. The gist is a prayer seeking divine aid in his quest
to find his lost kin. The Comedies of
Plautus (London: G. Bell and
Sons 1912), translated by
Henry Thomas Riley . The scholar Bochart
considered the first ten lines to be Punic, but the last eight to be
'Lybic'. Another scholar,
Samuel Petit , translated the text as if it
were Hebrew, a sister-language of Punic. This according to notes
accompanying the above scene by H. T. Riley.
* ^ Soren, Ben Khader, Slim,
Carthage (New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1990) at 42 (over 6000 inscriptions found), at 139 (many
very short, on religious stele).
* ^ An example of a longer inscription (of about 279 Punic
characters) exists at
Thugga , Tunisia. It concerns the dedication of
a temple to the late king
Masinissa . A translated text appears in
Brett and Fentress, The
Berbers (1997) at 39.
* ^ Glenn E. Markoe,
Carthage (2000) at 114.
* ^ Picard and Picard, Life and Death of
Carthage (1968, 1969) at
* ^ Cf., Victor Matthews, "The libri punici of King Hiempsal" in
American Journal of Philology 93: 330–335 (1972); and, Véronique
Krings, "Les libri Punici de Sallust" in L'Africa Romana 7: 109–117
(1989). Cited by Roller (2003) at 27, n110.
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (23–79), Naturalis Historia at XVIII,
* ^ Serge Lancel,
Carthage (Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard 1992;
Oxford: Blackwell 1995) at 358–360. Lancel here remarks that,
following the fall of Carthage, there arose among the Romans there a
popular reaction against the late
Cato the Elder (234–149), the
Roman censor who had notoriously lobbied for the destruction of the
city. Lancel (1995) at 410.
* ^ Ronald Syme, however, in his
Sallust (University of California,
1964, 2002) at 152–153, discounts any unique value of the libri
punici mentioned in his Bellum Iugurthinum.
* ^ Lancel,
Carthage (1992, 1995) at 359, raises questions
concerning the provenance of these books.
Hiempsal II was the great-grandson of
Masinissa (r. 202–148),
through Mastanabal (r. 148–140) and Gauda (r. 105–88). D. W.
Roller, The World of
Juba II and Kleopatra Selene (2003) at 265.
* ^ Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum (ca. 42) at ¶17, translated as The
Jugurthine War (Penguin 1963) at 54.
* ^ R. Bosworth Smith, in his
Carthage and the Carthaginians
(London: Longmans, Green 1878, 1908) at 38, laments that Sallust
declined to directly address the history of the city of Carthage.
* ^ Duane W. Roller, The World of
Juba II and Kleopatra Selene.
Royal scholarship on Rome's African frontier (New York: Routledge
2003), at 183, 191, in his Chapter 8: "Libyka" (183–211) ; also at
19, 27, 159 (Juba's library described), 177 (per his book on Hanno).
* ^ Juba II's literary works are reviewed by D. W. Roller in The
World of Jube II and Kleopatra Selene (2003) at chapters 7, 8, and 10.
* ^ Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker (Leiden 1923–), ed.
Felix Jacoby, re "Juba II" at no. 275 (per Roller (2003) at xiii,
* ^ Duane W. Roller, The World of
Juba II and Kleopatra Selene
(2003) at 189, n22; cf., 177.
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (23–79), Naturalis Historia V, 8; II, 169.
* ^ Cf., Picard and Picard, The Life and Death of
Hachette ; New York: Taplinger 1969) at 93–98, 115–119.
* ^ Serge Lancel, Carthage. A History (Paris 1992; Oxford 1995) at
* ^ See section herein on Berber relations . See Early History of
Tunisia for both indigenous and foreign reports concerning the
Berbers, both in pre-Punic and Punic times.
* ^ Glenn E. Markoe, Phoenicians (London: British Museum, Berkeley:
University of California 2000) at 21–22 (affinity), 95–96
(economy), 115–119 (religion), 137 (funerals), 143 (art).
* ^ David Diringer, Writing (London: Thames and Hudson 1962) at
Ugarit tablet were discovered in 1929.
* ^ Allen C. Myers, editor, The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary (Grand
Rapids: 1987) at 1027–1028.
* ^ Markoe, Phoenicians (2000) at 119.
Eusebius of Caesarea
(263–339), the Church Historian, quotes the Greek of Philo of Byblos
whose source was the Phoenician writings of Sanchuniathon. Some doubt
the existence of Sanchuniathon.
* ^ Cf., Attridge Baumgarten, Phoenician History of Philo of Byblos
(1981). Cited by Markoe (2000).
* ^ Donald Harden, The Phoenicians (New York: Praeger 1962, 2d ed.
1963) at 83–84.
* ^ Sabatino Moscati, Il Mondo dei Fenici (1966), translated as The
World of the Phoenicians (London: Cardinal 1973) at 55. Prof. Moscati
offers the tablets found at ancient
Ugarit as independent
substantiation for what we know about Sanchuniathon's writings.
* ^ Soren, Khader, Slim,
Carthage (1990) at 128–129.
* ^ The ancient Romanized Jewish historian Flavius Josephus
(37–100s) also mentions a lost Phoenician work; he quotes from a
Phoenician History of one "Dius". Josephus, Against Apion (c.100) at
I:17; found in The Works of Josephus translated by Whiston (London
1736; reprinted by Hendrickson, Peabody, Massachusetts 1987) at
* ^ Glenn E. Markoe, Phoenicians (Univ.of California 2002) at 11,
110. Of course, this also applies to Carthage. Cf., Markoe (2000) at
Strabo (c. 63 B.C. – A.D. 20s), Geographia at III, 5.11.
* ^ "He knows all lingos, but pretends he doesn't. He must be
Punic; need we labor it?" From
Poenulus at 112–113, by the Roman
Plautus (c. 250–184). Cited by Hardon, The Phoenicians
(1963) at 228, n102.
* ^ Markoe, Phoenicians (2000) at 110, at 11. Inserted in second
Markoe quote: .
* ^ Cf., Harden, The Phoenicians (1963) at 123.
* ^ Soren, Ben Khader, Slim, '
Carthage (New York: Simon and
Schuster 1990) at 34–35 (script), at 42 (inserted in quote: ).
* ^ Steven Roger Fischer, A History of Writing (London: Reaktion
2001) at 82–93. Facsimiles of early alphabetical writing from
ancient inscriptions are given for: Proto-Canaanite in the Levant of
the 2nd millennium (at 88), Phoenician (Old Hebrew) in Moab of 842 (at
91), Phoenician (Punic) in Marseilles circa 300 BC (at 92). Also
given (at 92) is a bilingual (Punic and Numidian) inscription from
Thugga circa 218–201, which regards a temple being dedicated to
* ^ David Diringer, Writing (London: Thames and Hudson 1962) at
Polybius , The Histories, Cambridge : translated from the
W.R. Paton for Harvard University Press from 1922 to 1927 .
Polybius , "Rome at the End of the Punic Wars", History, Book VI,
Milwaukee: translated from the
Latin by Oliver J. Thatcher for
University Research Extension Co. in 1907 .
* Aubet, Maria Eugenia (1987), The Phoenicians and the West:
Politics, Colonies, and Trade, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
* Bath, Tony (1981), Hannibal's Campaigns, New York: Barnes & Noble
* Beschaouch, Azedine (1993), La légende de
Carthage , Découvertes
Gallimard , 172, Paris: Gallima