Carthage (/ˈkɑːrθɪdʒ/, from Latin: Carthago; Phoenician:
Qart-ḥadašt ("New city")) was the center or capital city of the
ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of
Tunis in what is now the
Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an
empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC.
The legendary Queen
Dido is regarded as the founder of the city,
though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by
Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of
land that could be covered by an oxhide. Cutting the skin into strips,
she laid out her claim and founded an empire that would become,
through the Punic Wars, the only existential threat to the Roman
Empire until the coming of the
Vandals several centuries later.
The ancient city was destroyed by the
Roman Republic in the Third
Punic War in 146 BC then re-developed as Roman Carthage, which became
the major city of the
Roman Empire in the province of Africa. The
Roman city was again occupied by the
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in
698. The site remained uninhabited, the regional power shifting to the
Medina of Tunis
Medina of Tunis in the medieval period, until the early 20th century,
when it began to develop into a coastal suburb of Tunis, incorporated
Carthage municipality in 1919.
The archaeological site was first surveyed in 1830, by Danish consul
Christian Tuxen Falbe. Excavations were performed in the second half
of the 19th century by
Charles Ernest Beulé
Charles Ernest Beulé and by Alfred Louis
Carthage National Museum
Carthage National Museum was founded in 1875 by Cardinal
Charles Lavigerie. Excavations performed by French archaeologists in
the 1920s attracted an extraordinary amount of attention because of
the evidence they produced for child sacrifice, in Greco-Roman and
Biblical tradition associated with the Canaanite god Baal Hammon. The
Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum
Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum has exhibits excavated under
the auspices of
UNESCO from 1975 to 1984.
3 Ancient history
3.1 Punic Republic
3.2 Roman Carthage
3.3 Islamic period
4 Modern history
4.1 Archaeological site
5 Trade and business
6 Constitution of state
7 Contemporary sources
9 External links
Phoenicia § Etymology
Carthage /ˈkarθɪdʒ/ is the Early Modern anglicisation of
Carthage /kaʁ.taʒ/, from
Latin Carthāgō (cf. Greek
Karkhēdōn (Καρχηδών) and Etruscan *Carθaza) from the Punic
qrt-ḥdšt (𐤒𐤓𐤕 𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕) "new city", implying
it was a "new Tyre". The
Latin adjective pūnicus, meaning
"Phoenician", is reflected in English in some borrowings from
Punic Wars and the Punic language.
Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic form قرطاج ( Qarṭāj) is an
adoption of French Carthage, replacing an older local toponym reported
as Cartagenna that directly continued the
Archaeological Site of Carthage
Archaeological Site of Carthage
View of two columns at Carthage
Carthage was built on a promontory with sea inlets to the north and
the south. The city's location made it master of the Mediterranean's
maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had to pass between Sicily
and the coast of Tunisia, where
Carthage was built, affording it great
power and influence. Two large, artificial harbors were built within
the city, one for harboring the city's massive navy of 220 warships
and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both
harbors. The city had massive walls, 37 km (23 mi) in
length, longer than the walls of comparable cities. Most of the walls
were located on the shore, thus could be less impressive, as
Carthaginian control of the sea made attack from that direction
difficult. The 4.0 to 4.8 km (2.5 to 3 mi) of wall on the
isthmus to the west were truly massive and were never penetrated. The
city had a huge necropolis or burial ground, religious area, market
places, council house, towers, and a theater, and was divided into
four equally sized residential areas with the same layout. Roughly in
the middle of the city stood a high citadel called the Byrsa.
Carthage was one of the largest cities of the
Hellenistic period and
was among the largest cities in preindustrial history. Whereas by AD
14, Rome had at least 750,000 inhabitants and in the following century
may have reached 1 million, the cities of Alexandria and Antioch
numbered only a few hundred thousand or less. According to the not
always reliable history of Herodian,
Carthage rivaled Alexandria for
second place in the Roman empire.
Punic ruins in Byrsa
On top of
Byrsa hill, the location of the Roman Forum, a residential
area from the last century of existence (early second century BCE.) of
the Punic city was excavated by the French archaeologist Serge Lancel.
The neighborhood, with its houses, shops, and private spaces, is
significant for what it reveals about daily life there over 2100 years
The remains have been preserved under embankments, the substructures
of the later Roman forum, whose foundation piles dot the district. The
housing blocks are separated by a grid of straight streets about
6 m (20 ft) wide, with a roadway consisting of clay; in situ
stairs compensate for the slope of the hill. Construction of this type
presupposes organization and political will, and has inspired the name
of the neighborhood, "
Hannibal district", referring to the legendary
Punic general or sufet (consul) at the beginning of the second century
The habitat is typical, even stereotypical. The street was often used
as a storefront/shopfront; cisterns were installed in basements to
collect water for domestic use, and a long corridor on the right side
of each residence led to a courtyard containing a sump, around which
various other elements may be found. In some places, the ground is
covered with mosaics called punica pavement, sometimes using a
characteristic red mortar.
The merchant harbor at
Carthage was developed, after settlement of the
nearby Punic town of Utica. Eventually the surrounding countryside was
brought into the orbit of the Punic urban centers, first commercially,
then politically. Direct management over cultivation of neighbouring
lands by Punic owners followed. A 28-volume work on agriculture
written in Punic by Mago, a retired army general (c. 300), was
Latin and later into Greek. The original and both
translations have been lost; however, some of Mago's text has survived
Olive trees (e.g., grafting), fruit trees
(pomegranate, almond, fig, date palm), viniculture, bees, cattle,
sheep, poultry, implements, and farm management were among the ancient
topics which Mago discussed. As well, Mago addresses the wine-maker's
art (here a type of sherry).
In Punic farming society, according to Mago, the small estate owners
were the chief producers. They were, two modern historians write, not
absent landlords. Rather, the likely reader of Mago was "the master of
a relatively modest estate, from which, by great personal exertion, he
extracted the maximum yield." Mago counselled the rural landowner, for
the sake of their own 'utilitarian' interests, to treat carefully and
well their managers and farm workers, or their overseers and
slaves. Yet elsewhere these writers suggest that rural land
ownership provided also a new power base among the city's nobility,
for those resident in their country villas. By many, farming
was viewed as an alternative endeavour to an urban business. Another
modern historian opines that more often it was the urban merchant of
Carthage who owned rural farming land to some profit, and also to
retire there during the heat of summer. It may seem that Mago
anticipated such an opinion, and instead issued this contrary advice
(as quoted by the Roman writer Columella):
"The man who acquires an estate must sell his house, lest he prefer to
live in the town rather than in the country. Anyone who prefers to
live in a town has no need of an estate in the country." "One who
has bought land should sell his town house, so that he will have no
desire to worship the household gods of the city rather than those of
the country; the man who takes greater delight in his city residence
will have no need of a country estate."
The issues involved in rural land management also reveal underlying
features of Punic society, its structure and stratification. The hired
workers might be considered 'rural proletariat', drawn from the local
Berbers. Whether or not there remained Berber landowners next to
Punic-run farms is unclear. Some
Berbers became sharecroppers. Slaves
acquired for farm work were often prisoners of war. In lands outside
Punic political control, independent
Berbers cultivated grain and
raised horses on their lands. Yet within the Punic domain that
surrounded the city-state of Carthage, there were ethnic divisions in
addition to the usual quasi feudal distinctions between lord and
peasant, or master and serf. This inherent instability in the
countryside drew the unwanted attention of potential invaders. Yet
for long periods
Carthage was able to manage these social
The many amphorae with Punic markings subsequently found about ancient
Mediterranean coastal settlements testify to Carthaginian trade in
locally made olive oil and wine. Carthage's agricultural
production was held in high regard by the ancients, and rivaled that
of Rome—they were once competitors, e.g., over their olive harvests.
Under Roman rule, however, grain production ([wheat] and barley) for
export increased dramatically in 'Africa'; yet these later fell with
the rise in Roman Egypt's grain exports. Thereafter olive groves and
vineyards were re-established around Carthage. Visitors to the several
growing regions that surrounded the city wrote admiringly of the lush
green gardens, orchards, fields, irrigation channels, hedgerows (as
boundaries), as well as the many prosperous farming towns located
across the rural landscape.
Accordingly, the Greek author and compiler
Diodorus Siculus (fl. 1st
century BCE), who enjoyed access to ancient writings later lost, and
on which he based most of his writings, described agricultural land
near the city of
Carthage circa 310 BC:
"It was divided into market gardens and orchards of all sorts of fruit
trees, with many streams of water flowing in channels irrigating every
part. There were country homes everywhere, lavishly built and covered
with stucco. ... Part of the land was planted with vines, part with
olives and other productive trees. Beyond these, cattle and sheep were
pastured on the plains, and there were meadows with grazing
The Chora (farm lands of Carthage) encompassed a limited area: the
north coastal tell, the lower Bagradas river valley (inland from
Utica), Cape Bon, and the adjacent sahel on the east coast. Punic
culture here achieved the introduction of agricultural sciences first
developed for lands of the eastern Mediterranean, and their adaptation
to local African conditions.
