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The GREEKS or HELLENES (Greek : Έλληνες ) are an ethnic group native to Greece , Cyprus , southern Albania , Turkey , Sicily , Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea . They also form a significant diaspora , with Greek communities established around the world.

Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea , but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age . Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula , the western coast of Asia Minor , the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt , the Balkans , Cyprus, and Constantinople . Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization . The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens , Thessalonica , Alexandria , Smyrna , and Constantinople at various periods.

Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church .

Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture , arts, exploration, literature , philosophy , politics, architecture , music , mathematics , science and technology , business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Mycenaean * 1.3 Classical * 1.4 Hellenistic * 1.5 Roman Empire * 1.6 Byzantine Empire * 1.7 Ottoman Empire * 1.8 Modern

* 2 Identity

* 2.1 Names * 2.2 Continuity * 2.3 Demographics

* 2.4 Diaspora

* 2.4.1 Ancient * 2.4.2 Modern

* 3 Culture

* 3.1 Language * 3.2 Religion * 3.3 Arts * 3.4 Science * 3.5 Symbols * 3.6 Surnames and personal names * 3.7 Sea

* 4 Physical appearance * 5 Timeline * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 Citations * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

HISTORY

Further information: History of Greece A reconstruction of the 3rd millennium BC "Proto-Greek area", by Vladimir I. Georgiev .

The Greeks speak the Greek language , which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic . They are part of a group of pre-modern ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people".

ORIGINS

Further information: Proto- Greek language and List of Ancient Greek tribes

The Proto- Greeks probably arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula , at the end of the 3rd millennium BC, The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects , as they presented themselves centuries later and are therefore subject to some uncertainties. There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Aeolians , which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC, and the second, the Dorian invasion , around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects , which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse .

An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev , who places Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern Greece by the Early Helladic period (3rd millennium BC), i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic . Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC.

MYCENAEAN

Main article: Mycenaean Greece

In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system (i.e. Linear A ) and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B , providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek . The Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes , Crete , Cyprus and the shores of Asia Minor .

Around 1200 BC, the Dorians , another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus . Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization , but it is likely the main attack was made by seafaring raiders ( Sea Peoples ) who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC. The Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages , but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible.

The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth. The Homeric Epics (i.e. _ Iliad _ and _ Odyssey _) were especially and generally accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the 19th century that scholars began to question Homer's historicity. As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece (e.g. Zeus , Poseidon and Hades ) became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of later antiquity.

CLASSICAL

Main article: Classical Greece Hoplites fighting. Detail from an Attic black-figure hydria , ca. 560 BC–550 BC. Louvre , Paris .

The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC. According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture. The works of Homer (i.e. _ Iliad _ and _ Odyssey _) and Hesiod (i.e. _ Theogony _) were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos, history and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period.

The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great , in 323 BC (some authors prefer to split this period into "Classical", from the end of the Greco-Persian Wars to the end of the Peloponnesian War, and "Fourth Century", up to the death of Alexander). It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras. The Classical period is also described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and its art, philosophy, architecture and literature would be instrumental in the formation and development of Western culture.

While the Greeks of the classical era understood themselves to belong to a common Hellenic genos , their first loyalty was to their city and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with other Greek city-states . The Peloponnesian War , the large scale civil war between the two most powerful Greek city-states Athens and Sparta and their allies , left both greatly weakened. Alexander the Great , whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age .

Most of the feuding Greek city-states were, in some scholars' opinions, united under the banner of Philip 's and Alexander the Great 's Pan-Hellenic ideals, though others might generally opt, rather, for an explanation of "Macedonian conquest for the sake of conquest" or at least conquest for the sake of riches, glory and power and view the "ideal" as useful propaganda directed towards the city-states.

In any case, Alexander's toppling of the Achaemenid Empire , after his victories at the battles of the Granicus , Issus and Gaugamela , and his advance as far as modern-day Pakistan and Tajikistan , provided an important outlet for Greek culture, via the creation of colonies and trade routes along the way. While the Alexandrian empire did not survive its creator's death intact, the cultural implications of the spread of Hellenism across much of the Middle East and Asia were to prove long lived as Greek became the _lingua franca _, a position it retained even in Roman times . Many Greeks settled in Hellenistic cities like Alexandria , Antioch and Seleucia . Two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan and Afghanistan , like the Kalash , who claim to be descended from Greek settlers.

HELLENISTIC

Main article: Hellenistic Greece _ The major Hellenistic realms c. 300 BC; the Ptolemaic Kingdom _ (dark blue) and the _Seleucid Empire _ (yellow). Bust of Cleopatra VII . Altes Museum , Berlin .

