Dutch: [ɑmstərˈdɑm] ( listen)) is the capital and
most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the
capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands,
although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague.
Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,
1,351,587 in the urban area, and 2,410,960 in the Amsterdam
metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North
Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is
Haarlem. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of
the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a
population of approximately 7 million.
Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the
city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small
fishing village in the late 12th century,
Amsterdam became one of the
most important ports in the world during the
Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age (17th
century), a result of its innovative developments in trade. During
that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and
diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and
many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The
17th-century canals of
Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence
Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the
annexation of municipality Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of
Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten (9th
As the commercial capital of the
Netherlands and one of the top
financial centres in Europe,
Amsterdam is considered an alpha world
city by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) study group. The
city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large
Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the
world's 500 largest companies, including
Philips and ING, are based in
the city. Also, many leading technology companies have their
European headquarters in Amsterdam, such as Uber,
Tesla. In 2012,
Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live
in by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and 12th globally on
quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer.
The city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency
2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam
seaport to this day remains the second in the country, and the fifth
largest seaport in Europe. Famous
Amsterdam residents include the
diarist Anne Frank, artists
Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh,
and philosopher Baruch Spinoza.
Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world,
is located in the city center. Amsterdam's main attractions, including
its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the
Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the
Anne Frank House, the
Amsterdam Museum, its red-light district, and its many cannabis coffee
shops draw more than 5 million international visitors
annually. It is also one of the world's most multicultural cities,
with at least 177 nationalities represented.
2.1 Founding and Middle Ages
2.2 Conflict with Spain
2.3 Centre of the Dutch Golden Age
2.4 Decline and modernisation
2.5 20th century–present
4.1 Historical population
4.4 Diversity and immigration
5 Cityscape and architecture
5.4 Parks and recreational areas
6.1 Port of Amsterdam
6.2.1 Red light district
7.3 Performing arts
8.1 City government
8.2 Metropolitan area
8.3 National capital
9.1 Metro, tram and bus
9.3 National rail
11 Notable people
11.3 Originating from elsewhere
14 See also
15 Notes and references
16 See also
17 External links
See also Other names of Amsterdam
After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river
a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the
village: "Aemstelredamme". The earliest recorded use of that name is
in a document dated October 27, 1275, which exempted inhabitants of
the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This
allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel
freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges,
locks and dams. The certificate describes the inhabitants as homines
manentes apud Amestelledamme (people residing near
Amestelledamme). By 1327, the name had developed into
History of Amsterdam
History of Amsterdam and Timeline of Amsterdam
Founding and Middle Ages
The Oude Kerk was consecrated in 1306
Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen,
Rotterdam, and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris
de Bont suggested that the land around
Amsterdam was being reclaimed
as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean that
there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not
have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as
Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the
14th century on,
Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the
Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the
Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until
the adoption of the Protestant faith. The Miracle devotion went
underground but was kept alive. In the 19th century, especially after
the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an
important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics. The Stille
Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the
expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant
the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to
90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has
reduced to about 5000.
Conflict with Spain
A woodcut depicting
Amsterdam as of 1538; the famous Grachtengordel
had not yet been established
Courtyard of the
Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Amsterdam Stock Exchange by Emanuel de Witte, 1653;
Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Amsterdam Stock Exchange was the first stock exchange to introduce
continuous trade in the early 17th century
In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against
Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain and
his successors. The main reasons for the uprising were the imposition
of new taxes, the tenth penny, and the religious persecution of
Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated
into the Eighty Years' War, which ultimately led to Dutch
independence. Strongly pushed by
Dutch Revolt leader William the
Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious
Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France,
prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, and economic and
religious refugees from the Spanish-controlled parts of the Low
Countries found safety in Amsterdam. The influx of Flemish printers
and the city's intellectual tolerance made
Amsterdam a centre for the
European free press.
Centre of the Dutch Golden Age
The Royal Palace, Nieuwe Kerk, and now demolished weigh house on Dam
Square in 1814
The 17th century is considered Amsterdam's Golden Age, during which it
became the wealthiest city in the western world. Ships sailed from
Amsterdam to the Baltic Sea, North America, and Africa, as well as
present-day Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, and Brazil, forming the basis
of a worldwide trading network. Amsterdam's merchants had the largest
share in both the
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India
Company. These companies acquired overseas possessions that later
became Dutch colonies.
Amsterdam was Europe's most important point for
the shipment of goods and was the leading
Financial centre of the
western world. In 1602, the
Amsterdam office of the international
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company became the world's first stock
exchange by trading in its own shares. The Bank of Amsterdam
started operations in 1609, acting as a full service bank for Dutch
merchant bankers and as a reserve bank.
Decline and modernisation
Amsterdam's prosperity declined during the 18th and early 19th
centuries. The wars of the
Dutch Republic with England and
their toll on Amsterdam. During the Napoleonic Wars, Amsterdam's
significance reached its lowest point, with Holland being absorbed
into the French Empire. However, the later establishment of the United
Kingdom of the
Netherlands in 1815 marked a turning point.
Vijzelstraat looking towards the Muntplein in 1891
The end of the 19th century is sometimes called Amsterdam's second
Golden Age. New museums, a railway station, and the Concertgebouw
were built; in this same time, the
Industrial Revolution reached the
Amsterdam–Rhine Canal was dug to give
Amsterdam a direct
connection to the Rhine, and the
North Sea Canal
North Sea Canal was dug to give the
port a shorter connection to the North Sea. Both projects dramatically
improved commerce with the rest of
Europe and the world. In 1906,
Joseph Conrad gave a brief description of
Amsterdam as seen from the
seaside, in The Mirror of the Sea.
Photochrom of Amsterdam's
Dam Square at the beginning of the 20th
Shortly before the First World War, the city started to expand again,
and new suburbs were built. Even though the
neutral in this war,
Amsterdam suffered a food shortage, and heating
fuel became scarce. The shortages sparked riots in which several
people were killed. These riots are known as the Aardappeloproer
(Potato rebellion). People started looting stores and warehouses in
order to get supplies, mainly food.
On 1 January 1921, after a flood in 1916, the depleted municipalities
of Durgerdam, Holysloot,
Zunderdorp and Schellingwoude, all lying
north of Amsterdam, were, at their own request, annexed to the
city. Between the wars, the city continued to expand, most
notably to the west of the
Jordaan district in the Frederik
Hendrikbuurt and surrounding neighbourhoods.
Nazi Germany invaded the
Netherlands on 10 May 1940 and took control
of the country. Some
Amsterdam citizens sheltered Jews, thereby
exposing themselves and their families to a high risk of being
imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. More than 100,000 Dutch
Jews were deported to Nazi concentration camps, of whom some 60,000
lived in Amsterdam. In response, the Dutch Communist Party organised
February strike attended by 300,000 people to protest against the
raids. Perhaps the most famous deportee was the young Jewish girl Anne
Frank, who died in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. At the
end of the Second World War, communication with the rest of the
country broke down, and food and fuel became scarce. Many citizens
travelled to the countryside to forage. Dogs, cats, raw sugar beets,
Tulip bulbs—cooked to a pulp—were consumed to stay alive.
Most of the trees in
Amsterdam were cut down for fuel, and all the
wood was taken from the apartments of deported Jews.
People celebrating the liberation of the
Netherlands at the end of
World War II
World War II on 8 May 1945
Many new suburbs, such as Osdorp, Slotervaart,
Geuzenveld, were built in the years after the Second World War.
These suburbs contained many public parks and wide open spaces, and
the new buildings provided improved housing conditions with larger and
brighter rooms, gardens, and balconies. Because of the war and other
events of the 20th century, almost the entire city centre had fallen
into disrepair. As society was changing,[clarification needed]
politicians and other influential figures made plans to redesign large
parts of it. There was an increasing demand for office buildings, and
also for new roads, as the automobile became available to most
people. A metro started operating in 1977 between the new suburb
of Bijlmer and the centre of Amsterdam. Further plans were to build a
new highway above the metro to connect
Amsterdam Centraal and city
centre with other parts of the city.
The required large-scale demolitions began in Amsterdam's former
Jewish neighbourhood. Smaller streets, such as the Jodenbreestraat,
were widened and almost all of their houses were demolished. At the
peak of the demolition, the Nieuwmarktrellen (
Nieuwmarkt Riots) broke
out; the rioters expressed their fury about the demolition caused
by the restructuring of the city.
As a result, the demolition was stopped, and the highway was never
built; only the metro was completed. Only a few streets remained
widened. The new city hall was built on the almost completely
demolished Waterlooplein. Meanwhile, large private organisations, such
as Stadsherstel Amsterdam, were founded with the aim of restoring the
entire city centre. Although the success of this struggle is visible
today, efforts for further restoration are still ongoing. The
entire city centre has reattained its former splendour and, as a
whole, is now a protected area. Many of its buildings have become
monuments, and in July 2010 the Grachtengordel (the three concentric
canals: Herengracht, Keizersgracht, and Prinsengracht) was added to
the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Amsterdam Gay Pride
Amsterdam Gay Pride 2015
In the early years of the 21st century, the
Amsterdam city centre has
attracted large numbers of tourists: between 2012 and 2015, the annual
number of visitors rose from 10 million to 17 million. Real estate
prices have surged, and local shops are making way for
tourist-oriented ones, making the centre unaffordable for the city's
inhabitants. These developments have evoked comparisons with
Venice, a city thought to be overwhelmed by the tourist influx.
Construction of a metro line connecting the part of the city north of
the river (or lake) IJ to the centre was started in 2003. The project
is controversial because its cost had exceeded its budget by a factor
three by 2008, because of fears of damage to buildings in the
centre, and because construction had to be halted and restarted
Since 2014, renewed focus has been given to urban regeneration and
renewal, especially in areas directly bordering the city centre, such
as Frederik Hendrikbuurt. This urban renewal and expansion of the
traditional centre of the city—with the construction on artificial
islands of the new eastern
IJburg neighbourhood—is part of the
Amsterdam 2040 initiative.
Topographic map of
Amsterdam and its surrounding municipalities, 2014
Large-scale map of the city centre of Amsterdam, including sightseeing
markers, as of April 2017
Amsterdam is located in the Western Netherlands, in the province of
North Holland, although it is not its capital which is Haarlem. The
Amstel ends in the city centre and connects to a large number of
canals that eventually terminate in the IJ.
Amsterdam is about 2
metres (6.6 feet) below sea level. The surrounding land is flat as
it is formed of large polders. A man-made forest, Amsterdamse Bos, is
in the southwest.