The urban landscape of
Carthage is known in part from ancient
authors, augmented by modern digs and surveys conducted by
archeologists. The "first urban nucleus" dating to the seventh
century, in area about 10 hectares (25 acres), was apparently located
on low-lying lands along the coast (north of the later harbors). As
confirmed by archaeological excavations,
Carthage was a "creation ex
nihilo", built on 'virgin' land, and situated at the end of a
peninsula (per the ancient coastline). Here among "mud brick walls and
beaten clay floors" (recently uncovered) were also found extensive
cemeteries, which yielded evocative grave goods like clay masks.
"Thanks to this burial archaeology we know more about archaic Carthage
than about any other contemporary city in the western Mediterranean."
Already in the eighth century, fabric dyeing operations had been
established, evident from crushed shells of murex (from which the
'Phoenician purple' was derived). Nonetheless, only a "meager picture"
of the cultural life of the earliest pioneers in the city can be
conjectured, and not much about housing, monuments or
defenses. The Roman poet
Virgil (70–19 BC) imagined early
Carthage, when his legendary character Aeneas had arrived there:
Walled city-state of Carthage, before its fiery fall in 146 B.C.
"Aeneas found, where lately huts had been,
marvelous buildings, gateways, cobbled ways,
and din of wagons. There the Tyrians
were hard at work: laying courses for walls,
rolling up stones to build the citadel,
while others picked out building sites and plowed
a boundary furrow. Laws were being enacted,
magistrates and a sacred senate chosen.
Here men were dredging harbors, there they laid
the deep foundations of a theatre,
and quarried massive pillars... ."
The two inner harbours [called in Punic cothon] were located in the
southeast; one being commercial, and the other for war. Their definite
functions are not entirely known, probably for the construction,
outfitting, or repair of ships, perhaps also loading and unloading
cargo. Larger anchorages existed to the north and south of
the city. North and west of the cothon were located several
industrial areas, e.g., metalworking and pottery (e.g., for amphora),
which could serve both inner harbours, and ships anchored to the south
of the city.
About the Byrsa, the citadel area to the north, considering its
importance our knowledge of it is patchy. Its prominent heights were
the scene of fierce combat during the fiery destruction of the city in
146 BC. The
Byrsa was the reported site of the Temple of
healing god), at the top of a stairway of sixty steps. A
Tanit (the city's queen goddess) was likely situated on the
slope of the 'lesser Byrsa' immediately to the east, which runs down
toward the sea. Also situated on the
Byrsa were luxury homes.
South of the citadel, near the cothon (the inner harbours) was the
tophet, a special and very old cemetery, which when begun lay outside
the city's boundaries. Here the Salammbô was located, the Sanctuary
of Tanit, not a temple but an enclosure for placing stone stelae.
These were mostly short and upright, carved for funeral purposes. The
presence of infant skeletons from here may indicate the occurrence of
child sacrifice, as claimed in the Bible, although there is
considerable doubt among archeologists as to this interpretation and
many consider it simply a cemetery devoted to infants. Probably
the tophet burial fields were "dedicated at an early date, perhaps by
the first settlers."
Between the sea-filled cothon for shipping and the
Byrsa heights lay
the agora [Greek: "market"], the city-state's central marketplace for
business and commerce. The agora was also an area of public squares
and plazas, where the people might formally assemble, or gather for
festivals. It was the site of religious shrines, and the location of
whatever were the major municipal buildings of Carthage. Here beat the
heart of civic life. In this district of the Carthage, more probably,
the ruling suffets presided, the council of elders convened, the
tribunal of the 104 met, and justice was dispensed at trials in the
Early residential districts wrapped around the
Byrsa from the south to
the north east. Houses usually were whitewashed and blank to the
street, but within were courtyards open to the sky. In these
neighborhoods multistory construction later became common, some up to
six stories tall according to an ancient Greek author. Several
architectural floorplans of homes have been revealed by recent
excavations, as well as the general layout of several city blocks.
Stone stairs were set in the streets, and drainage was planned, e.g.,
in the form of soakways leaching into the sandy soil. Along the
Byrsa's southern slope were located not only fine old homes, but also
many of the earliest grave-sites, juxtaposed in small areas,
interspersed with daily life.
Artisan workshops were located in the city at sites north and west of
the harbours. The location of three metal workshops (implied from iron
slag and other vestiges of such activity) were found adjacent to the
naval and commercial harbours, and another two were further up the
hill toward the
Byrsa citadel. Sites of pottery kilns have been
identified, between the agora and the harbours, and further north.
Earthenware often used Greek models. A fuller's shop for preparing
woolen cloth (shrink and thicken) was evidently situated further to
the west and south, then by the edge of the city.
produced objects of rare refinement. During the 4th and 3rd centuries,
the sculptures of the sarcophagi became works of art. "Bronze
engraving and stone-carving reached their zenith."
The elevation of the land at the promontory on the seashore to the
north-east (now called Sidi Bou Saïd), was twice as high above sea
level as that at the
Byrsa (100 m and 50 m). In between runs a ridge,
several times reaching 50 m; it continues northwestward along the
seashore, and forms the edge of a plateau-like area between the Byrsa
and the sea. Newer urban developments lay here in these northern
Carthage were walls "of great strength" said in places to
rise above 13 m, being nearly 10 m thick, according to ancient
authors. To the west, three parallel walls were built. The walls
altogether ran for about 33 kilometres (21 miles) to encircle the
city. The heights of the
Byrsa were additionally fortified;
this area being the last to succumb to the Romans in 146 BC.
Originally the Romans had landed their army on the strip of land
extending southward from the city.
Main article: History of Carthage
A Carthaginian shekel, dated 237-227 BC, depicting the Punic god
Melqart (equivalent of Hercules/Heracles), most likely with the
Hamilcar Barca, father of
Hannibal Barca; on the reverse
is a man riding an elephant
Greek cities contested with
Carthage for the Western Mediterranean
culminating in the
Sicilian Wars and the
Pyrrhic War over Sicily,
while the Romans fought three wars against Carthage, known as the
Main article: Ancient Carthage
Downfall of the Carthaginian Empire
Lost to Rome in the First Punic War (264 – 241 BC)
Won after the First Punic War, lost in the Second Punic
Lost in the
Second Punic War
Second Punic War (218 – 201 BC)
Conquered by Rome in the
Third Punic War
Third Punic War (149 – 146 BC)
Carthaginian-held territory in the early 3rd century BC
The Carthaginian republic was one of the longest-lived and largest
states in the ancient Mediterranean. Reports relay several wars with
Syracuse and finally, Rome, which eventually resulted in the defeat
and destruction of
Carthage in the Third Punic War. The Carthaginians
were Phoenician settlers originating in the Mediterranean coast of the
Near East. They spoke Canaanite, a Semitic language, and followed a
local variety of the ancient Canaanite religion.
Ruins of Carthage
The fall of
Carthage came at the end of the
Third Punic War
Third Punic War in 146 BC
at the Battle of Carthage. Despite initial devastating Roman naval
losses and Rome's recovery from the brink of defeat after the terror
of a 15-year occupation of much of Italy by Hannibal, the end of the
series of wars resulted in the end of Carthaginian power and the
complete destruction of the city by Scipio Aemilianus. The Romans
pulled the Phoenician warships out into the harbor and burned them
before the city, and went from house to house, capturing and enslaving
the people. About 50,000 Carthaginians were sold into slavery. The
city was set ablaze and razed to the ground, leaving only ruins and
rubble. After the fall of Carthage, Rome annexed the majority of the
Carthaginian colonies, including other North African locations such as
Volubilis, Lixus, Chellah, and Mogador.
The legend that the city was sown with salt remains widely accepted
despite a lack of evidence among ancient historical accounts;
According to R.T. Ridley, the earliest such claim is attributable to
B.L. Hallward's chapter in Cambridge Ancient History, published in
1930. Ridley contended that Hallward's claim may have gained traction
due to historical evidence of other salted-earth instances such as
Abimelech's salting of
Shechem in Judges 9:45. B.H. Warmington
admitted he had repeated Hallward's error, but posited that the legend
precedes 1930 and inspired repetitions of the practice. He also
suggested that it is useful to understand how subsequent historical
narratives have been framed and that the symbolic value of the legend
is so great and enduring that it mitigates a deficiency of concrete
Starting in the 19th century, various texts claim that after
defeating the city of
Carthage in the
Third Punic War
Third Punic War (146 BC), the
Scipio Aemilianus Africanus ordered the city be sacked,
forced its surviving inhabitants into slavery, plowed it over and
sowed it with salt. However, no ancient sources exist documenting the
salting itself. The element of salting is therefore probably a later
invention modeled on the Biblical story of Shechem. The ritual of
symbolically drawing a plow over the site of a city is mentioned in
ancient sources, but not in reference to
Boniface VIII destroyed
Palestrina in 1299, he issued a
papal bull that it be plowed "following the old example of
Africa" and also salted. "I have run the plough over it, like the
Carthage of Africa, and I have had salt sown upon it...."