The Hellenistic civilization was the next period of Greek civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at Alexander's death. This Hellenistic age , so called because it saw the partial Hellenization of many non-Greek cultures, lasted until the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 BC.

This age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi . Greeks, however, remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works of Homer and the classical authors. An important factor in maintaining Greek identity was contact with _barbarian _ (non-Greek) peoples, which was deepened in the new cosmopolitan environment of the multi-ethnic Hellenistic kingdoms. This led to a strong desire among Greeks to organize the transmission of the Hellenic _paideia _ to the next generation. Greek science, technology and mathematics are generally considered to have reached their peak during the Hellenistic period.

In the Indo-Greek and Greco-Bactrian kingdoms, Greco-Buddhism was spreading and Greek missionaries would play an important role in propagating it to China . Further east, the Greeks of Alexandria Eschate became known to the Chinese people as the Dayuan .

ROMAN EMPIRE

Further information: Greco-Roman relations and Greco-Roman mysteries

Following the time of the conquest of the last of the independent Greek city-states and Hellenistic (post-Alexandrine) kingdoms, almost all of the world's Greek speakers lived as citizens or subjects of the Roman Empire. Despite their military superiority, the Romans admired and became heavily influenced by the achievements of Greek culture, hence Horace 's famous statement: _Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit_ ("Greece, although captured, took its wild conqueror captive").

In the religious sphere, this was a period of profound change. The spiritual revolution that took place, saw a waning of the old Greek religion, whose decline beginning in the 3rd century BC continued with the introduction of new religious movements from the East. The cults of deities like Isis and Mithra were introduced into the Greek world. Greek-speaking communities of the Hellenized East were instrumental in the spread of early Christianity in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, and Christianity's early leaders and writers (notably Saint Paul ) were generally Greek-speaking, though none were from Greece. However, Greece itself had a tendency to cling to paganism and was not one of the influential centers of early Christianity: in fact, some ancient Greek religious practices remained in vogue until the end of the 4th century, with some areas such as the southeastern Peloponnese remaining pagan until well into the 10th century AD.

BYZANTINE EMPIRE

Main article: Byzantine Greeks Statues of Saints Cyril and Methodius , missionaries of Christianity among the Slavic peoples , Třebíč , Czech Republic .

Of the new eastern religions introduced into the Greek world, the most successful was Christianity . From the early centuries of the Common Era , the Greeks self-identified as _Romaioi_ ("Romans"), as well as _Graikoi_ ("Greeks"); by that time, the name _Hellenes_ denoted pagans but was revived as an ethnonym in the 11th century. While ethnic distinctions still existed in the Roman Empire , they became secondary to religious considerations and the renewed empire used Christianity as a tool to support its cohesion and promoted a robust Roman national identity. According to the teachings and the dogmas of the Eastern Orthodox Church , the old idea of nationalism was not acceptable, and though was replaced by the concept of _Romiosini_ ( Romanitas , but in a Cristian Orthodox manner), which became synonymous to the "civilized world". Scenes of marriage and family life in Constantinople .

Concurrently, the secular, urban civilization of Late Antiquity survived in the Eastern Mediterranean along with the Greco-Roman educational system; the Greeks' essential values were drawn from both Christianity and the Homeric tradition of their classical ancestors.

The Eastern Roman Empire (today conventionally named the _Byzantine Empire_, a name not used during its own time ) became increasingly influenced by Greek culture after the 7th century when Emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641 AD) decided to make Greek the empire's official language. Certainly from then on, but likely earlier, the Greek and Roman cultures were virtually fused into a single Greco-Roman world . Although the Latin West recognized the Eastern Empire's claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, after Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne , king of the Franks , as the "Roman Emperor " on 25 December 800, an act which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire , the Latin West started to favour the Franks and began to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire largely as the _Empire of the Greeks_ (_Imperium Graecorum_).

"Much of what we know of antiquity – especially of Hellenic and Roman literature and of Roman law — would have been lost for ever but for the scholars and scribes and copyists of Constantinople."