Amsterdam is connected to the
North Sea through the
North Sea Canal.
Amsterdam is intensely urbanised, as is the
area surrounding the city. Comprising 219.4 square kilometres (84.7
square miles) of land, the city proper has 4,457 inhabitants per km2
and 2,275 houses per km2. Parks and nature reserves make up 12% of
Amsterdam's land area.
Reguliersgracht, Autumn 2010
Amsterdam has more than 100 kilometres (60 miles) of canals, most of
which are navigable by boat. The city's three main canals are the
Prinsengracht, Herengracht, and Keizersgracht.
In the Middle Ages,
Amsterdam was surrounded by a moat, called the
Singel, which now forms the innermost ring in the city, and makes the
city centre a horseshoe shape. The city is also served by a seaport.
It has been compared with Venice, due to its division into about 90
islands, which are linked by more than 1,200 bridges.
Winter 2010 in Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk, Amsterdam-Noord
Amsterdam has an oceanic climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification Cfb)
strongly influenced by its proximity to the
North Sea to the west,
with prevailing westerly winds. Both winters and summers are
considered mild, although winters can get quite cold, while summers
are quite warm occasionally.
Amsterdam, as well as most of the
North Holland province, lies in USDA
Hardiness zone 8b. Frosts mainly occur during spells of easterly or
northeasterly winds from the inner European continent. Even then,
Amsterdam is surrounded on three sides by large bodies of
water, as well as having a significant heat-island effect, nights
rarely fall below −5 °C (23 °F), while it could easily
be −12 °C (10 °F) in Hilversum, 25 kilometres (16 miles)
Summers are moderately warm with a number of hot days every month. The
average daily high in August is 22.1 °C (71.8 °F), and
30 °C (86 °F) or higher is only measured on average on 2.5
Amsterdam in AHS Heat Zone 2. The record extremes range
from −15.4 °C (4.3 °F) to 34.5 °C
(94.1 °F). Days with more than 1 millimetre (0.04 in)
of precipitation are common, on average 133 days per year.
Amsterdam's average annual precipitation is 838 millimetres
(33 in), more than what is measured at
Airport. A large part of this precipitation falls as light rain or
brief showers. Cloudy and damp days are common during the cooler
months of October through March.
Climate data for
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1981–2010
normals, snowy days normals for 1971–2000)
Source #2: Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1971–2000
Estimated population, 1300–1564
Source: Bureau Monumentenzorg en Archeologie (1300)
Ramaer 1921, pp. 11–12, 181 (1400 and 1564)
Van Dillen 1929, pp. xxv–xxvi (1514, 1546 and 1557)
Historical population in 10-year intervals, 1590–present
Source: Nusteling 1985, p. 240 (1590–1670)
Van Leeuwen & Oeppen 1993, p. 87 (1680–1880)
Department for Research, Information and Statistics (1890–present)
Compared to other important towns in the County of Holland, such as
Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem,
Delft and Alkmaar,
Amsterdam is a
relatively young city. In stark contrast to the relative decline of
those other towns, Amsterdam's population grew in the 15th and 16th
centuries, mainly due to the rise of the profitable Baltic maritime
trade after the Burgundian victory in the Dutch–Hanseatic War.
Still, the population of
Amsterdam and other towns in Holland was only
modest compared to the towns and cities of
Flanders and Brabant, which
comprised the most urbanised area of the Low Countries.
This changed when, during the Dutch Revolt, many people from the
Netherlands fled to the North, especially after
to Spanish forces in 1585. In thirty years, Amsterdam's population
more than doubled from 41,362 inhabitants in 1590 to 106,500
inhabitants in 1620. During the 1660s, Amsterdam's population reached
200,000. The city's growth levelled off and the population stabilised
around 240,000 for most of the 18th century.
At the turn of the 18th century,
Amsterdam was the fourth largest city
in Europe, behind
Constantinople (about 700,000),
London (550,000) and
Paris (530,000). This was all the more remarkable as
neither the capital city nor the seat of government of the Dutch
Republic, which itself was a much smaller state than England, France
or the Ottoman Empire. In contrast to those other metropolises,
Amsterdam was also surrounded by large towns such as
Haarlem (38,000), and Utrecht
The city's population declined in the late 18th and early 19th
centuries, dipping under 200,000 in 1820. By the second half of the
19th century, industrialisation spurred renewed growth. Amsterdam's
population hit an all-time high of 872,000 in 1959, before declining
in the following decades due to government-sponsored suburbanisation
to so-called groeikernen (growth centres) such as
Almere. Between 1970 and 1980,
Amsterdam experienced its sharpest
population decline ever, and by 1985 the city had only 675,570
residents. This was soon followed by reurbanisation and
gentrification, however, leading to renewed population growth in the
2010s. The municipal department for Research, Information and
Statistics expects a new record population to be set in 2020.
population by country of origin
Country or territory
In the 16th and 17th century non-Dutch immigrants to
mostly Huguenots, Flemings,
Sephardi Jews and Westphalians. Huguenots
came after the
Edict of Fontainebleau
Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685, while the Flemish
Protestants came during the Eighty Years' War. The Westphalians came
Amsterdam mostly for economic reasons – their influx continued
through the 18th and 19th centuries. Before the Second World War, 10%
of the city population was Jewish. Just twenty per cent of them
survived the Shoah.
The first mass immigration in the 20th century were by people from
Indonesia, who came to
Amsterdam after the independence of the Dutch
East Indies in the 1940s and 1950s. In the 1960s guest workers from
Spain emigrated to Amsterdam. After the
Suriname in 1975, a large wave of Surinamese settled
in Amsterdam, mostly in the Bijlmer area. Other immigrants, including
refugees asylum seekers and illegal immigrants, came from Europe,
America, Asia, and Africa. In the 1970s and 1980s, many 'old'
Amsterdammers moved to 'new' cities like
Almere and Purmerend,
prompted by the third planological bill of the Dutch government. This
bill promoted suburbanisation and arranged for new developments in
so-called "groeikernen", literally cores of growth. Young
professionals and artists moved into neighbourhoods de Pijp and the
Jordaan abandoned by these Amsterdammers. The non-Western immigrants
settled mostly in the social housing projects in
the Bijlmer. Today, people of non-Western origin make up approximately
one-third of the population of Amsterdam, and more than 50% of the
city' s children. Segregation along ethnic lines is
clearly visible, with people of non-Western origin, considered a
separate group by Statistics Netherlands, concentrating in specific
neighbourhoods especially in Nieuw-West, Zeeburg, Bijlmer and in
certain areas of Amsterdam-Noord.
In 2000, Christians formed the largest religious group in the city
(27% of the population). The next largest religion was Islam (14%),
most of whose followers were Sunni.
There is a Japanese population resident in Amsterdam. The Japanese
Amsterdam serves elementary and junior high school students.
As of 2014[update] 8% of the student body of the International School
Amsterdam in nearby
Amstelveen was Japanese; this figure was 40%
in 1997. As of 1997 most Japanese children who lived in the
Netherlands attended high schools and universities located in
In 1578 the previously Roman Catholic city of
Amsterdam joined the
revolt against Spanish rule, late in comparison to other major
northern Dutch cities. In line with Protestant procedure of that time,
all churches were converted to Protestant worship.
the dominant religion, and although Catholicism was not forbidden and
priests allowed to serve, the Catholic hierarchy was prohibited. This
led to the establishment of schuilkerken, covert churches, behind
seemingly ordinary canal side house fronts. One example is the current
debate centre de Rode Hoed. A large influx of foreigners of many
religions came to 17th-century Amsterdam, in particular Sefardic Jews
Spain and Portugal, Huguenots from France, and Protestants from
the Southern Netherlands. This led to the establishment of many
non-Dutch-speaking religious churches. In 1603, the first notification
was made of Jewish religious service. In 1639, the first synagogue was
Jews came to call the town Jerusalem of the West, a
reference to their sense of belonging there.
Roman Catholic (11.1%)
Protestant Church in the
Other Christian denominations (6.1%)
Westerkerk in the Centrum borough, one of Amsterdam's best known
As they became established in the city, other Christian denominations
used converted Catholic chapels to conduct their own services. The
oldest English-language church congregation in the world outside the
United Kingdom is found at the Begijnhof. Regular services there are
still offered in English under the auspices of the Church of
Scotland. The Huguenots accounted for nearly 20% of Amsterdam's
inhabitants in 1700. Being Calvinists, they soon integrated into the
Dutch Reformed Church, though often retaining their own congregations.
Some, commonly referred by the moniker 'Walloon', are recognisable
today as they offer occasional services in French.
In the second half of the 17th century,
Amsterdam experienced an
influx of Ashkenazim,
Jews from Central and Eastern Europe, which
continued into the 19th century.
Jews often fled the pogroms in those
areas. The first Ashkenazi who arrived in
Amsterdam were refugees from
the Chmielnicki Uprising in
Poland and the Thirty Years' War. They not
only founded their own synagogues, but had a strong influence on the
Amsterdam dialect' adding a large Yiddish local vocabulary.
Despite an absence of an official Jewish ghetto, most
to live in the eastern part of the old medieval heart of the city. The
main street of this Jewish neighbourhood was the Jodenbreestraat. The
neighbourhood comprised the
Waterlooplein and the Nieuwmarkt.
Buildings in this neighbourhood fell into disrepair after the Second
World War, and a large section of the neighbourhood was demolished
during the construction of the subway. This led to riots, and as a
result the original plans for large-scale reconstruction were
abandoned and the neighbourhood was rebuilt with smaller-scale
residence buildings on the basis of its original layout.
Catholic churches in
Amsterdam have been constructed since the
restoration of the episcopal hierarchy in 1853. One of the principal
architects behind the city's Catholic churches, Cuypers, was also
responsible for the
Amsterdam Central station and the Rijksmuseum,
which led to a refusal of Protestant King William III to open 'that
In 1924, the Roman
Catholic Church of the
Netherlands hosted the
Eucharistic Congress in Amsterdam, and numerous Catholic
prelates visited the city, where festivities were held in churches and
stadiums. Catholic processions on the public streets, however, were
still forbidden under law at the time. Only in the 20th century was
Amsterdam's relation to Catholicism normalised, but despite its far
larger population size, the Catholic clergy chose to place its
episcopal see of the city in the nearby provincial town of
In recent times, religious demographics in
Amsterdam have been changed
by immigration from former colonies.