Main article: Roman Carthage
Carthage fell, its nearby rival Utica, a Roman ally, was made
capital of the region and replaced
Carthage as the leading center of
Punic trade and leadership. It had the advantageous position of being
situated on the outlet of the Medjerda River, Tunisia's only river
that flowed all year long. However, grain cultivation in the Tunisian
mountains caused large amounts of silt to erode into the river. This
silt accumulated in the harbor until it became useless, and Rome was
forced to rebuild Carthage.
By 122 BC,
Gaius Gracchus founded a short-lived colony, called Colonia
Iunonia, after the
Latin name for the Punic goddess Tanit, Iuno
Caelestis. The purpose was to obtain arable lands for impoverished
farmers. The Senate abolished the colony some time later, to undermine
After this ill-fated attempt, a new city of
Carthage was built on the
same land by
Julius Caesar in the period from 49 to 44 BC, and by the
first century, it had grown to be the second-largest city in the
western half of the Roman Empire, with a peak population of
500,000. It was the center of the province of Africa, which was a
major breadbasket of the Empire. Among its major monuments was an
Carthage also became a center of early Christianity (see Carthage
(episcopal see)). In the first of a string of rather poorly reported
Carthage a few years later, no fewer than 70 bishops
Tertullian later broke with the mainstream that was
increasingly represented in the West by the primacy of the Bishop of
Rome, but a more serious rift among Christians was the Donatist
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo spent much time and parchment
arguing against. At the Council of
Carthage (397), the biblical canon
for the western Church was confirmed.
Vandal Kingdom in 500, centered on Carthage
The political fallout from the deep disaffection of African Christians
is supposedly a crucial factor in the ease with which
Carthage and the
other centers were captured in the fifth century by Genseric, king of
the Vandals, who defeated the Roman general
Bonifacius and made the
city the capital of the Vandal Kingdom.
Genseric was considered a
heretic, too, an Arian, and though Arians commonly despised Catholic
Christians, a mere promise of toleration might have caused the city's
population to accept him.
After a failed attempt to recapture the city in the fifth century, the
Roman Empire finally subdued the
Vandals in the Vandalic War
in 533–534. Thereafter, the city became the seat of the praetorian
prefecture of Africa, which was made into an exarchate during the
emperor Maurice's reign, as was
Ravenna on the Italian Peninsula.
These two exarchates were the western bulwarks of the Byzantine
Empire, all that remained of its power in the West. In the early
Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Carthage, overthrew
the Byzantine emperor Phocas, whereupon his son
Heraclius succeeded to
the imperial throne.
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb and Battle of Carthage
Exarchate of Africa was not able to withstand the
seventh-century Muslim conquest of the Maghreb. The Umayyad Caliphate
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan in 686 sent a force led by Zuhayr ibn
Qais, who won a battle over the Romans and
Berbers led by King Kusaila
Kingdom of Altava
Kingdom of Altava on the plain of Kairouan, but he could not
follow that up. In 695,
Hasan ibn al-Nu'man captured
advanced into the Atlas Mountains. An imperial fleet arrived and
retook Carthage, but in 698,
Hasan ibn al-Nu'man returned and defeated
Tiberios III at the 698 Battle of Carthage. Roman imperial
forces withdrew from all of Africa except Ceuta.
Roman Carthage was
destroyed—its walls torn down, its water supply cut off, and its
harbors made unusable. The destruction of the
Exarchate of Africa
marked a permanent end to the Byzantine Empire's influence in the
The Medina of Tunis, originally a Berber settlement, was established
as the new regional center under the
Umayyad Caliphate in the early
8th century. Under the Aghlabids, the people of
numerous times, but the city profited from economic improvements and
quickly became the second most important in the kingdom. It was
briefly the national capital, from the end of the reign of Ibrahim II
in 902, until 909, when the
Berbers took over
founded the Fatimid Caliphate.
Carthage remained a residential see until the high medieval period,
mentioned in two letters of
Pope Leo IX
Pope Leo IX dated 1053, written in
reply to consultations regarding a conflict between the bishops of
Carthage and Gummi. In each of the two letters, Pope Leo declares
that, after the Bishop of Rome, the first archbishop and chief
metropolitan of the whole of Africa is the bishop of Carthage. Later,
an archbishop of
Carthage named Cyriacus was imprisoned by the Arab
rulers because of an accusation by some Christians. Pope Gregory VII
wrote him a letter of consolation, repeating the hopeful assurances of
the primacy of the Church of Carthage, "whether the Church of Carthage
should still lie desolate or rise again in glory". By 1076, Cyriacus
was set free, but there was only one other bishop in the province.
These are the last of whom there is mention in that period of the
history of the see.
Historical map of the
Tunis area (1903), showing St. Louis of Carthage
Sidi Bou Said
Sidi Bou Said and Le Kram.
Carthage is some 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) east-northeast of Tunis;
the settlements nearest to
Carthage were the town of
Sidi Bou Said
Sidi Bou Said to
the north and the village of
Le Kram to the south. Sidi Bou Saint was
a village which had grown around the tomb of the eponymous sufi saint
(d. 1231), which had been developed into a town under Ottoman rule in
the 18th century.
Le Kram was developed in the late 19th century under
French administration as a settlement close to the port of La
Tunisia became a French protectorate, and in the same year
Charles Lavigerie, who was archbishop of Algiers, became apostolic
administrator of the vicariate of Tunis. In the following year,
Lavigerie became a cardinal. He "saw himself as the reviver of the
ancient Christian Church of Africa, the Church of Cyprian of
Carthage", and, on 10 November 1884, was successful in his great
ambition of having the metropolitan see of
Carthage restored, with
himself as its first archbishop. In line with the declaration of
Pope Leo IX
Pope Leo IX in 1053,
Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII acknowledged the revived
Carthage as the primatial see of Africa and Lavigerie
Acropolium of Carthage
Acropolium of Carthage (Saint Louis Cathedral of Carthage) was
Byrsa hill in 1884.
The Danish consul
Christian Tuxen Falbe conducted a first survey of
the topography of the archaeological site (published in 1833).
Antiquarian interest was intensified following the publication of
Flaubert's Salammbô in 1858.
Charles Ernest Beulé
Charles Ernest Beulé performed some
preliminary excavations of Roman remains on
Byrsa hill in 1860. A
more systematic survey of both Punic and Roman-era remains is due to
Alfred Louis Delattre, who was sent to
Tunis by cardinal Charles
Lavigerie in 1875 on both an apostolic and an archaeological
mission. Audollent (1901, p. 203) cites Delattre and Lavigerie to
the effect that in the 1880s, locals still knew the area of the
ancient city under the name of Cartagenna (i.e. reflecting the Latin
Auguste Audollent divides the area of
Roman Carthage into four
quarters, Cartagenna, Dermèche,
Byrsa and La Malga. Cartagenna and
Dermèche correspond with the lower city, including the site of Punic
Byrsa is associated with the upper city, which in Punic
times was a walled citadel above the harbour; and La Malga is linked
with the more remote parts of the upper city in Roman times.
French-led excavations at
Carthage began in 1921, and from 1923
reported finds of a large quantity of urns containing a mixture of
animal and children's bones.
René Dussaud identified a 4th-century BC
stela found in
Carthage as depicting a child sacrifice.
A temple at
Amman (1400–1250 BC) excavated and reported upon by J.B.
Hennessy in 1966, shows the possibility of bestial and human sacrifice
by fire. While evidence of child sacrifice in Canaan was the object of
academic disagreement, with some scholars arguing that merely
children's cemeteries had been unearthed in Carthage, the mixture of
children's with animal bones as well as associated epigraphic evidence
involving mention of mlk led to a consensus that, at least in
Carthage, child sacrifice was indeed common practice.
In 2016, an ancient Carthaginian individual, who was excavated from a
Punic tomb in
Byrsa Hill, was found to belong to the rare U5b2c1
maternal haplogroup. The Young Man of
Byrsa specimen dates from the
late 6th century BCE, and his lineage is believed to represent early
gene flow from
Iberia to the Maghreb.
In 1920, the first seaplane base was built on the
Lake of Tunis
Lake of Tunis for
the seaplanes of Compagnie Aéronavale. The
Tunis Airfield opened
in 1938, serving around 5,800 passengers annually on the Paris-Tunis
route. During World War II, the airport was used by the United
Air Force Twelfth
Air Force as a headquarters and command
control base for the Italian Campaign of 1943. Construction on the
Carthage Airport, which was fully funded by France, began in
1944, and in 1948 the airport become the main hub for Tunisair.
In the 1950s the Lycée Français de
Carthage was established to serve
French families in Carthage. In 1961 it was given to the Tunisian
government as part of the Independence of Tunisia, so the nearby
Collège Maurice Cailloux in La Marsa, previously an annex of the
Lycée Français de Carthage, was renamed to the Lycée Français de
La Marsa and began serving the lycée level. It is currently the
Lycée Gustave Flaubert.
