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Philips
KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS N.V. (KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS N.V. OF THE NETHERLAND, PHILIPS), (stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch technology company headquartered in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
with primary divisions focused in the areas of electronics, healthcare and lighting. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891, by Gerard Philips
Gerard Philips
and his father Frederik. It is one of the largest electronics companies in the world and employs around 105,000 people across more than 60 countries. Philips
Philips
is organized into three main divisions: Philips
Philips
Consumer Lifestyle (formerly Philips
Philips
Consumer Electronics and Philips
Philips
Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Philips
Philips
Healthcare
Healthcare
(formerly Philips Medical Systems) and Philips
Philips
Lighting
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United States Dollar
UNITED STATES East Timor Ecuador
Ecuador
El Salvador
El Salvador
Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Palau
Palau
Panama
Panama
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
3 non-U.S
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International Court Of Arbitration
The INTERNATIONAL COURT OF ARBITRATION is an institution for the resolution of international commercial disputes. The International Court of Arbitration is part of the International
International
Chamber of Commerce . The court comprises more than 100 members from about 90 countries. ICC headquarters is in Paris
Paris
, France
France
. There are an increasing number of cases being brought before the International
International
Court of Arbitration. There have been more than 500 cases a year handled by the International
International
Court of Arbitration since 1999. BACKGROUNDThe Court was founded in 1923 under the leadership of the ICC's first president Étienne Clémentel , a former French Minister of Finance
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Stock Market Index
A STOCK INDEX or STOCK MARKET INDEX is a measurement of the value of a section of the stock market . It is computed from the prices of selected stocks (typically a weighted average ). It is a tool used by investors and financial managers to describe the market, and to compare the return on specific investments . An index is a mathematical construct, so it may not be invested in directly. But many mutual funds and exchange-traded funds attempt to "track" an index (see index fund ), and those funds that do not may be judged against those that do
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Division (business)
A DIVISION of a business , sometimes called a BUSINESS SECTOR, is one of the parts into which a business, organization or company is divided. The divisions are distinct parts of that business. If these divisions are all part of the same company, then that company is legally responsible for all of the obligations and debts of the divisions. However, in a large organization, various parts of the business may be run by different subsidiaries , and a business division may include one or many subsidiaries. Each subsidiary is a separate legal entity owned by the primary business or by another subsidiary in the hierarchy. Often a division operates under a separate name and is the equivalent of a corporation or limited liability company obtaining a fictitious name or "doing business as " certificate and operating a business under that fictitious name. Companies often set up business units to operate in divisions prior to the legal formation of subsidiaries
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Equity (finance)
In accounting , EQUITY (or OWNER\'S EQUITY) is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owned. It is governed by the following equation: Equity = Assets Liabilities {displaystyle {text{Equity}}={text{Assets}}-{text{Liabilities}}} For example, if someone owns a car worth $15,000 (an asset), but owes $5,000 on a loan against that car (a liability), the car represents $10,000 of equity. Equity can be negative if liabilities exceeds assets. SHAREHOLDERS\' EQUITY (or stockholders' equity, shareholders' funds, shareholders' capital or similar terms) represents the equity of a company as divided among shareholders of common or preferred stock . Negative shareholders' equity is often referred to as a shareholders' deficit. Alternatively, equity can also refer to the capital stock of a corporation . The value of the stock depends on the corporation's future economic prospects
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Earnings Before Interest And Taxes
In accounting and finance, EARNINGS BEFORE INTEREST AND TAXES (EBIT), is a measure of a firm's profit that includes all expenses except interest and income tax expenses. It is the difference between operating revenues and operating expenses. When a firm does not have non-operating income , then OPERATING INCOME is sometimes used as a synonym for EBIT and operating profit . EBIT = revenue – operating expenses (OPEX) Operating income = revenue – operating expenses A professional investor contemplating a change to the capital structure of a firm (e.g., through a leveraged buyout ) first evaluates a firm's fundamental earnings potential (reflected by earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA ) and EBIT), and then determines the optimal use of debt vs. equity. To calculate EBIT, expenses (e.g. the cost of goods sold , selling and administrative expenses) are subtracted from revenues
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Net Income
In business , NET INCOME (TOTAL COMPREHENSIVE INCOME, NET EARNINGS, NET PROFIT, informally, BOTTOM LINE) is an entity's income minus cost of goods sold , expenses and taxes for an accounting period . It is computed as the residual of all revenues and gains over all expenses and losses for the period, and has also been defined as the net increase in shareholders\' equity that results from a company's operations. In the context of the presentation of financial statements , the IFRS Foundation defines net income as synonymous with PROFIT AND LOSS. Net income
Net income
is a distinct accounting concept from profit but the same as net profit. Net income
Net income
can also be calculated by adding a company's operating income to non-operating income and then subtracting off taxes
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Asset
In financial accounting , an ASSET is an economic resource. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled to produce value and that is held by a company to produce positive economic value is an asset. Simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also considered an asset). The balance sheet of a firm records the monetary value of the assets owned by that firm. It covers money and other valuables belonging to an individual or to a business . One can classify assets into two major asset classes: tangible assets and intangible assets . Tangible assets contain various subclasses, including current assets and fixed assets . Current assets include inventory , while fixed assets include such items as buildings and equipment . Intangible assets are nonphysical resources and rights that have a value to the firm because they give the firm some kind of advantage in the marketplace
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Corporation
A CORPORATION is a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person ) and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an ad hoc act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration . Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they make profit or not. Where local law distinguishes corporations by ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, and owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders"
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Multinational Corporation
A MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION or WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in two or more countries other than their home country. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Overview * 3 Theoretical background * 4 Transnational corporations * 5 Multinational enterprise * 6 Multinational corporation
Multinational corporation
and colonialism * 7 Criticism of multinationals * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links NAMESA multinational corporation can also be referred to as an MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE (MNE), a INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, a TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION, or a STATELESS CORPORATION. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as those labels of MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION and a WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE
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Nazi Broadcasts
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies . The pervasive use of propaganda by the Nazis is largely responsible for the word "propaganda" itself acquiring its present negative connotations
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Emancipation
EMANCIPATION is any effort to procure economic and social rights , political rights or equality , often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters. Emancipation
Emancipation
stems from ēx manus capere ('detach from the hand'). Among others, Karl Marx
Karl Marx
discussed political emancipation in his 1844 essay " On the Jewish Question ", although often in addition to (or in contrast with) the term human emancipation. Marx's views of political emancipation in this work were summarized by one writer as entailing "equal status of individual citizens in relation to the state, equality before the law , regardless of religion, property, or other “private” characteristics of individual people." "Political emancipation" as a phrase is less common in modern usage, especially outside academic, foreign or activist contexts. However, similar concepts may be referred to by other terms
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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