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Phanariotes
PHANARIOTES, PHANARIOTS, or PHANARIOTE GREEKS (Greek : Φαναριώτες, Romanian : Fanarioți, Turkish : Fenerliler) were members of prominent Greek families in Phanar (Φανάρι, modern Fener), the chief Greek quarter of Constantinople
Constantinople
where the Ecumenical Patriarchate is located, who traditionally occupied four important positions in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
: Grand Dragoman , Grand Dragoman of the Fleet, Hospodar of Moldavia , and Hospodar of Wallachia . Despite their cosmopolitanism and often-Western education, the Phanariotes
Phanariotes
were aware of their Hellenism ; according to Nicholas Mavrocordatos
Mavrocordatos
' Philotheou Parerga, "We are a race completely Hellenic"
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Phanarion
FENER is a quarter midway up the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
within the district of Fatih
Fatih
in Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
. The streets in the area are full of historic wooden mansions, churches , and synagogues dating from the Byzantine and Ottoman eras. The wooden mansions between the main axis and the shore were often used for importing wood from Pontus or the Black Sea area. Their picturesque facades were largely destroyed due to street widening requirements in the 1930s and later.The area\'s name is a Turkish transliteration of the original Greek φανάριον (a lighting lantern, a streetlight, a lightpost with a light lantern – from φανός: a lighting lantern; syn. πυρσός: light-torch, φάρος: beacon, lighthouse) (Classical : phanárion, modern : fanári, "lantern")
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Ottoman Greeks
OTTOMAN GREEKS (Greek : Οθωμανοί Έλληνες, Turkish : Osmanlı Rumları) were ethnic Greeks
Greeks
who lived in the Ottoman Empire (1453–1921), the Republic of Turkey
Republic of Turkey
's predecessor. Ottoman Greeks, who were Greek Orthodox Christians
Christians
, belonged to the Rum Millet (Millet-i Rum). They were concentrated in what is today modern Greece, eastern Thrace
Thrace
(especially in and around Constantinople
Constantinople
), western Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(especially in and around Smyrna
Smyrna
), central Anatolia (especially Cappadocia
Cappadocia
), northeastern Anatolia (especially in Erzurum vilayet , in and around Trebizond and in the Pontic Mountains
Pontic Mountains
, roughly corresponding to the medieval Greek kingdom of Pontus )
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις or Κωνσταντινούπολη (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin) Map of Constantinople Shown within Turkey ALTERNATE NAME Byzantion, Miklagard/Miklagarth, Tsargrad, Basileuousa (Queen of Cities), Megalopolis (the Great City) LOCATION Istanbul , Istanbul Province ,
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Ottoman Empire
The OTTOMAN EMPIRE (/ˈɒtəmən/ ; Ottoman Turkish : دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, _Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye_; Modern Turkish : _Osmanlı İmparatorluğu_ or _Osmanlı Devleti_), also known as the TURKISH EMPIRE, or OTTOMAN TURKEY, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman . After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe , and with the conquest of the Balkans , the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire (known to the Ottomans as the _Roman_ Empire) with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror
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Bulgarian St. Stephen Church
The BULGARIAN ST STEPHEN CHURCH (Bulgarian : Църква „Свети Стефан“; Turkish : Sveti Stefan Kilisesi), also known as the BULGARIAN IRON CHURCH, is a Bulgarian Orthodox church in Fatih
Fatih
, Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
, famous for being made of prefabricated cast iron elements in the neo-Gothic style. The church belongs to the Bulgarian minority in the city. The Bulgarians of the Ottoman Empire used to pray at the churches of the Phanar Orthodox Patriarchy , but due to nationalistic movements, Bulgarians were allowed a national church in the 19th century, the Bulgarian Exarchate
Bulgarian Exarchate
. The richly ornamented church is a three-domed cross-shaped basilica . The altar faces the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
and a 40 m-high belfry, the six bells of which were cast in Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
, rises above the narthex
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Patriarchate Of Constantinople
The ECUMENICAL PATRIARCHATE OF CONSTANTINOPLE (Greek : Οικουμενικόν Πατριαρχείον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos, IPA: ; Latin : Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Turkish : Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church . It is headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople , currently Bartholomew I , Archbishop
Archbishop
of Constantinople
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Romanian Language
ROMANIAN (obsolete spellings RUMANIAN, ROUMANIAN; autonym: limba română ( listen ), "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language
Romance language
spoken by around 24-26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania
Romania
and Moldova
Moldova
, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It has official status in Romania
Romania
and the Republic of Moldova. It is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Romanian is a part of the Balkan-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin separated from the Western Romance during the 5th–8th centuries. To distinguish it within that group in comparative linguistics it is called Daco-Romanian as opposed to its closest relatives, Aromanian , Megleno-Romanian , and Istro-Romanian
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Turkish Language
Turkey (official), Northern Cyprus (official), Cyprus (official), Bulgaria , Macedonia , Greece , Iraq ,
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Greeks
The GREEKS or HELLENES (Greek : Έλληνες ) are an ethnic group native to Greece , Cyprus , southern Albania , Turkey , Sicily , Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea . They also form a significant diaspora , with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea , but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age
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Fener
FENER is a quarter midway up the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
within the district of Fatih
Fatih
in Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
. The streets in the area are full of historic wooden mansions, churches , and synagogues dating from the Byzantine and Ottoman eras. The wooden mansions between the main axis and the shore were often used for importing wood from Pontus or the Black Sea area. Their picturesque facades were largely destroyed due to street widening requirements in the 1930s and later.The area\'s name is a Turkish transliteration of the original Greek φανάριον (a lighting lantern, a streetlight, a lightpost with a light lantern – from φανός: a lighting lantern; syn. πυρσός: light-torch, φάρος: beacon, lighthouse) (Classical : phanárion, modern : fanári, "lantern")
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Ecumenical Patriarchate Of Constantinople
The ECUMENICAL PATRIARCHATE OF CONSTANTINOPLE (Greek : Οικουμενικόν Πατριαρχείον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, _Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos_, IPA: ; Latin : _Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus_; Turkish : _Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi_, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church . It is headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople , currently Bartholomew I , Archbishop of Constantinople
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Dragoman
A DRAGOMAN was an interpreter , translator, and official guide between Turkish , Arabic , and Persian -speaking countries and polities of the Middle East
Middle East
and European embassies , consulates , vice-consulates and trading posts . A dragoman had to have a knowledge of Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and European languages. The position took particular prominence in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, where demand for the mediation provided by dragomans is said to have been created by the resistance on the part of the Muslim Ottomans to learn the languages of non-Muslim nations. The office incorporated diplomatic as well as linguistic duties—namely, in the Porte 's relation with Christian countries —and some dragomans thus came to play crucial roles in Ottoman politics
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Hospodar Of Moldavia
This is a LIST OF RULERS OF MOLDAVIA , from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia
Wallachia
, the other Danubian Principality , to form the modern-day state of Romania
Romania

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Hospodar Of Wallachia
This is a LIST OF RULERS OF WALLACHIA , from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians
Southern Carpathians
and the Danube
Danube
until the union with Moldavia
Moldavia
in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania
Romania

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