After Tunisian independence in 1956, the
Tunis conurbation gradually
extended around the airport, and
Carthage (قرطاج Qarṭāj) is
now a suburb of Tunis, covering the area between
Sidi Bou Said
Sidi Bou Said and Le
Kram. Its population as of January 2013 was estimated at
21,276, mostly attracting the more wealthy residents. If
Carthage is not the capital, it tends to be the political pole, a
« place of emblematic power » according to Sophie
Bessis, leaving to
Tunis the economic and administrative roles.
Carthage Palace (the Tunisian presidential palace) is located in
The suburb has six train stations of the
TGM line between
Le Kram and
Sidi Bou Said:
Carthage Salammbo (named for Salambo, the fictional
daughter of Hamilcar),
Byrsa (named for
Byrsa hill), Carthage
Hannibal (named for Hannibal), Carthage
Présidence (named for the Presidential Palace) and
(named for Hamilcar).
Trade and business
Map of the Mediterranean in 218 BC
The merchants of
Carthage were in part heirs of the Mediterranean
trade developed by Phoenicia, and so also heirs of the rivalry with
Greek merchants. Business activity was accordingly both stimulated and
Cyprus had been an early site of such commercial contests.
The Phoenicians then had ventured into the western Mediterranean,
founding trading posts, including Utica and Carthage. The Greeks
followed, entering the western seas where the commercial rivalry
continued. Eventually it would lead, especially in Sicily, to several
centuries of intermittent war. Although Greek-made merchandise
was generally considered superior in design,
Carthage also produced
trade goods in abundance. That
Carthage came to function as a
manufacturing colossus was shown during the
Third Punic War
Third Punic War with Rome.
Carthage, which had previously disarmed, then was made to face the
fatal Roman siege. The city "suddenly organised the manufacture of
arms" with great skill and effectiveness. According to
Strabo (63 BC
– AD 21) in his Geographica:
"[Carthage] each day produced one hundred and forty finished shields,
three hundred swords, five hundred spears, and one thousand missiles
for the catapults... . Furthermore, [
Carthage although surrounded by
the Romans] built one hundred and twenty decked ships in two months...
for old timber had been stored away in readiness, and a large number
of skilled workmen, maintained at public expense."
The textiles industry in
Carthage probably started in private homes,
but the existence of professional weavers indicates that a sort of
factory system later developed. Products included embroidery, carpets,
and use of the purple murex dye (for which the Carthaginian isle of
Djerba was famous). Metalworkers developed specialized skills, i.e.,
making various weapons for the armed forces, as well as domestic
articles, such as knives, forks, scissors, mirrors, and razors (all
articles found in tombs). Artwork in metals included vases and lamps
in bronze, also bowls, and plates. Other products came from such
crafts as the potters, the glassmakers, and the goldsmiths.
Inscriptions on votive stele indicate that many were not slaves but
Trade routes of
Phoenicia (Byblos, Sidon, Tyre) & Carthage
Phoenician and Punic merchant ventures were often run as a family
enterprise, putting to work its members and its subordinate clients.
Such family-run businesses might perform a variety of tasks: (a) own
and maintain the ships, providing the captain and crew; (b) do the
negotiations overseas, either by barter or buy and sell, of (i) their
own manufactured commodities and trade goods, and (ii) native products
(metals, foodstuffs, etc.) to carry and trade elsewhere; and (c) send
their agents to stay at distant outposts in order to make lasting
local contacts, and later to establish a warehouse of shipped goods
for exchange, and eventually perhaps a settlement. Over generations,
such activity might result in the creation of a wide-ranging network
of trading operations. Ancillary would be the growth of reciprocity
between different family firms, foreign and domestic.
State protection was extended to its sea traders by the Phoenician
city of Tyre and later likewise by the daughter city-state of
Carthage. Stéphane Gsell, the well-regarded French historian of
ancient North Africa, summarized the major principles guiding the
civic rulers of
Carthage with regard to its policies for trade and
(1) to open and maintain markets for its merchants, whether by
entering into direct contact with foreign peoples using either treaty
negotiations or naval power, or by providing security for isolated
(2) the reservation of markets exclusively for the merchants of
Carthage, or where competition could not be eliminated, to regulate
trade by state-sponsored agreements with its commercial rivals;
(3) suppression of piracy, and promotion of Carthage's ability to
freely navigate the seas.
Both the Phoenicians and the Cathaginians were well known in antiquity
for their secrecy in general, and especially pertaining to commercial
contacts and trade routes. Both cultures excelled in
Strabo (63BC-AD21) the Greek geographer wrote
that before its fall (in 146 BC)
Carthage enjoyed a population of
700,000, and directed an alliance of 300 cities. The Greek
Polybius (c.203–120) referred to
Carthage as "the
wealthiest city in the world".
Constitution of state
A "suffet" (possibly two) was elected by the citizens, and held office
with no military power for a one-year term. Carthaginian generals
marshalled mercenary armies and were separately elected. From about
550 to 450 the Magonid family monopolized the top military position;
later the Barcid family acted similarly. Eventually it came to be
that, after a war, the commanding general had to testify justifying
his actions before a court of 104 judges.
Aristotle (384–322) discusses
Carthage in his work, Politica; he
begins: "The Carthaginians are also considered to have an excellent
form of government." He briefly describes the city as a "mixed
constitution", a political arrangement with cohabiting elements of
monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy, i.e., a king (Gk: basileus), a
council of elders (Gk: gerusia), and the people (Gk: demos).
Polybius of Megalopolis (c.204–122, Greek) in his Histories
would describe the
Roman Republic in more detail as a mixed
constitution in which the Consuls were the monarchy, the Senate the
aristocracy, and the Assemblies the democracy.
Carthage also had an institution of elders who advised the
Suffets, similar to a Greek gerusia or the Roman Senate. We do not
have a Punic name for this body. At times its members would travel
with an army general on campaign. Members also formed permanent
committees. The institution had several hundred members drawn from the
wealthiest class who held office for life. Vacancies were probably
filled by recruitment from among the elite, i.e., by co-option. From
among its members were selected the 104 Judges mentioned above. Later
the 104 would come to evaluate not only army generals but other office
holders as well.
Aristotle regarded the 104 as most important; he
compared it to the ephorate of
Sparta with regard to control over
security. In Hannibal's time, such a Judge held office for life. At
some stage there also came to be independent self-perpetuating boards
of five who filled vacancies and supervised (non-military) government
Popular assemblies also existed at Carthage. When deadlocked the
Suffets and the quasi-senatorial institution of elders might request
the assembly to vote; also, assembly votes were requested in very
crucial matters in order to achieve political consensus and popular
coherence. The assembly members had no legal wealth or birth
qualification. How its members were selected is unknown, e.g., whether
by festival group or urban ward or another method.
The Greeks were favourably impressed by the constitution of Carthage;
Aristotle had a separate study of it made which unfortunately is lost.
In his Politica he states: "The government of
oligarchical, but they successfully escape the evils of oligarchy by
enriching one portion of the people after another by sending them to
their colonies." "[T]heir policy is to send some [poorer citizens] to
their dependent towns, where they grow rich." Yet Aristotle
continues, "[I]f any misfortune occurred, and the bulk of the subjects
revolted, there would be no way of restoring peace by legal means."
Aristotle remarked also:
"Many of the Carthaginian institutions are excellent. The superiority
of their constitution is proved by the fact that the common people
remain loyal to the constitution; the Carthaginians have never had any
rebellion worth speaking of, and have never been under the rule of a
Here one may remember that the city-state of Carthage, who citizens
were mainly Libyphoenicians (of Phoenician ancestry born in Africa),
dominated and exploited an agricultural countryside composed mainly of
native Berber sharecroppers and farmworkers, whose affiliations to
Carthage were open to divergent possibilities. Beyond these more
Berbers and the Punic farming towns and rural manors, lived
the independent Berber tribes, who were mostly pastoralists.
In the brief, uneven review of government at
Carthage found in his
Aristotle mentions several faults. Thus, "that the same
person should hold many offices, which is a favorite practice among
Aristotle disapproves, mentioning the flute-player
and the shoemaker. Also, that "magistrates should be chosen not only
for their merit but for their wealth." Aristotle's opinion is that
focus on pursuit of wealth will lead to oligarchy and its evils.
"[S]urely it is a bad thing that the greatest offices... should be
bought. The law which allows this abuse makes wealth of more account
than virtue, and the whole state becomes avaricious. For, whenever the
chiefs of the state deem anything honorable, the other citizens are
sure to follow their example; and, where virtue has not the first
place, their aristocracy cannot be firmly established."
Carthage the people seemed politically satisfied and submissive,
according to the historian Warmington. They in their assemblies only
rarely exercised the few opportunities given them to assent to state
decisions. Popular influence over government appears not to have been
an issue at Carthage. Being a commercial republic fielding a mercenary
army, the people were not conscripted for military service, an
experience which can foster the feel for popular political action. But
perhaps this misunderstands the society; perhaps the people, whose
values were based on small-group loyalty, felt themselves sufficiently
connected to their city's leadership by the very integrity of the
person-to-person linkage within their social fabric.