Hinduism has been introduced from
the Hindu diaspora from
Suriname and several distinct branches of
Islam have been brought from various parts of the world. Islam is now
the largest non-Christian religion in Amsterdam. The large community
of Ghanaian and Nigerian immigrants have established African churches,
often in parking garages in the Bijlmer area, where many have settled.
In addition, a broad array of other religious movements have
established congregations, including Hinduism, and Buddhism.
up about 2% of the city's total population.
Diversity and immigration
Amsterdam experienced an influx of religions and cultures after the
Second World War. With 180 different nationalities,
home to one of the widest varieties of nationalities of any city in
the world. The proportion of the population of immigrant origin in
the city proper is about 50% and 88% of the population are Dutch
Amsterdam has been one of the municipalities in the
provided immigrants with extensive and free Dutch-language courses,
which have benefited many immigrants.
Cityscape and architecture
See also: List of tallest buildings in Amsterdam
View of the city centre looking southwest from the Oosterdokskade
Amsterdam fans out south from the
Amsterdam Centraal railway station
and Damrak, the main street off the station. The oldest area of the
town is known as
De Wallen (English: "The Quays"). It lies to the east
Damrak and contains the city's famous red light district. To the
south of de Wallen is the old Jewish quarter of Waterlooplein.
The medieval and colonial age canals of Amsterdam, known as grachten,
embraces the heart of the city where homes have interesting gables.
Beyond the Grachtengordel are the former working class areas of
Jordaan and de Pijp. The
Museumplein with the city's major museums,
the Vondelpark, a 19th-century park named after the Dutch writer Joost
van den Vondel, and the Plantage neighbourhood, with the zoo, are also
located outside the Grachtengordel.
Several parts of the city and the surrounding urban area are polders.
This can be recognised by the suffix -meer which means lake, as in
Aalsmeer, Bijlmermeer, Haarlemmermeer, and Watergraafsmeer.
Main article: Canals of Amsterdam
Gardens behind canal houses, Grachtengordel
Amsterdam canal system is the result of conscious city
planning. In the early 17th century, when immigration was at a
peak, a comprehensive plan was developed that was based on four
concentric half-circles of canals with their ends emerging at the IJ
bay. Known as the Grachtengordel, three of the canals were mostly for
residential development: the Herengracht (where "Heren" refers to
Heren Regeerders van de stad
Amsterdam (ruling lords of Amsterdam),
and gracht means canal, so the name can be roughly translated as
"Canal of the lords"), Keizersgracht (Emperor's Canal), and
Prinsengracht (Prince's Canal). The fourth and outermost canal is
the Singelgracht, which is often not mentioned on maps, because it is
a collective name for all canals in the outer ring. The Singelgracht
should not be confused with the oldest and most inner canal Singel.
The canals served for defence, water management and transport. The
defences took the form of a moat and earthen dikes, with gates at
transit points, but otherwise no masonry superstructures. The
original plans have been lost, so historians, such as Ed Taverne, need
to speculate on the original intentions: it is thought that the
considerations of the layout were purely practical and defensive
rather than ornamental.
Bridge over a canal
Construction started in 1613 and proceeded from west to east, across
the breadth of the layout, like a gigantic windshield wiper as the
Geert Mak calls it – and not from the centre outwards, as
a popular myth has it. The canal construction in the southern sector
was completed by 1656. Subsequently, the construction of residential
buildings proceeded slowly. The eastern part of the concentric canal
plan, covering the area between the
Amstel river and the IJ bay, has
never been implemented. In the following centuries, the land was used
for parks, senior citizens' homes, theatres, other public facilities,
and waterways without much planning. Over the years, several
canals have been filled in, becoming streets or squares, such as the
Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal and the Spui.
Expansion of Amsterdam
Expansion of Amsterdam since the 19th century
After the development of Amsterdam's canals in the 17th century, the
city did not grow beyond its borders for two centuries. During the
Samuel Sarphati devised a plan based on the grandeur of
London at that time. The plan envisaged the construction of
new houses, public buildings and streets just outside the
Grachtengordel. The main aim of the plan, however, was to improve
public health. Although the plan did not expand the city, it did
produce some of the largest public buildings to date, like the Paleis
Following Sarphati, Van Niftrik and Kalff designed an entire ring of
19th-century neighbourhoods surrounding the city's centre, with the
city preserving the ownership of all land outside the 17th-century
limit, thus firmly controlling development. Most of these
neighbourhoods became home to the working class.
In response to overcrowding, two plans were designed at the beginning
of the 20th century which were very different from anything Amsterdam
had ever seen before: Plan Zuid, designed by the architect Berlage,
and West. These plans involved the development of new neighbourhoods
consisting of housing blocks for all social classes.
After the Second World War, large new neighbourhoods were built in the
western, southeastern, and northern parts of the city. These new
neighbourhoods were built to relieve the city's shortage of living
space and give people affordable houses with modern conveniences. The
neighbourhoods consisted mainly of large housing blocks situated among
green spaces, connected to wide roads, making the neighbourhoods
easily accessible by motor car. The western suburbs which were built
in that period are collectively called the Westelijke Tuinsteden. The
area to the southeast of the city built during the same period is
known as the Bijlmer.
The Scheepvaarthuis, by architects Johan van der Mey, Michel de Klerk,
Piet Kramer is characteristic of the architecture of the Amsterdam
The Begijnhof, Amsterdam
Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam
Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam and Conservatorium van Amsterdam,
two examples of 21st century architecture in the centre of the city
Amsterdam has a rich architectural history. The oldest building in
Amsterdam is the Oude Kerk (Old Church), at the heart of the Wallen,
consecrated in 1306. The oldest wooden building is Het Houten
Huys at the Begijnhof. It was constructed around 1425 and is one
of only two existing wooden buildings. It is also one of the few
Gothic architecture in Amsterdam.
In the 16th century, wooden buildings were razed and replaced with
brick ones. During this period, many buildings were constructed in the
architectural style of the Renaissance. Buildings of this period are
very recognisable with their stepped gable façades, which is the
common Dutch Renaissance style.
Amsterdam quickly developed its own
Renaissance architecture. These buildings were built according to the
principles of the architect Hendrick de Keyser. One of the most
striking buildings designed by Hendrick de Keyer is the Westerkerk. In
the 17th century baroque architecture became very popular, as it was
elsewhere in Europe. This roughly coincided with Amsterdam's Golden
Age. The leading architects of this style in
Amsterdam were Jacob van
Philips Vingboons and Daniel Stalpaert.
Philip Vingboons designed splendid merchants' houses throughout the
city. A famous building in baroque style in
Amsterdam is the Royal
Palace on Dam Square. Throughout the 18th century,
heavily influenced by French culture. This is reflected in the
architecture of that period. Around 1815, architects broke with the
baroque style and started building in different neo-styles. Most
Gothic style buildings date from that era and are therefore said to be
built in a neo-gothic style. At the end of the 19th century, the
Art Nouveau style became popular and many new buildings
were constructed in this architectural style. Since
rapidly during this period, new buildings adjacent to the city centre
were also built in this style. The houses in the vicinity of the
Museum Square in
Amsterdam Oud-Zuid are an example of Jugendstil. The
last style that was popular in
Amsterdam before the modern era was Art
Amsterdam had its own version of the style, which was called the
Amsterdamse School. Whole districts were built this style, such as the
Rivierenbuurt. A notable feature of the façades of buildings
designed in Amsterdamse School is that they are highly decorated and
ornate, with oddly shaped windows and doors.
The old city centre is the focal point of all the architectural styles
before the end of the 19th century. Jugendstil and Georgian are mostly
found outside the city's centre in the neighbourhoods built in the
early 20th century, although there are also some striking examples of
these styles in the city centre. Most historic buildings in the city
centre and nearby are houses, such as the famous merchants' houses
lining the canals.
Parks and recreational areas
List of parks in Amsterdam
List of parks in Amsterdam and List of squares in
Amsterdam's busiest park, the Vondelpark
Part of Dam Square. Left: Royal Palace, Right: Nieuwe Kerk
E: Park Frankendael
I: Amsterdamse Bos
K: Hortus Botanicus
M: Martin Luther Kingpark
Amsterdam has many parks, open spaces, and squares throughout the
city. Vondelpark, the largest park in the city, is located in the
Oud-Zuid borough and is named after the 17th century
Joost van den Vondel. Yearly, the park has around 10 million visitors.
In the park is an open-air theatre, a playground and several horeca
facilities. In the Zuid borough, is Beatrixpark, named after Queen
Amstelveen is the Amsterdamse Bos
Amsterdam Forest"), the largest recreational area in Amsterdam.
Annually, almost 4.5 million people visit the park, which has a
size of 1.000 hectares and is approximately three times the size of
Amstelpark in the Zuid borough houses the Rieker
windmill, which dates to 1636. Other parks include
Sarphatipark in the
De Pijp neighbourhood, Oosterpark in the Oost borough, and Westerpark
in the Westerpark neighbourhood. The city has three beaches: Nemo
Beach, Citybeach "Het stenen hoofd" (Silodam) and Blijburg, all
located in the Centrum borough.
The city has many open squares (plein in Dutch). The namesake of the
city as the site of the original dam, Dam Square, is the main town
square and has the Royal Palace and National Monument. Museumplein
hosts various museums, including the Rijksmuseum, Van Gogh Museum, and
Stedelijk Museum. Other squares include Rembrandtplein, Muntplein,
Nieuwmarkt, Leidseplein, Spui, and Waterlooplein. Also, near to
Amsterdam is the
Nekkeveld estate conservation project.
Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world
Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the
Amsterdam is ranked fifth best of European cities in
which to locate an international business, surpassed by London, Paris,
Frankfurt and Barcelona. Many large corporations and banks have
their headquarters in Amsterdam, including Akzo Nobel, Heineken
International, ING Group, ABN AMRO, TomTom, Delta Lloyd Group,
Booking.com and Philips.
KPMG International's global headquarters is
located in nearby Amstelveen, where many non-Dutch companies have
settled as well, because surrounding communities allow full land
ownership, contrary to Amsterdam's land-lease system.
Though many small offices are still located on the old canals,
companies are increasingly relocating outside the city centre. The
Zuidas (English: South Axis) has become the new financial and legal
hub. The five largest law firms of the Netherlands, a number of
Dutch subsidiaries of large consulting firms like Boston Consulting
Group and Accenture, and the World Trade Center
Amsterdam are also
located in Zuidas.
