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Phanariotes
PHANARIOTES, PHANARIOTS, or PHANARIOTE GREEKS (Greek : Φαναριώτες, Romanian : Fanarioți, Turkish : Fenerliler) were members of prominent Greek families in Phanar (Φανάρι, modern Fener), the chief Greek quarter of Constantinople
Constantinople
where the Ecumenical Patriarchate is located, who traditionally occupied four important positions in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
: Grand Dragoman
Dragoman
, Grand Dragoman
Dragoman
of the Fleet, Hospodar of Moldavia , and Hospodar of Wallachia
Wallachia
. Despite their cosmopolitanism and often-Western education, the Phanariotes
Phanariotes
were aware of their Hellenism ; according to Nicholas Mavrocordatos ' Philotheou Parerga, "We are a race completely Hellenic"
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Peloponnese
The PELOPONNESE (/ˈpɛləpəˌniːz/ ) or PELOPONNESUS (/ˌpɛləpəˈniːsəs/ ; Greek : Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece
Greece
. It is separated from the central part of the country by the Isthmus and Gulf of Corinth . During the late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Ottoman era , the peninsula was known as the Morea
Morea
(Greek : Μωρέας), a name still in colloquial use in its demotic form (Μωριάς). The peninsula is divided among three administrative regions : most belongs to the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
region, with smaller parts belonging to the West Greece
Greece
and Attica regions. In 2016, Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
voted the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
the top spot of their Best in Europe list
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Trabzon
TRABZON (Turkish pronunciation: ), historically known as TREBIZOND (in Ancient
Ancient
Greek: Τραπεζοῦς Trapezous) is a city on the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast of northeastern Turkey
Turkey
and the capital of Trabzon Province . Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road
Silk Road
, became a melting pot of religions , languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia
Persia
in the southeast and the Caucasus
Caucasus
to the northeast
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Sublime Porte
The SUBLIME PORTE, also known as the OTTOMAN PORTE or HIGH PORTE (Ottoman Turkish : باب عالی‎ Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from Arabic : باب‎‎, bāb "gate" and Arabic : عالي‎‎, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Diplomacy
Diplomacy
* 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYThe naming has its origins in the old Oriental practice, according to which the ruler announced his official decisions and judgements at the gate of his palace. This was the practice in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and it was adopted also by Ottoman Turk sultans since Orhan I , and therefore the palace of the sultan, or the gate leading to it, became known as the "High Gate". This name referred first to a palace in Bursa
Bursa
, Turkey
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Greek Orthodox
The name GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH (Greek : Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía, IPA: ), or GREEK ORTHODOXY, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, the original language of the New Testament
New Testament
, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire

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Mehmet II
MEHMED II (Ottoman Turkish : محمد ثانى‎, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern Turkish : II. Mehmet Turkish pronunciation: ; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as MEHMED THE CONQUEROR (Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul ) and brought an end to the Eastern Roman Empire . Mehmed continued his conquests in Anatolia with its reunification and in Southeast Europe as far west as Bosnia . Mehmed is considered a hero in modern-day Turkey and parts of the wider Muslim world . Among other things, Istanbul's Fatih district, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Fatih Mosque are named after him
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Voivode
VOIVODE (/ˈvɔɪˌvoʊd/ ) (Old Slavic , literally "war-leader" or "war-lord") is an Eastern European (Slavic as well as Romanian ) title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. It derives from the word vojevoda, which in early Slavic meant the bellidux, i.e. the military commander of an area, but it usually had a greater meaning. In Byzantine
Byzantine
times it referred to mainly military commanders of Slavic populations, especially in the Balkans
Balkans
. The title voievodos (Greek : βοέβοδος) was first used in the work of Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos "About administration of empire" to identify Hungarian military leaders. In medieval Serbia
Serbia
it meant a high-ranking official and - before the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century - the commander of a military area
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Hierarch
An ORDINARY (from Latin ordinarius) is an officer of a church or civic authority who by reason of office has ORDINARY POWER to execute laws. Such officers are found in hierarchically organised churches of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
which have an ecclesiastical legal system . For example, diocesan bishops are ordinaries in the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church and the Church of England
Church of England
. In Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
, a corresponding officer is called a HIERARCH (from Greek ἱεράρχης hierarkhēs "president of sacred rites, high-priest" which comes in turn from τὰ ἱερά ta hiera, "the sacred rites" and ἄρχω arkhō, "I rule")
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State Organisation Of The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
developed over the centuries a complex organization of government with the Sultan
Sultan
as the supreme ruler of a centralized government that had an effective control of its provinces, officials and inhabitants. Wealth and rank could be inherited but were just as often earned. Positions were perceived as titles such as viziers and aghas . Military service was a key to advancement in the hierarchy . The expansion of the Empire called for a systematic administrative organization that developed into a dual system of military ("Central Government") and civil administration ("Provincial System") developed a kind of separation of powers with most higher executive functions carried out by the military authorities and judicial and basic administration carried out by civil authorities. Outside this system were various types of vassal and tributary states
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Diplomatic Mission
A DIPLOMATIC MISSION is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state. In practice, a diplomatic mission usually denotes the resident mission, namely the EMBASSY, which is the office of a country's diplomatic representatives in the capital city of another country, whereas consulates are diplomatic missions which are not performed in the capital of the receiving state. As well as being a diplomatic mission to the country in which it is situated, it may also be a non-resident permanent mission to one or more other countries. There are thus resident and non-resident embassies
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South Slavs
Majority: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Croatia
Croatia
, Macedonia , Montenegro
Montenegro
, Serbia
Serbia
, Slovenia
Slovenia

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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is a universalizing Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
( Allah
Allah
) and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is a messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries . Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful , all-powerful , unique and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs
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Byzantine
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Hagia Sophia
HAGIA SOPHIA (/ˈhɑːɡiə soʊˈfiːə/ ; from the Greek : Αγία Σοφία, pronounced , "Holy Wisdom "; Latin
Latin
: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Turkish : Ayasofya) was a Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church ), later an imperial mosque , and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
's first Christian
Christian
Cathedral, from the date of its construction in 537 AD, and until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and seat of the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted by the Fourth Crusaders to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
. The building was later converted into an Ottoman mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931
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Ottoman Dynasty
The OTTOMAN DYNASTY was made up of the members of the imperial HOUSE OF OSMAN (Ottoman Turkish : خاندان آل عثمان‎, Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān; Turkish : Osmanlı Hanedanı). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks , under Osman I
Osman I
in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the district of Bilecik
Bilecik
Söğüt . The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from c. 1299 to 1922
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Constantine Paparrigopoulos
CONSTANTINE PAPARRIGOPOULOS (Greek : Κωνσταντίνος Παπαρρηγόπουλος; 1815 – 14 April 1891) was a Greek historian, who is considered the founder of modern Greek historiography . He is the founder of the concept of historical continuity of Greece from antiquity to the present, establishing the tripartite division of Greek history in ancient , medieval and modern , and sought to set aside the prevailing views at the time that the Byzantine Empire was a period of decadence and degeneration, not recognized as part of Greek history. Paparrigopoulos introduced this division in his teaching at the University of Athens
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