Carthage was very
stable; there were few openings for tyrants. Only after defeat by Rome
devastated Punic imperial ambitions did the people of
Carthage seem to
question their governance and to show interest in political
In 196, following the
Second Punic War
Second Punic War (218–201),
still greatly admired as a Barcid military leader, was elected suffet.
When his reforms were blocked by a financial official about to become
a judge for life,
Hannibal rallied the populace against the 104
judges. He proposed a one-year term for the 104, as part of a major
civic overhaul. Additionally, the reform included a restructuring of
the city's revenues, and the fostering of trade and agriculture. The
changes rather quickly resulted in a noticeable increase in
prosperity. Yet his incorrigible political opponents cravenly went to
Rome, to charge
Hannibal with conspiracy, namely, plotting war against
Rome in league with Antiochus the Hellenic ruler of Syria. Although
Scipio Africanus resisted such manoeuvre, eventually
intervention by Rome forced
Hannibal to leave Carthage. Thus, corrupt
city officials efficiently blocked
Hannibal Barca in his efforts to
reform the government of Carthage.
Mago (6th century) was King of Carthage; the head of state, war
leader, and religious figurehead. His family was considered to possess
a sacred quality. Mago's office was somewhat similar to that of a
pharaoh, but although kept in a family it was not hereditary, it was
limited by legal consent. Picard, accordingly, believes that the
council of elders and the popular assembly are late institutions.
Carthage was founded by the king of Tyre who had a royal monopoly on
this trading venture. Thus it was the royal authority stemming from
this traditional source of power that the King of
Later, as other Phoenician ship companies entered the trading region,
and so associated with the city-state, the King of
Carthage had to
keep order among a rich variety of powerful merchants in their
negotiations among themselves and over risky commerce across the
Mediterranean. Under these circumstance, the office of king began to
be transformed. Yet it was not until the aristocrats of Carthage
became wealthy owners of agricultural lands in Africa that a council
of elders was institutionalized at Carthage.
Most ancient literature concerning
Carthage comes from Greek and Roman
sources as Carthage's own documents were destroyed by the
Romans. Apart from inscriptions, hardly any Punic literature
has survived, and none in its own language and script. A brief
catalogue would include:
three short treaties with Rome (
several pages of Hanno the Navigator's log-book concerning his fifth
century maritime exploration of the Atlantic coast of west Africa
fragments quoted from Mago's fourth/third century 28-volume treatise
on agriculture (
the Roman playwright
Plautus (c. 250 – 184) in his Poenulus
incorporates a few fictional speeches delivered in Punic, whose
written lines are transcribed into
the thousands of inscriptions made in Punic script, thousands, but
many extremely short, e.g., a dedication to a deity with the personal
name(s) of the devotee(s).
"[F]rom the Greek author
Plutarch [(c. 46 – c. 120)] we learn of the
'sacred books' in Punic safeguarded by the city's temples. Few Punic
texts survive, however." Once "the City Archives, the Annals, and
the scribal lists of suffets" existed, but evidently these were
destroyed in the horrific fires during the Roman capture of the city
in 146 BC.
Yet some Punic books (Latin: libri punici) from the libraries of
Carthage reportedly did survive the fires. These works were
apparently given by Roman authorities to the newly augmented Berber
rulers. Over a century after the fall of Carthage, the Roman
politician-turned-author Gaius Sallustius Crispus or
reported his having seen volumes written in Punic, which books were
said to be once possessed by the Berber king,
Hiempsal II (r.
88–81). By way of Berber informants and Punic
Sallust had used these surviving books to write his brief
sketch of Berber affairs.
Juba II, reigned 25 BCE – 23 CE
Probably some of Hiempsal II's libri punici, that had escaped the
fires that consumed
Carthage in 146 BC, wound up later in the large
royal library of his grandson
Juba II (r.25 BC-AD 24). Juba II
not only was a Berber king, and husband of Cleopatra's daughter, but
also a scholar and author in Greek of no less than nine works. He
wrote for the Mediterranean-wide audience then enjoying classical
literature. The libri punici inherited from his grandfather surely
became useful to him when composing his Libyka, a work on North Africa
written in Greek. Unfortunately, only fragments of Libyka survive,
mostly from quotations made by other ancient authors. It may have
Juba II who 'discovered' the five-centuries-old 'log book' of
Hanno the Navigator, called the Periplus, among library documents
saved from fallen Carthage.
In the end, however, most Punic writings that survived the destruction
Carthage "did not escape the immense wreckage in which so many of
Antiquity's literary works perished." Accordingly, the long and
continuous interactions between Punic citizens of
Carthage and the
Berber communities that surrounded the city have no local historian.
Their political arrangements and periodic crises, their economic and
work life, the cultural ties and social relations established and
nourished (infrequently as kin), are not known to us directly from
ancient Punic authors in written accounts. Neither side has left us
their stories about life in Punic-era Carthage.
Regarding Phoenician writings, few remain and these seldom refer to
Carthage. The more ancient and most informative are cuneiform tablets,
ca. 1600–1185, from ancient Ugarit, located to the north of
Phoenicia on the Syrian coast; it was a Canaanite city politically
affiliated with the Hittites. The clay tablets tell of myths, epics,
rituals, medical and administrative matters, and also
correspondence. The highly valued works of
Sanchuniathon, an ancient priest of Beirut, who reportedly wrote on
Phoenician religion and the origins of civilization, are themselves
completely lost, but some little content endures twice
Sanchuniathon was said to have lived in the 11th
century, which is considered doubtful. Much later a
Phoenician History by
Philo of Byblos (64–141) reportedly existed,
written in Greek, but only fragments of this work survive.
An explanation proffered for why so few Phoenician works endured:
early on (11th century) archives and records began to be kept on
papyrus, which does not long survive in a moist coastal climate.
Also, both Phoenicians and Carthaginians were well known for their
Thus, of their ancient writings we have little of major interest left
to us by Carthage, or by
Phoenicia the country of origin of the city
founders. "Of the various Phoenician and Punic compositions alluded to
by the ancient classical authors, not a single work or even fragment
has survived in its original idiom." "Indeed, not a single Phoenician
manuscript has survived in the original [language] or in
translation." We cannot therefore access directly the line of
thought or the contour of their worldview as expressed in their own
words, in their own voice. Ironically, it was the Phoenicians who
"invented or at least perfected and transmitted a form of writing [the
alphabet] that has influenced dozens of cultures including our
As noted, the celebrated ancient books on agriculture written by Mago
Carthage survives only via quotations in
Latin from several later
^ Hitchner, R., DARMC, R. Talbert, S. Gillies, J. Åhlfeldt, R.
Warner, J. Becker, T. Elliott. "Places: 314921 (Carthago)". Pleiades.
Retrieved 7 April 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
Dido and the Foundation of Carthage". Illustrative
Mathematics. Illustrative Mathematics. Retrieved 12 February
^ c.f. Marlowes Dido, Queen of
Carthage (c. 1590); Middle English
still used the
Latin form Carthago, e.g., John Trevisa, Polychronicon
(1387) 1.169: That womman
Dido that founded Carthago was comlynge.
^ adjective qrt-ḥdty "Carthaginian"; compare Aramaic קרת
חדתה, Qeret Ḥadatha, and Hebrew קרת חדשה, Qeret
Ḥadašah. Wolfgang David Cirilo de Melo (ed), Amphitryon, Volume 4
of The Loeb Classical Library: Plautus, Harvard University Press,
2011, p. 210; D. Gary Miller,
Ancient Greek Dialects and Early
Authors: Introduction to the Dialect Mixture in Homer, with Notes on
Lyric and Herodotus, Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 39.
^ "Carthage: new excavations in a Mediterranean capital".
^ Audollent (1901:203)
^ Martin Percival Charlesworth; Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards; John
Boardman; Frank William Walbank (2000). "Rome+was+larger" The
Cambridge Ancient History: The fourth century B.C., 2nd ed., 1994.
University Press. p. 813.
^ Robert McQueen Grant (1 January 2004). Augustus to Constantine: The
Rise and Triumph of Christianity in the Roman World. Westminster John
Knox Press. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-664-22772-2.
^ Serge Lancel and Jean-Paul Morel, "Byrsa. Punic vestiges"; To save
Carthage. Exploration and conservation of the city Punic, Roman and
Byzantine, Unesco / INAA, 1992, pp. 43–59
^ Stéphanie Gsell, Histoire ancienne de l'Afrique du Nord, volume
four (Paris 1920).
^ Serge Lancel, Carthage. A History (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992;
Oxford: Blackwell 1995) at 273–274 (Mago quoted by Columella),
278–279 (Mago and Cato's book), 358 (translations).