There are three other smaller financial districts in Amsterdam. The
first is the area surrounding
Amsterdam Sloterdijk railway station,
where several newspapers like
De Telegraaf have their offices. Also,
Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf (municipal public transport
company) and the Dutch tax offices (Belastingdienst) are located
there. The second Financial District is the area surrounding the
Amsterdam Arena. The third is the area surrounding
railway station. The tallest building in Amsterdam, the Rembrandt
Tower, is situated there, as is the headquarters of Philips.
Port of Amsterdam
Port of Amsterdam
Port of Amsterdam is the fourth largest port in Europe, the 38th
largest port in the world and the second largest port in the
Netherlands by metric tons of cargo. In 2014 the
Port of Amsterdam
Port of Amsterdam had
a cargo throughput of 97,4 million tons of cargo, which was
mostly bulk cargo.
Amsterdam has the biggest cruise port in the
Netherlands with more than 150 cruise ships every year. In 2019 the
new lock in IJmuiden will open; the port will then be able to grow to
125 million tonnes in capacity.
Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Amsterdam Stock Exchange (AEX), now part of Euronext, is the
world's oldest stock exchange and is one of Europe's largest bourses.
It is near
Dam Square in the city centre.
Eindhoven (Brainport) and
Rotterdam (Seaport), Amsterdam
(Airport) forms the foundation of the Dutch economy.
Main article: List of tourist attractions in Amsterdam
Boats give tours of the city, such as this one in front of the EYE
Film Institute Netherlands
Amsterdam is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe,
receiving more than 4.63 million international visitors annually,
this is excluding the 16 million day trippers visiting the city every
year. The number of visitors has been growing steadily over the
past decade. This can be attributed to an increasing number of
European visitors. Two-thirds of the hotels are located in the city's
centre. Hotels with 4 or 5 stars contribute 42% of the total beds
available and 41% of the overnight stays in Amsterdam. The room
occupation rate was 78% in 2006, up from 70% in 2005. The
majority of tourists (74%) originate from Europe. The largest group of
non-European visitors come from the United States, accounting for 14%
of the total. Certain years have a theme in
Amsterdam to attract
extra tourists. For example, the year 2006 was designated "Rembrandt
400", to celebrate the 400th birthday of
Rembrandt van Rijn. Some
hotels offer special arrangements or activities during these years.
The average number of guests per year staying at the four campsites
around the city range from 12,000 to 65,000.
The red-light district is a main tourist attraction.
Red light district
Main article: De Wallen
De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is a designated
area for legalised prostitution and is Amsterdam's largest and most
well known red-light district. This neighbourhood has become a famous
attraction for tourists. It consists of a network of roads and alleys
containing several hundred small, one-room apartments rented by sex
workers who offer their services from behind a window or glass door,
typically illuminated with red lights.
Amsterdam range from large high end department stores such as
De Bijenkorf founded in 1870 to small specialty shops. Amsterdam's
high-end shops are found in the streets
P.C. Hooftstraat and Cornelis
Schuytstraat, which are located in the vicinity of the Vondelpark. One
of Amsterdam's busiest high streets is the narrow, medieval
Kalverstraat in the heart of the city. Other shopping areas include
Negen Straatjes and Haarlemmerdijk and Haarlemmerstraat. Negen
Straatjes are nine narrow streets within the Grachtengordel, the
concentric canal system of Amsterdam. The
Negen Straatjes differ from
other shopping districts with the presence of a large diversity of
privately owned shops. The Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk were
voted best shopping street in the
Netherlands in 2011. These streets
have as the
Negen Straatjes a large diversity of privately owned
shops. But as the
Negen Straatjes are dominated by fashion stores the
Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk offer a very wide variety of all
kinds of stores, just to name some specialties: candy and other food
related stores, lingerie, sneakers, wedding clothing, interior shops,
books, Italian deli's, racing and mountain bikes, skatewear, etc.
The city also features a large number of open-air markets such as the
Albert Cuyp Market, Westerstraat-markt, Ten Katemarkt, and
Dappermarkt. Some of these markets are held on a daily basis, like the
Albert Cuypmarkt and the Dappermarkt. Others, like the
Westerstraatmarkt, are held on a weekly basis.
Fashion brands like G-star, Gsus, BlueBlood, PICHICHI, Iris van
Herpen, fair trade denim brand MUD Jeans,
10 feet and Warmenhoven
& Venderbos, and fashion designers like Mart Visser, Viktor &
Rolf, Sheila de Vries,
Marlies Dekkers and
Frans Molenaar are based in
Amsterdam. Modelling agencies Elite Models, Touche models and Tony
Jones have opened branches in Amsterdam. Fashion models like Yfke
Doutzen Kroes and
Kim Noorda started their careers in
Amsterdam has its garment centre in the World Fashion
Center. Buildings which formerly housed brothels in the red light
district have been converted to ateliers for young fashion designers,
AKA eagle fuel. Fashion photographers Inez van
Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin were born in Amsterdam(Netherland).
Rijksmuseum houses Rembrandt's The Night Watch.
Van Gogh Museum
Van Gogh Museum houses the world's largest collection of Van
Gogh's paintings and letters.
Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam
Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam is an international museum dedicated to
modern and contemporary art and design.
During the later part of the 16th-century Amsterdam's Rederijkerskamer
(Chamber of rhetoric) organised contests between different Chambers in
the reading of poetry and drama. In 1638,
Amsterdam opened its first
theatre. Ballet performances were given in this theatre as early as
1642. In the 18th century, French theatre became popular. While
Amsterdam was under the influence of German music in the 19th century
there were few national opera productions; the Hollandse Opera of
Amsterdam was built in 1888 for the specific purpose of promoting
Dutch opera. In the 19th century, popular culture was centred on
the Nes area in
Amsterdam (mainly vaudeville and music-hall).[citation
needed] The metronome, one of the most important advances in European
classical music, was invented here in 1812 by Dietrich Nikolaus
Winkel. At the end of this century, the
Rijksmuseum and Stedelijk
Museum were built. In 1888, the Concertgebouworkest
was established. With the 20th century came cinema, radio and
television. Though most studios are located in
Hilversum and Aalsmeer, Amsterdam's influence on programming is very
strong. Many people who work in the television industry live in
Amsterdam. Also, the headquarters of the Dutch SBS Broadcasting Group
is located in Amsterdam.
The most important museums of
Amsterdam are located on the Museumplein
(Museum Square), located at the southwestern side of the Rijksmuseum.
It was created in the last quarter of the 19th century on the grounds
of the former World's fair. The northeastern part of the square is
bordered by the very large Rijksmuseum. In front of the
the square itself is a long, rectangular pond. This is transformed
into an ice rink in winter. The northwestern part of the square
is bordered by the Van Gogh Museum, Stedelijk Museum, House of Bols
Cocktail & Genever Experience and Coster Diamonds. The
southwestern border of the Museum Square is the Van Baerlestraat,
which is a major thoroughfare in this part of Amsterdam. The
Concertgebouw is situated across this street from the square. To the
southeast of the square are situated a number of large houses, one of
which contains the American consulate. A parking garage can be found
underneath the square, as well as a supermarket. The
covered almost entirely with a lawn, except for the northeastern part
of the square which is covered with gravel. The current appearance of
the square was realised in 1999, when the square was remodelled. The
square itself is the most prominent site in
Amsterdam for festivals
and outdoor concerts, especially in the summer. Plans were made in
2008 to remodel the square again, because many inhabitants of
Amsterdam are not happy with its current appearance.
Rembrandt monument on Rembrandtplein
Rijksmuseum possesses the largest and most important collection of
classical Dutch art. It opened in 1885. Its collection consists
of nearly one million objects. The artist most associated with
Amsterdam is Rembrandt, whose work, and the work of his pupils, is
displayed in the Rijksmuseum. Rembrandt's masterpiece The Night Watch
is one of top pieces of art of the museum. It also houses paintings
from artists like Van der Helst, Vermeer, Frans Hals, Ferdinand Bol,
Jacob van Ruisdael
Jacob van Ruisdael and Paulus Potter. Aside from
paintings, the collection consists of a large variety of decorative
art. This ranges from
Delftware to giant doll-houses from the 17th
century. The architect of the gothic revival building was P.J.H.
Cuypers. The museum underwent a 10-year, 375 million euro renovation
starting in 2003. The full collection was reopened to the public on 13
April 2013 and the
Rijksmuseum has established itself as the most
visited museum in
Amsterdam with 2.2 million visitors in
Van Gogh lived in
Amsterdam for a short while and there is a museum
dedicated to his work. The museum is housed in one of the few modern
buildings in this area of Amsterdam. The building was designed by
Gerrit Rietveld. This building is where the permanent collection is
displayed. A new building was added to the museum in 1999. This
building, known as the performance wing, was designed by Japanese
architect Kisho Kurokawa. Its purpose is to house temporary
exhibitions of the museum. Some of Van Gogh's most famous
The Potato Eaters
The Potato Eaters and Sunflowers, are in the
collection. The Van Gogh museum is the second most visited museum
in Amsterdam, with 1.4 million annual visitors.
Next to the Van Gogh museum stands the Stedelijk Museum. This is
Amsterdam's most important museum of modern art. The museum is as old
as the square it borders and was opened in 1895. The permanent
collection consists of works of art from artists like Piet Mondriaan,
Karel Appel, and Kazimir Malevich. After renovations lasting several
years the museum opened in September 2012 with a new composite
extension that has been called 'The Bathtub' due to its resemblance to
Amsterdam contains many other museums throughout the city. They range
from small museums such as the
Verzetsmuseum (Resistance Museum), the
Anne Frank House, and the
Rembrandt House Museum, to the very large,
Tropenmuseum (Museum of the Tropics),
(formerly known as
Amsterdam Historical Museum), Hermitage Amsterdam
(a dependency of the
Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg) and the
Joods Historisch Museum
Joods Historisch Museum (Jewish Historical Museum). The modern-styled
Nemo is dedicated to child-friendly science exhibitions.
Main article: List of songs about Amsterdam
Coldplay performing at the
Amsterdam Arena, 2016
Amsterdam's musical culture includes a large collection of songs which
treat the city nostalgically and lovingly. The 1949 song "Aan de
Amsterdamse grachten" ("On the canals of Amsterdam") was performed and
recorded by many artists, including John Kraaijkamp Sr.; the
best-known version is probably that by
Wim Sonneveld (1962). In the
Jordaan rose to fame with "Geef mij maar Amsterdam" ("I
prefer Amsterdam"), which praises the city above all others
Jordaan sang especially about his own
Jordaan ("Bij ons in de Jordaan"). Colleagues and
contemporaries of Johnny include
Tante Leen and Manke Nelis. Other
Amsterdam songs are "Amsterdam" by
Jacques Brel (1964) and
"Deze Stad" by
De Dijk (1989). A 2011 poll by
Het Parool that Trio Bier's "Oude Wolf" was voted "Amsterdams
Amsterdam bands from the modern era include
Osdorp Posse and The Ex.
AFAS Live (formerly known as the Heineken Music Hall) is a concert
hall located near the
Johan Cruyff Arena
Johan Cruyff Arena (known as the
until 2017). Its main purpose is to serve as a podium for pop concerts
for big audiences. Many famous international artists have performed
there. Two other notable venues, Paradiso and the
Melkweg are located
near the Leidseplein. Both focus on broad programming, ranging from
indie rock to hip hop, R&B, and other popular genres. Other more
subcultural music venues are OCCII, OT301, De Nieuwe Anita, Winston
Kingdom and Zaal 100.
Jazz has a strong following in Amsterdam, with
Bimhuis being the premier venue. In 2012,
Ziggo Dome was opened,
Amsterdam Arena, a state-of-the-art indoor music arena.
AFAS Live is also host to many electronic dance music festivals,
alongside many other venues.
Armin van Buuren
Armin van Buuren and Tiesto, some of the
world's leading Trance DJ's hail from the
Netherlands and perform
frequently in Amsterdam. Each year in October, the city hosts the
Amsterdam Dance Event (ADE) which is one of the leading electronic
music conferences and one of the biggest club festivals for electronic
music in the world, attracting over 350,000 visitors each year.
Another popular dance festival is 5daysoff, which takes place in the
venues Paradiso and Melkweg. In summer time there are several big
outdoor dance parties in or nearby Amsterdam, such as Awakenings,
Dance Valley, Mystery Land, Loveland, A Day at the Park, Welcome to
the Future, and Valtifest.
Concertgebouw or Royal Concert Hall houses performances of the
Concertgebouw Orchestra and other musical events
Amsterdam has a world-class symphony orchestra, the Royal
Concertgebouw Orchestra. Their home is the Concertgebouw, which is
across the Van Baerlestraat from the Museum Square. It is considered
by critics to be a concert hall with some of the best acoustics in the
world. The building contains three halls, Grote Zaal, Kleine Zaal, and
Spiegelzaal. Some nine hundred concerts and other events per year take
place in the Concertgebouw, for a public of over 700,000, making it
one of the most-visited concert halls in the world. The opera
Amsterdam is situated adjacent to the city hall. Therefore,
the two buildings combined are often called the Stopera, (a word
originally coined by protesters against it very construction: Stop the
Opera[-house]). This huge modern complex, opened in 1986, lies in the
former Jewish neighbourhood at
Waterlooplein next to the river Amstel.
Stopera is the homebase of Dutch National Opera, Dutch National
Ballet and the Holland Symfonia.
Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ
Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ is a concert
hall, which is situated in the IJ near the central station. Its
concerts perform mostly modern classical music. Located adjacent to
it, is the Bimhuis, a concert hall for improvised and
Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam's best known theatre
Amsterdam has three main theatre buildings.
Stadsschouwburg at the
Leidseplein is the home base of Toneelgroep
Amsterdam. The current building dates from 1894. Most plays are
performed in the Grote Zaal (Great Hall). The normal programme of
events encompasses all sorts of theatrical forms. The Stadsschouwburg
is currently being renovated and expanded. The third theatre space, to
be operated jointly with next door Melkweg, will open in late 2009 or
Dutch National Opera
Dutch National Opera and Ballet (formerly known as Het
Muziektheater), dating from 1986, is the principal opera house and
Dutch National Opera
Dutch National Opera and Dutch National Ballet. Royal Theatre
Carré was built as a permanent circus theatre in 1887 and is
currently mainly used for musicals, cabaret performances and pop
The recently re-opened DeLaMar Theater houses the more commercial
plays and musicals. A new theatre has also moved into
in 2014, joining other established venues: Theater
situated in the west part of Amsterdam, on the Danzigerkade. It is
housed in a modern building with a panoramic view over the harbour.
The theatre is the first ever purpose-built venue to showcase a single
play entitled ANNE, the play based on Anne Frank's life.
On the east side of town there is a small theatre in a converted bath
house, the Badhuistheater. The theatre often has English programming.
Netherlands has a tradition of cabaret or kleinkunst, which
combines music, storytelling, commentary, theatre and comedy. Cabaret
dates back to the 1930s and artists like Wim Kan,
Wim Sonneveld and
Toon Hermans were pioneers of this form of art in the Netherlands. In
Amsterdam is the Kleinkunstacademie (English:
Contemporary popular artists are Youp van 't Hek, Freek de Jonge,
Herman Finkers, Hans Teeuwen, Theo Maassen, Herman van Veen, Najib
Amhali, Raoul Heertje, Jörgen Raymann,
Brigitte Kaandorp and
Comedytrain. The English spoken comedy scene was established with the
Boom Chicago in 1993. They have their own theatre at
DeWolff performing at Paradiso
Magere Brug or "Skinny Bridge" over the
Amstel at night
Amsterdam is famous for its vibrant and diverse nightlife. Amsterdam
has many cafés (bars). They range from large and modern to small and
cozy. The typical Bruine Kroeg (brown café) breathe a more old
fashioned atmosphere with dimmed lights, candles, and somewhat older
clientele. Most cafés have terraces in summertime. A common sight on
Leidseplein during summer is a square full of terraces packed with
people drinking beer or wine. Many restaurants can be found in
Amsterdam as well. Since
Amsterdam is a multicultural city, a lot of
different ethnic restaurants can be found. Restaurants range from
being rather luxurious and expensive to being ordinary and affordable.
Amsterdam also possesses many discothèques. The two main nightlife
areas for tourists are the
Leidseplein and the Rembrandtplein. The
Sugar Factory are cultural centres, which turn
into discothèques on some nights. Examples of discothèques near the
Rembrandtplein are the Escape, Air, John Doe and Club Abe. Also
noteworthy are Panama, Hotel Arena (East), Trouw
Amsterdam and Studio
Bimhuis located near the Central Station, with its rich
programming hosting the best in the field is considered one of the
best jazz clubs in the world. The Reguliersdwarsstraat is the main
street for the
LGBT community and nightlife.
Queen's Day in Amsterdam, 2013
In 2008, there were 140 festivals and events in Amsterdam.
Famous festivals and events in
Koninginnedag until the crowning of King Willem-Alexander in
2013) (King's Day – Queen's Day); the
Holland Festival for the
performing arts; the yearly
Prinsengrachtconcert (classical concerto
on the Prinsen canal) in August; the 'Stille Omgang' (a silent Roman
Catholic evening procession held every March);
Amsterdam Gay Pride;
The Cannabis Cup; and the Uitmarkt. On Koninginnedag—that was held
each year on 30 April—hundreds of thousands of people travel to
Amsterdam to celebrate with the city's residents and
held on 27 April. The entire city becomes overcrowded with people
buying products from the freemarket, or visiting one of the many music
Holland Festival attracts international artists and
visitors from all over Europe.
Amsterdam Gay Pride
Amsterdam Gay Pride is a yearly local
LGBT parade of boats in Amsterdam's canals, held on the first Saturday
in August. The annual
Uitmarkt is a three-day cultural event at
the start of the cultural season in late August. It offers previews of
many different artists, such as musicians and poets, who perform on
AFC Ajax player Johan Cruyff, 1967
Amsterdam is home of the
Eredivisie football club AFC Ajax. The
Johan Cruyff Arena
Johan Cruyff Arena is the home of Ajax. It is located in the
south-east of the city next to the new
Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA railway
station. Before moving to their current location in 1996, Ajax played
their regular matches in De Meer Stadion. In 1928, Amsterdam
hosted the Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium built for the occasion
has been completely restored and is now used for cultural and sporting
events, such as the
Amsterdam Marathon. In 1920, Amsterdam
assisted in hosting some of the sailing events for the Summer Olympics
held in neighbouring Antwerp,
Belgium by hosting events at Buiten Y.
The city holds the Dam to Dam Run, a 16-kilometre (10 mi) race
Amsterdam to Zaandam, as well as the
Amsterdam Marathon. The ice
Amstel Tijgers play in the
Jaap Eden ice rink. The team
competes in the Dutch ice hockey premier league. Speed skating
championships have been held on the 400-metre lane of this ice rink.
Amsterdam holds two
American football franchises: the Amsterdam
Crusaders and the
Amsterdam Panthers. The
Amsterdam Pirates baseball
team competes in the Dutch Major League. There are three field hockey
teams: Amsterdam, Pinoké and Hurley, who play their matches around
Wagener Stadium in the nearby city of Amstelveen. The basketball
MyGuide Amsterdam competes in the Dutch premier division and play
their games in the Sporthallen Zuid.
There is one rugbyclub in Amsterdam, which also hosts sports training
classes such as RTC(Rugby Talenten Centrum or Rugby Talent Centre) and
the National Rugby stadium.
Since 1999 the city of
Amsterdam honours the best sportsmen and women
Amsterdam Sports Awards. Boxer
Raymond Joval and field hockey
Carole Thate were the first to receive the awards, in 1999.
Main article: Government of Amsterdam
Jozias van Aartsen, the Acting Mayor of
Amsterdam since 2017
The city of
Amsterdam is a municipality under the Dutch Municipalities
Act. It is governed by a directly elected municipal council, a
municipal executive board and a mayor. Since 1981, the municipality of
Amsterdam has gradually been divided into semi-autonomous boroughs,
called stadsdelen or 'districts'. Over time, a total of 15 boroughs
were created. In May 2010, under a major reform, the number of
Amsterdam boroughs was reduced to eight:
the city centre including the canal belt,
of the neighbourhoods north of the IJ lake,
Amsterdam-Oost in the
Amsterdam-Zuid in the south,
Amsterdam-West in the west,
Amsterdam Nieuw-West in the far west,
Amsterdam Zuidoost in the
Westpoort covering the
Port of Amsterdam
Port of Amsterdam area.
Boroughs of Amsterdam
Boroughs of Amsterdam and Municipal council
As with all Dutch municipalities,
Amsterdam is governed by a directly
elected municipal council, a municipal executive board and a mayor
(burgemeester). The mayor is a member of the municipal executive
board, but also has individual responsibilies in maintaining public
order. In July 2010,
Eberhard van der Laan
Eberhard van der Laan (Labour Party) was
appointed Mayor of
Amsterdam by the
King's Commissioner of North
Holland for a six-year term after being nominated by the Amsterdam
municipal council. After the 2014 municipal council elections, a
governing majority of D66, VVD and SP was formed – the first
coalition without the Labour Party since World War II. Next to
the Mayor, the municipal executive board consists of eight wethouders
('alderpersons') appointed by the municipal council: four D66
alderpersons, two VVD alderpersons and two SP alderpersons.