^ Gilbert and Colette Picard, La vie quotidienne à
Carthage au temps
Hannibal (Paris: Librairie Hachette 1958), translated as Daily Life
Carthage (London: George Allen & Unwin 1961; reprint Macmillan,
New York 1968) at 83–93: 88 (Mago as retired general), 89–91
(fruit trees), 90 (grafting), 89–90 (vineyards), 91–93 (livestock
and bees), 148–149 (wine making). Elephants also, of course, were
captured and reared for war (at 92).
^ Sabatino Moscati, Il mondo dei Fenici (1966), translated as The
World of the Phoenicians (London: Cardinal 1973) at 219–223.
Hamilcar is named as another Carthaginian writing on agriculture (at
^ Serge Lancel,
Carthage (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992; Oxford:
Blackwell 1995), discussion of wine making and its 'marketing' at
273–276. Lancel says (at 274) that about wine making, Mago was
silent. Punic agriculture and rural life are addressed at 269–302.
^ G. and C. Charles-Picard, La vie quotidienne à
Carthage au temps
Hannibal (Paris: Librairie Hachette 1958) translated as Daily Life
Carthage (London: George Allen and Unwin 1961; reprint Macmillan
1968) at 83–93: 86 (quote); 86–87, 88, 93 (management); 88
^ G. C. and C. Picard, Vie et mort de
Carthage (Paris: Librairie
Hachette 1970) translated (and first published) as The Life and Death
Carthage (New York: Taplinger 1968) at 86 and 129.
^ Charles-Picard, Daily Life in
Carthage (1958; 1968) at 83–84: the
development of a "landed nobility".
^ B. H. Warmington, in his
Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960; reprint
Penguin 1964) at 155.
^ Mago, quoted by
Columella at I, i, 18; in Charles-Picard, Daily Life
Carthage (1958; 1968) at 87, 101, n37.
^ Mago, quoted by
Columella at I, i, 18; in Moscati, The World of the
Phoenicians (1966; 1973) at 220, 230, n5.
^ Gilbert and Colette Charles-Picard, Daily Life in
1968) at 83–85 (invaders), 86–88 (rural proletariat).
^ E.g., Gilbert Charles Picard and Colette Picard, The Life and Death
Carthage (Paris 1970; New York 1968) at 168–171, 172–173
(invasion of Agathocles in 310 BC). The mercenary revolt (240–237)
following the First Punic War was also largely and actively, though
unsuccessfully, supported by rural Berbers. Picard (1970; 1968) at
Plato (c. 427 – c. 347) in his Laws at 674, a-b, mentions
Carthage restricting the consumption of wine in
specified circumstances. Cf., Lancel,
Carthage (1997) at 276.
Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960, 2d ed. 1969) at
^ Serge Lancel,
Carthage (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992) translated by
Antonia Nevill (Oxford: Blackwell 1997) at 269–279: 274–277
(produce), 275–276 (amphora), 269–270 & 405 (Rome), 269–270
(yields), 270 & 277 (lands), 271–272 (towns).
^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibleoteca, at XX, 8, 1–4, transl. as Library of
History (Harvard University 1962), vol.10 [Loeb Classics, no.390); per
Soren, Khader, Slim,,
Carthage (1990) at 88.
Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 277.
^ Charles-Picard, Daily Life in
Carthage (1958; 1968) at 85 (limited
area), at 88 (imported skills).
^ e.g., the Greek writers: Appian, Diodorus Siculus, Polybius; and,
the Latin: Livy, Strabo.
^ Serge Lancel,
Carthage (Paris 1992), as translated by A. Nevill
(Oxford 1997), at 38–45 and 76–77 (archaic Carthage): maps of
early city at 39 and 42; burial archaeology quote at 77; short quotes
at 43, 38, 45, 39; clay masks at 60–62 (photographs); terracotta and
ivory figurines at 64–66, 72–75 (photographs). Ancient coastline
from Utica to Cartage: map at 18.
^ Cf., B. H. Warmington,
Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960; 2d ed.
1969) at 26–31.
Virgil (70–19 BC),
The Aeneid [19 BC], translated by Robert
Fitzgerald [(New York: Random House 1983), p. 18–19 (Book I,
421–424). Cf., Lancel,
Carthage (1997) p. 38. Here capitalized as
Virgil here, however, does innocently inject his own Roman cultural
notions into his imagined description, e.g., Punic
built no theaters per se. Cf., Charles-Picard, Daily Life in Carthage
^ The harbours, often mentioned by ancient authors, remain an
archaeological problem due to the limited, fragmented evidence found.
Carthage (1992; 1997) at 172–192 (the two harbours).
^ Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 32, 130–131.
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 138.
^ Sebkrit er Riana to the north, and El Bahira to the south [their
modern names]. Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 31–32.
Ships then could also be beached on the sand.
^ Cf., Lancel,
Carthage (1992; 1997) at 139–140, city map at 138.
^ The lands immediately south of the hill is often also included by
the term Byrsa.
^ Serge Lancel, Carthage. A history (Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard
1992; Oxford: Blackwell 1995) at 148–152; 151 and 149 map (leveling
operations on the Byrsa, circa 25 BC, to prepare for new
construction), 426 (Temple of Eshmun), 443 (
Byrsa diagram, circa
Byrsa had been destroyed during the Third Punic War
^ Charles-Picard, Daily Life in
Carthage (Paris 1958; London 1961,
reprint Macmillan 1968) at 8 (city map showing the Temple of Eshmoun,
on the eastern heights of the Byrsa).
^ E. S. Bouchier, Life and Letters in Roman Africa (Oxford: B. H.
Blackwell 1913) at 17, and 75. The Roman temple to Juno Caelestis is
said to be later erected on the site of the ruined temple to Tanit.
^ On the
Byrsa some evidence remains of quality residential
construction of 2nd century BC. Soren, Khader, Slim,
^ Jeffrey H. Schwartz, Frank Houghton, Roberto Macchiarelli, Luca
Bondioli “Skeletal Remains from Punic
Carthage Do Not Support
Systematic Sacrifice of Infants”
^ B. H. Warmington,
Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960; reprint
Penguin 1964) at 15 (quote), 25, 141; (London: Robert Hale, 2d ed.
1969) at 27 (quote), 131–132, 133 (enclosure).
^ See the section on Punic religion below.
^ Cf., Warmington,
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 141.
^ Modern archeologists on the site have not yet 'discovered' the
ancient agora. Lancel,
Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 141.
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 142.
Appian of Alexandria (c.95 – c.160s), Pomaika known as the Roman
History, at VII (Libyca), 128.
^ Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 133 & 229n17
Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 152–172, e.g.,
163–165 (floorplans), 167–171 (neighborhood diagrams and
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 139 (map of city, re the
Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 138–140. These
findings mostly relate to the 3rd century BC.
^ Picard, The Life and Death of
Carthage (Paris 1970; New York 1968)
at 162–165 (carvings described), 176–178 (quote).
Carthage (1992; 1997) at 138 and 145 (city maps).
^ This was especially so, later in the Roman era. E.g., Soren, Khader,
Carthage (1990) at 187–210.
Carthage (1964) at 138–140, map at 139; at 273n.3, he
cites the ancients: Appian, Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Polybius.
^ Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963), text at 34, maps at 31
and 34. According to Harden, the outer walls ran several kilometres to
the west of that indicated on the map here.
^ Picard and Picard, The Life and Death of
Carthage (1968, 1969) at
^ For an ample discussion of the ancient city: Serge Lancel, Carthage
(Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992; Oxford: Blackwell 1995, 1997) at
134–172, ancient harbours at 172–192; archaic
Carthage at 38–77.
^ Herodotus, V2. 165–7
^ Polybius, World History: 1.7–1.60
^ Pellechia, Thomas (2006). Wine: The 8,000-Year-Old Story of the Wine
Trade. London: Running Press. ISBN 1-56025-871-3.
^ "Ancient History". infoplease.com.
^ C. Michael Hogan (2007) Volubilis, The Megalithic Portal, ed. by A.
^ a b Warmington, B. H. (1988). "The Destruction of Carthage : A
Retractatio". Classical Philology. 83 (4): 308–310.
^ Ridley, R. T. (1986). "To Be Taken with a Pinch of Salt: The
Destruction of Carthage". Classical Philology. 81 (2): 140–146.
^ George Ripley;
Charles Anderson Dana
Charles Anderson Dana (1863). The new American
encyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. D. Appleton
and company. p. 497.
^ Ripley, George;
Charles Anderson Dana
Charles Anderson Dana (1863). The New American
Cyclopædia: a Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. 4.
^ Ridley, 1986
^ Stevens, 1988, p. 39-40.
^ Warmington, 1988
^ Sedgwick, Henry Dwight (2005). Italy In The Thirteenth Century, Part
Two. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. p. 324.
^ Bridges That Babble On: 15 Amazing Roman Aqueducts, Article by
Steve, filed under Abandoned Places in the Architecture category
^ Bosworth, C. Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic World.
Brill Academic Press. p. 436. ISBN 978-9004153882.