On 18 September 2017 it was announced by
Eberhard van der Laan
Eberhard van der Laan in an
open letter to
Amsterdam citizens that
Kajsa Ollongren would take up
his office as acting Mayor of
Amsterdam with immediate effect due to
ill health. Ollongren was succeeded as acting Mayor by Eric van
der Burg on 26 October 2017 and by
Jozias van Aartsen
Jozias van Aartsen on 4 December
Boroughs of Amsterdam
Unlike most other Dutch municipalities,
Amsterdam is subdivided into
eight boroughs, called stadsdelen or 'districts', a system that was
implemented gradually in the 1980s to improve local governance. The
boroughs are responsible for many activities that had previously been
run by the central city. In 2010, the number of
reached fifteen. Fourteen of those had their own district council
(deelraad), elected by a popular vote. The fifteenth, Westpoort,
covers the harbour of
Amsterdam and had very few residents. Therefore,
it was governed by the central municipal council.
Under the borough system, municipal decisions are made at borough
level, except for those affairs pertaining to the whole city such as
major infrastructure projects, which are the jurisdiction of the
central municipal authorities. In 2010, the borough system was
restructured, in which many smaller boroughs merged into larger
boroughs. In 2014, under a reform of the Dutch Municipalities Act, the
Amsterdam boroughs lost much of their autonomous status, as their
district councils were abolished.
The municipal council of
Amsterdam voted to maintain the borough
system by replacing the district councils with smaller, but still
directly elected district committees (bestuurscommissies). Under a
municipal ordinance, the new district committees were granted
responsibilities through delegation of regulatory and executive powers
by the central municipal council.
View of the
Stopera (left, behind the blue bridge), where the
Amsterdam city hall and opera house are located, and the Hermitage
Museum (right) on the Amstel
"Amsterdam" is usually understood to refer to the municipality of
Amsterdam. Colloquially, some areas within the municipality, such as
the town of Durgerdam, may not be considered part of Amsterdam.
Netherlands uses three other definitions of Amsterdam:
Amsterdam (Grootstedelijke Agglomeratie
Amsterdam, not to be confused with Grootstedelijk Gebied Amsterdam, a
synonym of Groot Amsterdam), Greater
Amsterdam (Groot Amsterdam, a
COROP region) and the urban region
Amsterdam Department for Research and Statistics
uses a fourth conurbation, namely the Stadsregio
Region of Amsterdam'). The city region is similar to Greater Amsterdam
but includes the municipalities of
Zaanstad and Wormerland. It
excludes Graft-De Rijp.
The smallest of these areas is the municipality of
Amsterdam with a
population of 802,938 in 2013. The conurbation had a population of
1,096,042 in 2013. It includes the municipalities of Zaanstad,
Amstelveen only, as well as the
municipality of Amsterdam. Greater
Amsterdam includes 15
municipalities, and had a population of 1,293,208 in 2013.
Though much larger in area, the population of this area is only
slightly larger, because the definition excludes the relatively
populous municipality of Zaanstad. The largest area by population, the
Amsterdam Metropolitan Area
Amsterdam Metropolitan Area (Dutch: Metropoolregio Amsterdam), has a
population of 2,33 million. It includes for instance Zaanstad,
Wormerveer, Muiden, Abcoude, Haarlem,
Lelystad but excludes
Amsterdam is part of the conglomerate metropolitan area
Randstad, with a total population of 6,659,300 inhabitants.
Of these various metropolitan area configurations, only the Stadsregio
Amsterdam (City Region of Amsterdam) has a formal governmental status.
Its responsibities include regional spatial planning and the
metropolitan public transport concessions.
Main article: Capital of the Netherlands
King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Máxima greeting
Amsterdammers from the
Royal Palace of Amsterdam
Royal Palace of Amsterdam during
Willem-Alexanders inauguration in 2013
Under the Dutch Constitution,
Amsterdam is the capital of the
Netherlands. Since the 1983 constitutional revision, the constitution
mentions "Amsterdam" and "capital" in chapter 2, article 32: The
king's confirmation by oath and his coronation take place in "the
capital Amsterdam" ("de hoofdstad Amsterdam"). Previous versions
of the constitution only mentioned "the city of Amsterdam" ("de stad
Amsterdam"). For a royal investiture, therefore, the States
General of the
Netherlands (the Dutch Parliament) meets for a
ceremonial joint session in Amsterdam. The ceremony traditionally
takes place at the Nieuwe Kerk on Dam Square, immediately after the
former monarch has signed the act of abdication at the nearby Royal
Palace of Amsterdam. Normally, however, the Parliament sits in The
Hague, the city which has historically been the seat of the Dutch
government, the Dutch monarchy, and the Dutch supreme court. Foreign
embassies are also located in The Hague.
Coat of arms of Amsterdam
Coat of arms of Amsterdam and Flag of Amsterdam
The coat of arms of
Amsterdam is composed of several historical
elements. First and centre are three St Andrew's crosses, aligned in a
vertical band on the city's shield (although Amsterdam's patron saint
was Saint Nicholas). These St Andrew's crosses can also be found on
the cityshields of neighbours
Amstelveen and Ouder-Amstel. This part
of the coat of arms is the basis of the flag of Amsterdam, flown by
the city government, but also as civil ensign for ships registered in
Amsterdam. Second is the Imperial Crown of Austria. In 1489, out of
gratitude for services and loans, Maximilian I awarded
right to adorn its coat of arms with the king's crown. Then, in 1508,
this was replaced with Maximilian's imperial crown when he was crowned
Holy Roman Emperor. In the early years of the 17th century,
Maximilian's crown in Amsterdam's coat of arms was again replaced,
this time with the crown of Emperor Rudolph II, a crown that became
the Imperial Crown of Austria. The lions date from the late 16th
century, when city and province became part of the Republic of the
Seven United Netherlands. Last came the city's official motto:
Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig ("Heroic, Determined, Merciful"),
bestowed on the city in 1947 by Queen Wilhelmina, in recognition of
the city's bravery during the Second World War.
Main article: Transport in Amsterdam
Metro, tram and bus
Amsterdam Metro and Trams in Amsterdam
A tram crossing the Keizersgracht
Amsterdam Metro is a mixed subway and above ground commuter rail
with various lines
Currently, there are sixteen tram routes and four metro routes, with a
fifth route to be added when completed (due in July 2018). All are
operated by municipal public transport operator GVB, which also runs
the city bus network.
Four fare-free GVB ferries carry pedestrians and cyclists across the
IJ lake to the borough of Amsterdam-Noord, and two fare-charging
ferries run east and west along the harbour. There are also privately
operated water taxis, a water bus, a boat sharing operation, electric
rental boats (Boaty) and canal cruises, that transport people along
Regional buses, and some suburban buses, are operated by Connexxion
and EBS. International coach services are provided by
Amstel railway station,
railway station, and Megabus from the Zuiderzeeweg in the east of the
In order to facilitate easier transport to the center of Amsterdam,
the city has various P+R Locations where people can park their car at
an affordable price and transfer to one of the numerous public
Amsterdam was intended in 1932 to be the hub, a kind of Kilometre
Zero, of the highway system of the Netherlands, with freeways
numbered One to Eight planned to originate from the city. The
outbreak of the Second World War and shifting priorities led to the
current situation, where only roads A1, A2, and A4 originate from
Amsterdam according to the original plan. The A3 to
cancelled in 1970 in order to conserve the Groene Hart. Road A8,
leading north to
Zaandam and the A10 Ringroad were opened between 1968
and 1974. Besides the A1, A2, A4 and A8, several freeways, such
as the A7 and A6, carry traffic mainly bound for Amsterdam.
The A10 ringroad surrounding the city connects
Amsterdam with the
Dutch national network of freeways. Interchanges on the A10 allow cars
to enter the city by transferring to one of the 18 city roads,
numbered S101 through to S118. These city roads are regional roads
without grade separation, and sometimes without a central reservation.
Most are accessible by cyclists. The S100 Centrumring is a smaller
ringroad circumnavigating the city's centre.
In the city centre, driving a car is discouraged. Parking fees are
expensive, and many streets are closed to cars or are one-way.
The local government sponsors carsharing and carpooling initiatives
such as Autodelen and Meerijden.nu.
Amsterdam Centraal station, the city's main train station
Amsterdam is served by ten stations of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen
(Dutch Railways). Five are intercity stops: Sloterdijk, Zuid,
Amstel, Bijlmer ArenA and
Amsterdam Centraal. The stations for local
services are: Lelylaan, RAI, Holendrecht, Muiderpoort and Science
Amsterdam Centraal is also an international railway station.
From the station there are regular services to destinations such as
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France,
Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Among these trains are international trains of the Nederlandse
Spoorwegen (Amsterdam-Berlin) and the Eurostar
CityNightLine, and InterCityExpress
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol ranks as Europe's third-busiest airport for
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is less than 20 minutes by train from
Amsterdam Centraal station
Amsterdam Centraal station and is served by domestic and international
intercity trains, such as
Thalys and Intercity Brussel. Schiphol is
the largest airport in the Netherlands, the third largest in Europe,
and the 14th-largest in the world in terms of passengers. It handles
over 60 million passengers per year and is the home base of four
airlines, KLM, Transavia,
Arkefly . As of
2014[update], Schiphol was the fifth busiest airport in the world
measured by international passenger numbers.
Main article: Cycling in Amsterdam
Police bicyclist crossing a bridge over the Prinsengracht
Amsterdam is one of the most bicycle-friendly large cities in the
world and is a centre of bicycle culture with good facilities for
cyclists such as bike paths and bike racks, and several guarded bike
storage garages (fietsenstalling) which can be used.