Patrologia Latina vol. 143, coll. 727–731
^ Bouchier, E.S. (1913). Life and Letters in Roman Africa. Oxford:
Blackwells. p. 117. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
^ François Decret, Early Christianity in North Africa(James Clarke
& Co, 2011) p200.
^ Hastings, Adrian (2004) . "The Victorian Missionary". The
Church in Africa, 1450–1950. history of the Christian Church.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 255.
doi:10.1093/0198263996.003.0007. ISBN 9780198263999.
^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lavigerie, Charles Martial
Allemand". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University
^ Joseph Sollier, "Charles-Martial-Allemand Lavigerie" in Catholic
Encyclopedia (New York 1910) Jenkins, Philip (2011). The next
christendom : the coming of global Christianity (3rd ed.). Oxford
[u.a.]: Oxford University Press. p. 46.
^ Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1910). "Lavigerie, Charles
Martial Allemand". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious
Knowledge. 6 (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls.
p. 425. In 1964, the episcopal see of
Carthage had to be
de-established again, in a compromise reached with the government of
Habib Bourguiba, which permitted the
Catholic Church in
retain legal personality and representation by the prelate nullius of
^ Charles Ernest Beulé, Fouilles à Carthage, éd. Imprimerie
impériale, Paris, 1861.
^ Azedine Beschaouch, La légende de Carthage, éd. Découvertes
Gallimard, Paris, 1993, p. 94.
^ Dussaud, Bulletin Archéologique (1922), p. 245.
^ J.B. Hennessey, Palestine Exploration Quarterly (1966)
^ Matisoo-Smith EA, Gosling AL, Boocock J, Kardailsky O, Kurumilian Y,
Roudesli-Chebbi S, et al. (May 25, 2016). "A European Mitochondrial
Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage,
North Africa" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 11 (5): e0155046.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155046. PMC 4880306 .
PMID 27224451. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
^ Philippe Bonnichon; Pierre Gény; Jean Nemo (2012). Présences
françaises outre-mer, XVIe-XXIe siècles. KARTHALA Editions.
p. 453. ISBN 978-2-8111-0737-6.
^ Encyclopedie Mensuelle d'Outre-mer staff (1954).
Tunisia 54. Negro
Universities Press. p. 166.
^ "Qui sommes nous ?" (Archive). Lycée Gustave Flaubert (La
Marsa). Retrieved on February 24, 2016.
^ Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (January 1996).
International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa.
Taylor & Francis. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-884964-03-9.
^ Illustrated Encyclopaedia of World History. Mittal Publications.
p. 1615. GGKEY:C6Z1Y8ZWS0N.
^ "Statistical Information: Population". National Institute of
Statistics – Tunisia. Retrieved 3 January 2014. ; up from
15,922 in 2004 ("Population, ménages et logements par unité
administrative" (in French). National Institute of Statistics –
Tunisia. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 3
January 2014. )
^ David Lambert, Notables des colonies. Une élite de circonstance en
Tunisie et au Maroc (1881–1939), éd. Presses universitaires de
Rennes, Rennes, 2009, pp. 257–258
^ (in French) Sophie Bessis, « Défendre Carthage, encore et
toujours », Le Courrier de l'Unesco, September 1999
Tunisia unrest: Presidential palace gunbattle". philSTAR.com.
17 January 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
^ Cf., Charles-Picard, Daily Life in
Carthage (Paris 195; Oxford 1961,
reprint Macmillan 1968) at 165, 171–177.
^ Donald Harden, The Phoenicians (New York: Praeger 1962, 2d ed. 1963)
at 57–62 (
Cyprus and Aegean), 62–65 (western Mediterranean);
157–170 (trade); 67–70, 84–85, 160–164 (the Greeks).
^ Strabo, Geographica, XVII,3,15; as translated by H. L. Jones (Loeb
Classic Library 1932) at VIII: 385.
^ Sabatino Moscati, The World of the Phoenicians (1966; 1973) at
^ Richard J. Harrison, Spain at the Dawn of History (London: Thames
and Hudson 1988), "Phoenician colonies in Spain" at 41–50, 42.
^ Cf., Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 157–166.
^ E.g., during the reign of Hiram (tenth century) of Tyre. Sabatino
Moscati, Il Mondo dei Fenici (1966), translated as The World of the
Phoenicians (1968, 1973) at 31–34.
^ Stéphane Gsell, Histoire ancienne de l'Afrique du Nord (Paris:
Librairie Hachette 1924) at volume IV: 113.
Strabo (c.63 B.C. – A.D. 20s), Geographia at III, 5.11.
^ Walter W. Hyde,
Ancient Greek Mariners (Oxford Univ. 1947) at
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 81 (secretive), 87
^ Strabo, Geographica, XVII,3,15; in the Loeb Classic Library edition
of 1932, translated by H. L. Jones, at VIII: 385.
^ Cf., Theodor Mommsen, Römische Geschicht (Leipzig: Reimer and
Hirzel 1854–1856), translated as the History of Rome (London
1862–1866; reprinted by J. M. Dent 1911) at II: 17–18 (Mommsen's
Book III, Chapter I).
^ Warmington, B. H. (1964) . Carthage. Robert Hale, Pelican.
^ Aristotle, Politica at Book II, Chapter 11, (1272b–1274b); in The
Basic Works of
Aristotle edited by R. McKeon, translated by B. Jowett
(Random House 1941), Politica at pages 1113–1316, "Carthage" at
^ Polybius, Histories VI, 11–18, translated as The Rise of the Roman
Empire (Penguin 1979) at 311–318.
Carthage (1960; Penguin 1964) at 147–148.
Carthage (1960; Penguin 1964) at 148.
Aristotle presents a slightly more expansive interpretation of the
role of assemblies. Politica II, 11, (1273a/6–11); McKeon, ed.,
Basic Works of
Aristotle (1941) at 1172.
^ Compare Roman assemblies.
^ Aristotle, Politica at II, 11, (1273b/17–20), and at VI, 5,
(1320b/4–6) re colonies; in McKeon, ed., Basic Works of Aristotle
(1941) at 1173, and at 1272.
Aristotle said that the oligarchy was careful to treat the masses
liberally and allow them a share in the profitable exploitation of the
subject territories." Warmington,
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 149, citing
Aristotle's Politica as here.
^ Aristotle, Politica at II, 11, (1273b/23–24) re misfortune and
revolt, (1272b/29–32) re constitution and loyalty; in McKeon, ed.,
Basic Works of
Aristotle (1941) at 1173, 1171.
^ Aristotle, Politica at II, 11, (1273b/8–16) re one person many
offices, and (1273a/22–1273b/7) re oligarchy; in McKeon, ed., Basic
Aristotle (1941) at 1173, 1172–1273.
Carthage (1960, 1964) at 143–144, 148–150. "The fact
is that compared to Greeks and Romans the Carthaginians were
essentially non-political." Ibid. at 149.
^ H. H. Scullard, A History of the Roman World, 753–146 BC (London:
Methuen 1935, 4th ed. 1980; reprint Routledge 1991) at 306–307.
Carthage at 240–241, citing the Roman historian Livy.
^ Picard, Life and Death of
Carthage (1968) at 80–86
^ Picard, Life and Death of
Carthage (1968, 1969) at 40–41 (Greeks),
^ Cf., Warmington,
Carthage (1960; Penguin 1964) at 24–25 (Greeks),
^ B.H.Warmington, "The Carthiginian Period" at 246–260, 246 ("No
Carthaginian literature has survived."), in General History of Africa,
volume III. Ancient Civilizations of Africa (
UNESCO 1990) Abridged
^ R. Bosworth Smith,
Carthage and the Carthaginians (London: Longmans,
Green 1878, 1902) at 12. Smith's catalogue has not been appreciably
augmented since, but for newly found inscriptions.
^ Picard, Life and Death of
Carthage (1968, 1969) at 72–73:
translation of Romano-Punic Treaty, 509 BC; at 72–78: discussion.
Polybius (c. 200 – 118), Istorion at III, 22–25, selections
translated as Rise of the
Roman Empire (Penguin 1979) at 199–203.
Polybius died well over 70 years before the start of the
^ Cf., Arnold J. Toynbee, Hannibal's Legacy (1965) at I: 526, Appendix
on the treaties.
^ Hanno's log translated in full by Warmington,
Carthage (1960) at
^ E.g., by Varro (116–27) in his De re rustica; by
Columella (fl. AD
50–60) in his On trees and On agriculture, and by Pliny (23–79) in
his Naturalis Historia. See below, paragraph on Mago's work.
^ Harden, The Phoenicians (New York: Praeger 1962, 2d ed. 1963) at
122–123 (28 books), 140 (quotation of paragraph).
^ Cf., H. J. Rose, A Handbook of Lanin Literature (London: Methuen
1930, 3d ed. 1954; reprint Dutton, New York 1960) at 51–52, where a
plot summary of
Poenulus (i.e., "The Man from Carthage") is given. Its
main characters are Punic.