In 2013, there were about 1,200,000 bicycles in
the amount of citizens in the city. Theft is widespread—in
2011, about 83,000 bicycles were stolen in Amsterdam. Bicycles
are used by all socio-economic groups because of their convenience,
Amsterdam's small size, the 400 kilometres (249 miles) of bike
paths, the flat terrain, and the inconvenience of driving an
The Agnietenkapel Gate at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632
as the Athenaeum Illustre
Amsterdam has two universities: the University of Amsterdam
(Universiteit van Amsterdam, UvA), and the Vrije Universiteit
Amsterdam (VU). Other institutions for higher education include an art
Gerrit Rietveld Academie, a university of applied sciences
Hogeschool van Amsterdam, and the Amsterdamse
de Kunsten. Amsterdam's
International Institute of Social History
International Institute of Social History is
one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions
concerning social history, and especially the history of the labour
movement. Amsterdam's Hortus Botanicus, founded in the early 17th
century, is one of the oldest botanical gardens in the world,
with many old and rare specimens, among them the coffee plant that
served as the parent for the entire coffee culture in Central and
There are over 200 primary schools in Amsterdam. Some of these
primary schools base their teachings on particular pedagogic theories
like the various Montessori schools. The biggest Montessori high
Amsterdam is the Montessori Lyceum Amsterdam. Many schools,
however, are based on religion. This used to be primarily Roman
Catholicism and various Protestant denominations, but with the influx
of Muslim immigrants there has been a rise in the number of Islamic
schools. Jewish schools can be found in the southern suburbs of
Amsterdam is noted for having five independent grammar schools (Dutch:
gymnasia), the Vossius Gymnasium, Barlaeus Gymnasium, St. Ignatius
Het 4e Gymnasium
Het 4e Gymnasium and the Cygnus Gymnasium where a classical
Latin and classical Greek is taught. Though
believed until recently by many to be an anachronistic and elitist
concept that would soon die out, the gymnasia have recently
experienced a revival, leading to the formation of a fourth and fifth
grammar school in which the three aforementioned schools participate.
Most secondary schools in
Amsterdam offer a variety of different
levels of education in the same school. The city also has various
colleges ranging from art and design to politics and economics which
are mostly also available for students coming from other countries.
Main article: List of people from Amsterdam
Frits Bolkestein (born 1933), politician
Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken (born 1954), businesswoman
Paul J. Crutzen
Paul J. Crutzen (born 1933), atmospheric chemist
Willem Drees Sr. (1886–1988), politician
Floris Adriaan van Hall
Floris Adriaan van Hall (1791–1866), Minister of Justice, Prime
Minister of the Netherlands
Freddy Heineken (1923–2002), businessman
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (born 1948), politician
André Kuipers (born 1958), astronaut
Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), philosopher
Hans Wiegel (born 1941), politician
Karel Appel (1921–2006), painter
Jan Akkerman (born 1946), musician
Willeke van Ammelrooy
Willeke van Ammelrooy (born 1944), actress
Willem Breuker (1944–2010), musician
Frans Brüggen (1934–2014), musician
Rudi van Dantzig
Rudi van Dantzig (1933–2012), ballet
Joop van den Ende
Joop van den Ende (born 1942), film, television and theatric producer
Bernard Haitink (born 1929), orchestra conductor
John Kraaijkamp, Sr.
John Kraaijkamp, Sr. (1925–2011), actor, comedian, singer
Andre Hazes (1951–2004), one of the most famous singers in the
Alistair Overeem (born 1980), mixed martial artist and kickboxer
Co Adriaanse (born 1947), football trainer
Dennis Bergkamp (born 1969), football player
Jan van Beveren
Jan van Beveren (1948–2011) football goalkeeper and coach
Michael Bleekemolen (born 1949) racing driver
Daley Blind (born 1990), football player
Geraldo Boldewijn (born 1991),
American football player
Cor Brom (1932–2008), football player and football trainer
Ellie van den Brom
Ellie van den Brom (born 1949) long-track speed skater
Daniel Sprong (born 1997) hockey player
Johan Cruyff (1947–2016), football player and football trainer
Ellen van Dijk
Ellen van Dijk (born 1987), cyclist
Max Euwe (1901–1981), Chess Grandmaster, mathematician, author
Louis van Gaal
Louis van Gaal (born 1951), football trainer
Ruud Gullit (born 1962), football player
Bobby Haarms (1934–2009), football player and football trainer
Cor van der Hart
Cor van der Hart (1928–2006), football player and football trainer
Rinus Israël (born 1942), football player and football trainer
Nigel de Jong
Nigel de Jong (born 1984), football player
Jan Jongbloed (born 1940), football player (goalkeeper)
Piet Keizer (1943-2017), football player
Patrick Kluivert (born 1976), football player
Gerrie Knetemann (1951–2004), cyclist
Ada Kok (born 1947), swimmer
Ruud Krol (born 1949), football player and football coach
Edward Metgod (born 1959), football player (goalkeeper) and football
John Metgod (born 1958), football player and football trainer
Rinus Michels (1928–2005), football player and football trainer
Lion van Minden (1880–1944), Olympic fencer who was killed in the
Auschwitz concentration camp
Bennie Muller (born 1938), football player (47 caps)
Simon Okker (1881–1944), Olympic fencer killed in the Auschwitz
Tom Okker (born 1944), tennis player
Eddy Pieters Graafland
Eddy Pieters Graafland (born 1934), football player (goalkeeper)
Peter Post (1933–2011), cyclist
Quincy Promes (born 1992), football player
Anton Pronk (born 1941), football player (19 caps)
Rob Rensenbrink (born 1947), football player
Frank Rijkaard (born 1962), football player and football coach
Wim Ruska (born 1940), judoka
Ton Sijbrands (born 1949), international draughts player
Sjaak Swart (born 1938), football player
Marko Vejinovic (born 1990), football player
Originating from elsewhere
Fanny Blankers-Koen (1918–2004), athlete
Inge de Bruijn
Inge de Bruijn (born 1973), swimmer
René Descartes, philosopher
Ryan ten Doeschate
Ryan ten Doeschate (born 1980), cricketer
Jan Hein Donner
Jan Hein Donner (1927–1988), chess grandmaster
Anne Frank (1929–1945), diarist and Holocaust victim
Theo van Gogh (1957–2004), film director
Carice van Houten
Carice van Houten (born 1976), actress
Søren Lerby (born 1958), football player
Satyendra Pakhale (born 1967), designer
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606/7–1669), painter
Jan van Speyk
Jan van Speyk (1802–1831), lieutenant-commander Dutch Royal Navy
Joop den Uyl
Joop den Uyl (1919–1987), politics
Joost van den Vondel
Joost van den Vondel (1597–1679), poet, playwright
Gerardus Vossius (1577–1649), theologist, historian
Vijce (born 1988), fine art photographer
Amsterdam is a prominent centre for national and international media.
Some locally based newspapers include Het Parool, a national daily
paper; De Telegraaf, the largest Dutch daily newspaper; the daily
newspapers Trouw, de Volkskrant and NRC Handelsblad; De Groene
Amsterdammer, a weekly newspaper; the free newspapers Sp!ts, Metro,
The Holland Times
The Holland Times (printed in English).
Amsterdam is home to the second-largest Dutch commercial TV group SBS
Broadcasting Group, consisting of TV-stations SBS 6,
Net 5 and
Amsterdam is not considered 'the media city of the
Netherlands'. The town of Hilversum, 30 kilometres (19 miles)
south-east of Amsterdam, has been crowned with this unofficial title.
Hilversum is the principal centre for radio and television
broadcasting in the Netherlands. Radio Netherlands, heard worldwide
via shortwave radio since the 1920s, is also based there.
home to an extensive complex of audio and television studios belonging
to the national broadcast production company NOS, as well as to the
studios and offices of all the Dutch public broadcasting organisations
and many commercial TV production companies.
In 2012, the music video of Far East Movement, 'Live My Life', was
filmed in various parts of Amsterdam.
Amsterdam is also featured in John Green's book The Fault in Our
Stars, which has also been made into a film, and part of the film
takes place in Amsterdam.
The housing market is heavily regulated. In Amsterdam, 55% of existing
housing and 30% of new housing is owned by Housing Associations, which
are Government sponsored entities.
Squat properties are common throughout Amsterdam, due to property law
strongly favouring tenants. A number of these squats have become well
known, such as OT301, Paradiso, Vrankrijk (closed down by city
government), and the Binnenpret, and several are now businesses, such
as health clubs and licensed restaurants.
Notes and references
^ "Portfolios: Mayor & Alderpersons". Gemeente Amsterdam. Archived
from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February
^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods].
CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March
^ a b Anita Bouman–Eijs; Thijmen van Bree; Wouter Jonkhoff; Olaf
Koops; Walter Manshanden; Elmer Rietveld (17 December 2012). De Top 20
van Europese grootstedelijke regio's 1995–2011;
Randstad Holland in
internationaal perspectief [Top 20 of European metropolitan regions
Randstad Holland compared internationally] (PDF)
(Technical report) (in Dutch). Delft: TNO. Retrieved 25 July
^ "Postcodetool for 1012JS (Dam Square)". Actueel Hoogtebestand
Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original
on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth;
regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017.
Retrieved 27 October 2017.
^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth;
regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014.
Retrieved 24 July 2014.
^ a b c d e f g "CBS
Amsterdam Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per
^ a b "Economische Verkenningen Metropool Regio Amsterdam"
^ Also /æmstərˈdæm/.
^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.),
Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th
ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
^ a b Dutch Wikisource. "Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden"
[Constitution for the Kingdom of the Netherlands] (in Dutch). Chapter
2, Article 32. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ... de hoofdstad Amsterdam
^ Permanent Mission of the
Netherlands to the UN. "General
Information". Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved
26 June 2013.
^ "CBS Statline – Population Development; region per month".
^ "Randstad2040; Facts & Figures (p.26)" (in Dutch). VROM.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-12.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Vol 1, pp. 896–898.
^ Cambridge.org, Capitals of Capital -A History of International
Financial Centres – 1780–2005, Youssef Cassis,
Athens in 1888 and
Florence in 1986,
Amsterdam was in 1986
chosen as the European Capital of Culture, confirming its eminent
Europe and the Netherlands. See EC.europa.eu for an
overview of the European cities and capitals of culture over the
years. Archived 14 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
Forbes Global 2000 Largest Companies – Dutch rankings.
^ "The Next Global Tech Hotspot?
Amsterdam Stakes Its Claim".
^ "Best cities ranking and report" (PDF).
^ "Best cities in the world (Mercer)". City Mayors. 26 May 2010.
Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 10 October
^ "2thinknow Innovation Cities Global 256 Index – worldwide
innovation city rankings". Innovation-cities.com. 30 July 2009.
Archived from the original on 11 September 2010. Retrieved 10 October
^ "Port Statistics 2015" (PDF) (Press release).