^ Eighteen lines from
Poenulus are spoken in Punic by the character
Hanno in Act 5, scene 1, beginning "Hyth alonim vualonuth sicorathi si
ma com sith... ."
Plautus gives a
Latin paraphrase in the next ten
lines. The gist is a prayer seeking divine aid in his quest to find
his lost kin. The Comedies of
Plautus (London: G. Bell and Sons 1912),
translated by Henry Thomas Riley. The scholar Bochart considered the
first ten lines to be Punic, but the last eight to be 'Lybic'. Another
scholar, Samuel Petit, translated the text as if it were Hebrew, a
sister-language of Punic. This according to notes accompanying the
above scene by H. T. Riley.
^ Soren, Ben Khader, Slim,
Carthage (New York: Simon and Schuster,
1990) at 42 (over 6000 inscriptions found), at 139 (many very short,
on religious stele).
^ An example of a longer inscription (of about 279 Punic characters)
exists at Thugga, Tunisia. It concerns the dedication of a temple to
the late king Masinissa. A translated text appears in Brett and
Berbers (1997) at 39.
^ Glenn E. Markoe,
Carthage (2000) at 114.
^ Picard and Picard, Life and Death of
Carthage (1968, 1969) at 30.
^ Cf., Victor Matthews, "The libri punici of King Hiempsal" in
American Journal of Philology 93: 330–335 (1972); and, Véronique
Krings, "Les libri Punici de Sallust" in L'Africa Romana 7: 109–117
(1989). Cited by Roller (2003) at 27, n110.
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (23–79), Naturalis Historia at XVIII, 22–23.
^ Serge Lancel,
Carthage (Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard 1992;
Oxford: Blackwell 1995) at 358–360. Lancel here remarks that,
following the fall of Carthage, there arose among the Romans there a
popular reaction against the late
Cato the Elder
Cato the Elder (234–149), the
Roman censor who had notoriously lobbied for the destruction of the
city. Lancel (1995) at 410.
^ Ronald Syme, however, in his
Sallust (University of California,
1964, 2002) at 152–153, discounts any unique value of the libri
punici mentioned in his Bellum Iugurthinum.
Carthage (1992, 1995) at 359, raises questions concerning
the provenance of these books.
Hiempsal II was the great-grandson of
Masinissa (r. 202–148),
through Mastanabal (r. 148–140) and Gauda (r. 105–88). D. W.
Roller, The World of
Juba II and Kleopatra Selene (2003) at 265.
^ Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum (ca. 42) at ¶17, translated as The
Jugurthine War (Penguin 1963) at 54.
^ R. Bosworth Smith, in his
Carthage and the Carthaginians (London:
Longmans, Green 1878, 1908) at 38, laments that
Sallust declined to
directly address the history of the city of Carthage.
^ Duane W. Roller, The World of
Juba II and Kleopatra Selene. Royal
scholarship on Rome's African frontier (New York: Routledge 2003), at
183, 191, in his Chapter 8: "Libyka" (183–211) [cf., 179]; also at
19, 27, 159 (Juba's library described), 177 (per his book on Hanno).
^ Juba II's literary works are reviewed by D. W. Roller in The World
of Jube II and Kleopatra Selene (2003) at chapters 7, 8, and 10.
^ Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker (Leiden 1923–), ed.
Felix Jacoby, re "Juba II" at no. 275 (per Roller (2003) at xiii,
^ Duane W. Roller, The World of
Juba II and Kleopatra Selene (2003) at
189, n22; cf., 177.
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (23–79), Naturalis Historia V, 8; II, 169.
^ Cf., Picard and Picard, The Life and Death of
Hachette ; New York: Taplinger 1969) at 93–98, 115–119.
^ Serge Lancel, Carthage. A History (Paris 1992; Oxford 1995) at
^ See section herein on Berber relations. See Early History of Tunisia
for both indigenous and foreign reports concerning the Berbers, both
in pre-Punic and Punic times.
^ Glenn E. Markoe, Phoenicians (London: British Museum, Berkeley:
University of California 2000) at 21–22 (affinity), 95–96
(economy), 115–119 (religion), 137 (funerals), 143 (art).
^ David Diringer, Writing (London: Thames and Hudson 1962) at
Ugarit tablet were discovered in 1929.
^ Allen C. Myers, editor, The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids:
1987) at 1027–1028.
^ Markoe, Phoenicians (2000) at 119.
Eusebius of Caesarea (263–339),
the Church Historian, quotes the Greek of
Philo of Byblos whose source
was the Phoenician writings of Sanchuniathon. Some doubt the existence
^ Cf., Attridge & Oden,
Philo of Byblos (1981); Baumgarten,
Phoenician History of
Philo of Byblos (1981). Cited by Markoe (2000).
^ Donald Harden, The Phoenicians (New York: Praeger 1962, 2d ed. 1963)
^ Sabatino Moscati, Il Mondo dei Fenici (1966), translated as The
World of the Phoenicians (London: Cardinal 1973) at 55. Prof. Moscati
offers the tablets found at ancient
Ugarit as independent
substantiation for what we know about Sanchuniathon's writings.
^ Soren, Khader, Slim,
Carthage (1990) at 128–129.
^ The ancient Romanized Jewish historian
Flavius Josephus (37–100s)
also mentions a lost Phoenician work; he quotes from a Phoenician
History of one "Dius". Josephus, Against Apion (c.100) at I:17; found
in The Works of Josephus translated by Whiston (London 1736; reprinted
by Hendrickson, Peabody, Massachusetts 1987) at 773–814, 780.
^ Glenn E. Markoe, Phoenicians (Univ.of California 2002) at 11, 110.
Of course, this also applies to Carthage. Cf., Markoe (2000) at 114.
Strabo (c. 63 B.C. – A.D. 20s), Geographia at III, 5.11.
^ "He knows all lingos, but pretends he doesn't. He must be Punic;
need we labor it?" From
Poenulus at 112–113, by the Roman playwright
Plautus (c. 250–184). Cited by Hardon, The Phoenicians (1963) at
^ Markoe, Phoenicians (2000) at 110, at 11. Inserted in second Markoe
^ Cf., Harden, The Phoenicians (1963) at 123. [Ancient Peoples and
^ Soren, Ben Khader, Slim, '
Carthage (New York: Simon and Schuster
1990) at 34–35 (script), at 42 (inserted in quote: [the alphabet]).
^ Steven Roger Fischer, A History of Writing (London: Reaktion 2001)
at 82–93. Facsimiles of early alphabetical writing from ancient
inscriptions are given for: Proto-Canaanite in the Levant of the 2nd
millennium (at 88), Phoenician (Old Hebrew) in Moab of 842 (at 91),
Phoenician (Punic) in Marseilles [France] circa 300 BC (at 92). Also
given (at 92) is a bilingual (Punic and Numidian) inscription from
Thugga [Tunisia] circa 218–201, which regards a temple being
dedicated to king Masinissa.
^ David Diringer, Writing (London: Thames and Hudson 1962) at
Polybius, The Histories, Cambridge: translated from the
Latin by W.R.
Paton for Harvard University Press from 1922 to 1927 .
Polybius, "Rome at the End of the Punic Wars", History, Book VI,
Milwaukee: translated from the
Latin by Oliver J. Thatcher for
University Research Extension Co. in 1907 .
Aubet, Maria Eugenia (1987), The Phoenicians and the West: Politics,
Colonies, and Trade, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .
Bath, Tony (1981), Hannibal's Campaigns, New York: Barnes & Noble
Beschaouch, Azedine (1993), La légende de
Carthage [The Legend of
Carthage], Découvertes Gallimard, 172, Paris: Gallimard . (in
Charles-Picard, Gibert; et al. (1958), La vie quotidienne à Carthage
au temps d'
Hannibal [Daily Life in
Carthage in the Time of Hannibal],
Paris: Hachette . (in French)
Freed, J. (2011), Bringing
Carthage Home: The Excavations of Nathan
Davis, 1856–1859 .
Lipinski, Edward (2004), Itineraria Phoenicia, Leuven: Uitgeverij
Peeters en Department Oosterse Studies .
Miles, Richard (2011),
Carthage Must Be Destroyed: The Rise and Fall
of an Ancient Civilization, Viking .
Raven, S. (2002), Rome in Africa, 3rd ed.
Soren, David; et al. (1990), Carthage: Uncovering the Mysteries and
Splendors of Ancient Tunisia, New York: Simon & Schuster .
Carthage Romaine, 146 avant Jésus-Christ — 698
après Jésus-Christ, Paris (1901).
Ernest Babelon, Carthage, Paris (1896).
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Carthage (ancient city).
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
The dictionary definition of Carthago at Wiktionary
Carthage travel guide from Wikivoyage
Media related to Archaeological site of
Carthage at Wikimedia Commons
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World Heritage Sites in Tunisia
Amphitheatre of El Jem
Ichkeul National Park
Medina of Sousse
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Punic Town of Kerkuane and its Necropolis
Site of Carthage
List of World Heritage Sites in Tunisia