Authority. May 2016. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on
2017-02-09. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
Amsterdam verwelkomde in 2014 ruim 5 miljoen buitenlandse toeristen
Amsterdam – PAROOL".
^ a b Berns & Daan 1993, p. 91.
^ Mak 1994, p. 19.
^ "The toll privilege of 1275 in the
Amsterdam City Archives".
Stadsarchief.amsterdam.nl. Archived from the original on 6 January
2016. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
^ Mak 1994, pp. 18–20.
Amsterdam 200 jaar ouder dan aangenomen" (in Dutch). Nu.nl. 22
October 2008. Archived from the original on 25 October 2008. Retrieved
22 October 2008.
^ "De geschiedenis van Amsterdam" (in Dutch). Municipality of
Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May
^ "Mirakel van Amsterdam" (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 8
August 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
^ "Eighty Years' War" (in Dutch).
Leiden University. Archived from the
original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
^ Case in point: After his trial and sentencing in
Rome in 1633,
Lodewijk Elzevir in
Amsterdam to publish one of his
finest works, Two New Sciences. See Wade Rowland (2003), Galileo's
Mistake, A new look at the epic confrontation between Galileo and the
Church, New York: Arcade Publishing, ISBN 1-55970-684-8, p. 260.
^ E. Haverkamp-Bergmann, Rembrandt;
The Night Watch
The Night Watch (New Jersey:
Princeton University Press, 1982), p. 57
Amsterdam in the 17th century, The University of
North Carolina at
^ "The oldest share". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008.
Retrieved 22 May 2008.
Amsterdam through the ages -A medieval village becomes a global
city". Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May
^ "Aardappeloproer – Legermuseum" (PDF) (in Dutch). Archived from
the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
Amsterdam city archives". Archived from the original on 6 October
2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
^ http://www.centraledorpenraad.nl/landelijk-noord/historie from
website for the centrale dorpen raad (villages central council)
^ "Deportation to camps". Hollandsche Schouwburg. Retrieved 21 May
^ "Kou en strijd in een barre winter" (in Dutch). NOS. Archived from
the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
^ "Stadsdeel Slotervaart – Geschiedenis" (in Dutch). Municipality
Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May
^ a b "Stadsherstel Missie/Historie" (in Dutch). Retrieved 22 May
^ "Typisch Metrostad" (in Dutch). Municipality Amsterdam. Archived
from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
Amsterdam Werelderfgoed" (in Dutch). Gemeente
Amsterdam. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
Amsterdam als koelkastmagneetje" [
Amsterdam as a fridge magnet]. De
Groene Amsterdammer. 27 July 2016.
^ "Winkelomzet in Amsterdamse binnenstad explodeerde in 2015". Het
Parool. 28 January 2016. Archived from the original on 3 February
2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ "Geschiedenis van een debacle". Het Parool. 17 April 2008.
^ "Werk aan Amsterdamse Noord-Zuidlijn hervat". NOS.nl. Retrieved 22
^ "Plan Openbare Ruimte Frederik Hendrikbuurt" (PDF) (in Dutch).
Retrieved 26 September 2016.
^ "Structural Vision
Amsterdam 2040" (in Dutch). Retrieved 26
^ "Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland" (in Dutch). Retrieved 18 May
Amsterdam 2007" (PDF) (in Dutch). Archived from the
original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
^ "Openbare ruimte en groen: Inleiding" (in Dutch). Archived from the
original on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
^ "Adventure". 16 June 2008.
^ "Extreme temperatures around the world". Herrera, Maximiliano.
Retrieved 2 March 2012.
^ "Stationsdata station Schiphol 1981–2010" (PDF). Royal Netherlands
Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
^ "Klimaattabel Schiphol, langjarige gemiddelden, tijdvak 1981–2010"
(PDF) (in Dutch). Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute.
Retrieved 9 September 2013.
^ "Klimaattabel Schiphol, langjarige extremen, tijdvak 1971–2000"
(PDF) (in Dutch). Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute.
Retrieved 9 September 2013. [dead link]
^ "History of Amsterdam, The Early History". Bureau Monumenten &
Archeologie (Office of Monuments and Archeology). Archived from the
original on 2 April 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
^ Frijhoff & Prak 2005, p. 9.
^ "Explosieve groei houdt aan: 871.000 Amsterdammers in 2020".
ois.amsterdam.nl. 25 February 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
^ "CBS StatLine – Bevolking; leeftijd, herkomstgroepering, geslacht
en regio, 1 januari".
^ "Half of young big-city dwellers have non-western background".
Cbs.nl. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
^ "Bevolking naar herkomstgroepering, 1 January 2001–2006" (in
Dutch). Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (Research and Statistics
Service). Archived from the original on 7 August 2009. Retrieved 19
^ "Most foreign babies born in big cities". Cbs.nl. 26 April 2004.
Retrieved 10 October 2010.
^ "Statistics on a map" (in Dutch).
^ "Statistics by Neighborhood" (in Dutch).
^ "Religie Amsterdam" (PDF) (in Dutch). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
^ "Bureau of Onderzoek en Statistiek: 'Geloven in Amsterdam'" (PDF).
Retrieved 25 April 2012.
^ "F.A.Q.'s" (Archive). International School Amsterdam. Retrieved on
August 13, 2014.
^ Farber, Jules B. ... But give me
Amsterdam (4th Edition). Kosmos-Z
& K Uitgevers, 1997. ISBN 9021593769, 9789021593760. p. 96
"At the International School of Amsterdam, four out of ten pupils are
Japanese. Most pupils return to
Japan to complete their high school
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Find more aboutAmsterdamat's sister projects
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Tourist information about
Amsterdam – Website of the Netherlands
Board of Tourism and Conventions
(in Dutch) Amsterdam.nl – Official government site
I amsterdam –
Portal for international visitors
Amsterdam Visitors Guide
Amsterdam City Archives
Amsterdam audio guide
Free English guided walking tour
Places adjacent to Amsterdam
Haarlemmerliede en Spaarnwoude
Coat of arms
See also: Category:Amsterdam
Neighbourhoods of Amsterdam
Binnenstad (Oude Zijde - Nieuwe Zijde)
Grachtengordel (Negen Straatjes)
Oostelijke Eilanden (Czaar Peterbuurt)
Geuzenveld (De Eendracht)
De Aker - Middelveldsche Akerpolder)
Landelijk Noord (
Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk
IJburg (Haveneiland -
Steigereiland - Zeeburgereiland)
Oostelijk Havengebied (Borneo-eiland -
Oostelijke Handelskade - Sporenburg)
Dapperbuurt - Oosterparkbuurt - Transvaalbuurt -
Betondorp - Omval - Science Park)
Bos en Lommer
Bos en Lommer (Kolenkitbuurt - Landlust)
Kinkerbuurt - Overtoombuurt)
De Pijp (
Oude Pijp -
Nieuwe Pijp - Diamantbuurt)
Stadionbuurt (Olympisch Kwartier)
Westelijk Havengebied (Ruigoord)
De Baarsjes - Geuzenveld-
Watergraafsmeer - Oud-West - Oud-Zuid - Slotervaart - Westerpark
Zeeburg - Zuideramstel
Municipalities of North Holland
Haarlemmerliede en Spaarnwoude
Capital cities of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
National capital: Amsterdam
Seat of government: The Hague
Philipsburg, Sint Maarten
's-Hertogenbosch, North Brabant
Haarlem, North Holland
The Hague, South Holland
The Bottom, Saba
Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius
See also: List of cities in the
Netherlands by province
Capitals of European states and territories
Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is
disputed shown in italics.
Andorra la Vella, Andorra
Douglas, Isle of Man (UK)
London, United Kingdom
Saint Helier, Jersey (UK)
Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)
Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway)
Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland)
Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)
Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway)
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)
Prague, Czech Republic
Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK)
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5
San Marino, San Marino
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Vatican City, Vatican City
Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5
Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5
1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of
European Union and
Brussels and the European Union
3 Transcontinental country
4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political
connections with Europe
5 Partially recognised country
Capital cities of the member states of the European Union
European Capitals of Culture
Santiago de Compostela
Luxembourg City and Greater Region
Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games host cities
1904: St. Louis
1932: Los Angeles
1984: Los Angeles
2016: Rio de Janeiro
2028: Los Angeles
[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II
Venues of the 1928 Summer Olympics
Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium
Sparta Stadion Het Kasteel
Zeeburg Shooting Grounds
Olympic venues in cycling
Marathon (city), Neo Phaliron Velodrome
Vélodrome de Vincennes
White City Stadium
Antwerp, Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg
Stade de Colombes, Vélodrome de Vincennes
Amsterdam, Olympic Stadium
Los Angeles Avenue, Pacific Coast Highway, Rose Bowl in Pasadena,
Avus Motor Road, BSV 92 Field & Stadium
Herne Hill Velodrome, Windsor Great Park
Käpylä, Maunula, Pakila, Velodrome
Olympic Velodrome, Via Cassia, Via Flaminia, Via Cristoforo Colombo,
Via di Grottarossa
Hachioji City, Hachioji Velodrome
Agustín Melgar Olympic Velodrome, Satellite Circuit
Bundesautobahn 96, Grünwald, Radstadion
Mount Royal Park, Olympic Velodrome, Quebec Autoroute 40
Krylatskoye Sports Complex Cycling Circuit, Krylatskoye Sports Complex
Artesia Freeway, Olympic Velodrome, Streets of Mission Viejo
Olympic Velodrome, Tongillo Road Course
A-17 highway, Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya, Sant Sadurní Cycling
Circuit, Velòdrom d'Horta
Cycling road course, Georgia International Horse Park, Stone Mountain
Park Archery Center and Velodrome
Centennial Parklands, Dunc Gray Velodrome, Western
Athens Olympic Velodrome, Kotzia Square, Parnitha Olympic Mountain
Bike Venue, Vouliagmeni Olympic Centre
Laoshan Bicycle Moto Cross (BMX) Venue, Laoshan Mountain Bike Course,
Laoshan Velodrome, Urban Road Cycling Course
BMX Circuit, Hadleigh Farm,
London Velodrome, Hampton Court Palace
Fort Copacabana, Mountain Bike Centre, Olympic BMX Centre, Pontal, Rio
Izu Velodrome, Fuji Speedway, Olympic BMX Course
Vélodrome de Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Champs-Élysées, Élancourt
VELO Sports Center,
Los Angeles Convention Center, Grand Park,
Downtown Long Beach, Frank G. Bonelli Regional Park
World Book Capitals
2003: New Delhi
2011: Buenos Aires
2014: Port Harcourt
World Gymnaestrada host city
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