_JOHN J. NORWICH _

These Byzantine Greeks were largely responsible for the preservation of the literature of the classical era. Byzantine grammarians were those principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical and literary studies to the West during the 15th century, giving the Italian Renaissance a major boost. The Aristotelian philosophical tradition was nearly unbroken in the Greek world for almost two thousand years, until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

To the Slavic world, Roman-era Greeks contributed by the dissemination of literacy and Christianity. The most notable example of the later was the work of the two Byzantine Greek brothers, the monks Saints Cyril and Methodius from the port city of Thessalonica , in Greek Macedonia , who are credited today with formalizing the first Slavic alphabet . Gemistus Pletho

A distinct Greek political identity re-emerged in the 11th century in educated circles and became more forceful after the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, so that when the empire was revived in 1261, it became in many ways a Greek national state. That new notion of nationhood engendered a deep interest in the classical past culminating the ideas of the Neoplatonist philosopher Gemistus Pletho , who was a supporter for the use of the old term _Hellene_ (Έλληνας) and who abandoned Christianity. However, it was the combination of Orthodox Christianity with a specifically Greek identity that shaped the Greeks' notion of themselves in the empire's twilight years. The interest in the Classical Greek heritage was complemented by a renewed emphasis on Greek Orthodox identity, which was reinforced in the late Medieval and Ottoman Greeks' links with their fellow Orthodox Christians in the Russian Empire . These were further strengthened following the fall of the Empire of Trebizond in 1461, after which and until the second Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29 hundreds of thousands of Pontic Greeks fled or migrated from the Pontic Alps and Armenian Highlands to southern Russia and the Russian South Caucasus (see also Greeks in Russia , Greeks in Armenia , Greeks in Georgia , and Caucasian Greeks ).

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

Main article: Ottoman Greeks Engraving of a Greek merchant by Cesare Vecellio (16th century).

Following the Fall of Constantinople on 29 May 1453, many Greeks sought better employment and education opportunities by leaving for the West , particularly Italy , Central Europe , Germany and Russia . Greeks are greatly credited for the European cultural revolution, later called, the Renaissance. In Greek-inhabited territory itself, Greeks came to play a leading role in the Ottoman Empire , due in part to the fact that the central hub of the empire, politically, culturally, and socially, was based on Western Thrace and Greek Macedonia , both in Northern Greece , and of course was centred on the mainly Greek-populated, former Byzantine capital, Constantinople . As a direct consequence of this situation, Greek-speakers came to play a hugely important role in the Ottoman trading and diplomatic establishment, as well as in the church. Added to this, in the first half of the Ottoman period men of Greek origin made up a significant proportion of the Ottoman army, navy, and state bureaucracy, having been levied as adolescents (along with especially Albanians and Serbs ) into Ottoman service through the devshirme . Many Ottomans of Greek (or Albanian or Serb) origin were therefore to be found within the Ottoman forces which governed the provinces, from Ottoman Egypt, to Ottomans occupied Yemen and Algeria , frequently as provincial governors.

For those that remained under the Ottoman Empire 's millet system , religion was the defining characteristic of national groups (_milletler_), so the exonym "Greeks" (_Rumlar_ from the name Rhomaioi) was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church , regardless of their language or ethnic origin. The Greek speakers were the only ethnic group to actually call themselves _Romioi_, (as opposed to being so named by others) and, at least those educated, considered their ethnicity (_genos_) to be Hellenic. There were, however, many Greeks who escaped the second-class status of Christians inherent in the Ottoman millet system, according to which Muslims were explicitly awarded senior status and preferential treatment. These Greeks either emigrated, particularly to their fellow Greek Orthodox protector, the Russian Empire , or simply converted to Islam, often only very superficially and whilst remaining crypto- Christian . The most notable examples of large-scale conversion to Turkish Islam among those today defined as Greek Muslims —excluding those who had to convert as a matter of course on being recruited through the devshirme —were to be found in Crete (Cretan Turks ), Greek Macedonia (for example among the Vallahades of western Macedonia ), and among Pontic Greeks in the Pontic Alps and Armenian Highlands . Several Ottoman sultans and princes were also of part Greek origin, with mothers who were either Greek concubines or princesses from Byzantine noble families, one famous example being sultan Selim the Grim (r. 1517–1520), whose mother Gülbahar Hatun was a Pontic Greek .

The roots of Greek success in the Ottoman Empire can be traced to the Greek tradition of education and commerce exemplified in the Phanariotes . It was the wealth of the extensive merchant class that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival that was the prominent feature of Greek life in the half century and more leading to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Not coincidentally, on the eve of 1821, the three most important centres of Greek learning were situated in Chios , Smyrna and Aivali , all three major centres of Greek commerce. Greek success was also favoured by Greek domination of the Christian Orthodox church.

MODERN

See also: Modern Greek Enlightenment and Greek War of Independence _ The cover of Hermes o Logios _, a Greek literary publication of the late 18th and early 19th century with major contribution to the Modern Greek Enlightenment .

The relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox religion continued after the creation of the modern Greek nation-state in 1830. According to the second article of the first Greek constitution of 1822, a Greek was defined as any native Christian resident of the Kingdom of Greece , a clause removed by 1840. A century later, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed between Greece and Turkey in 1923, the two countries agreed to use religion as the determinant for ethnic identity for the purposes of population exchange, although most of the Greeks displaced (over a million of the total 1.5 million) had already been driven out by the time the agreement was signed. The Greek genocide , in particular the harsh removal of Pontian Greeks from the southern shore area of the Black Sea, contemporaneous with and following the failed Greek Asia Minor Campaign , was part of this process of Turkification of the Ottoman Empire and the placement of its economy and trade, then largely in Greek hands under ethnic Turkish control.

IDENTITY

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GREEKS

BY COUNTRY

NATIVE COMMUNITIES GREECE · CYPRUS Albania · Italy · Russia · Turkey GREEK DIASPORA Australia · Canada · Germany United Kingdom · United States

GROUPS BY REGION

NORTHERN GREEKS: Thracians · Macedonians · Thessalians · Epirotes SOUTHERN GREEKS: Peloponnesians · Maniots · Roumeliotes EASTERN GREEKS: Micrasiates ( Smyrna , Aeolis , Ionia , Doris , Bithynia ) Pontic · Cappadocians / Karamanlides Caucasus Greeks · Crimean Greeks Constantinopolitans ISLANDERS: Cretans · Eptanesians · Cycladites · Dodecanesians · Samiotes · Ikariotes · Chiotes · Lemniotes · Lesvians Cypriots OTHER GROUPS: Antiochians · Arvanites · Egyptiotes Grecanici · Northern Epirotes · Romaniotes Sarakatsani · Souliotes · Slavophones Tsakonians · Urums

GREEK CULTURE

Art · Cinema · Cuisine Dance · Dress · Education Flag · Language · Literature Music · Politics · Religion Sport · Television · Theatre

RELIGION

GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH Greek Roman Catholicism Greek Byzantine Catholicism Greek Evangelicalism Judaism · Islam · Neopaganism

LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS

GREEK Calabrian Greek Cappadocian Greek Cretan Greek · Griko Cypriot Greek · Himariote Greek Maniot Greek · Mariupol Greek Pontic Greek · Tsakonian Yevanic

History of Greece

* v * t * e

The terms used to define Greekness have varied throughout history but were never limited or completely identified with membership to a Greek state. By Western standards, the term _Greeks_ has traditionally referred to any native speakers of the Greek language , whether Mycenaean , Byzantine or modern Greek . Byzantine Greeks self-identified as _Romaioi_ ("Romans"), _Graikoi_ ("Greeks") and _Christianoi_ ("Christians") since they were the political heirs of imperial Rome , the descendants of their classical Greek forebears and followers of the Apostles ; during the mid-to-late Byzantine period (11th–13th century), a growing number of Byzantine Greek intellectuals deemed themselves _Hellenes_ although for most Greek-speakers, "Hellene" still meant pagan. On the eve of the Fall of Constantinople the Last Emperor urged his soldiers to remember that they were the descendants of Greeks and Romans.

Before the establishment of the modern Greek nation-state, the link between ancient and modern Greeks was emphasized by the scholars of Greek Enlightenment especially by Rigas Feraios. In his "Political Constitution", he addresses to the nation as "the people descendant of the Greeks". The modern Greek state was created in 1829, when the Greeks liberated a part of their historic homelands, Peloponnese , from the Ottoman Empire . The large Greek diaspora and merchant class were instrumental in transmitting the ideas of western romantic nationalism and philhellenism , which together with the conception of Hellenism, formulated during the last centuries of the Byzantine Empire , formed the basis of the Diafotismos and the current conception of Hellenism.

The Greeks today are a nation in the meaning of an _ethnos _, defined by possessing Greek culture and having a Greek mother tongue , not by citizenship, race, and religion or by being subjects of any particular state. In ancient and medieval times and to a lesser extent today the Greek term was _genos _, which also indicates a common ancestry.

NAMES

Main articles: Achaeans (Homer) and Names of the Greeks Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece, and adjacent "barbarian" lands.

Greeks and Greek-speakers have used different names to refer to themselves collectively. The term ACHAEANS (Ἀχαιοί) is one of the collective names for the Greeks in Homer 's _ Iliad _ and _Odyssey _ (the Homeric "long-haired Achaeans" would have been a part of the Mycenaean civilization that dominated Greece from c. 1600 BC until 1100 BC). The other common names are DANAANS (Δαναοί) and ARGIVES (Ἀργεῖοι) while PANHELLENES (Πανέλληνες) and HELLENES (Ἕλληνες) both appear only once in the _Iliad_; all of these terms were used, synonymously, to denote a common Greek identity. In the historical period, Herodotus identified the Achaeans of the northern Peloponnese as descendants of the earlier, Homeric Achaeans.

Homer refers to the "Hellenes" (/ˈhɛliːnz/ ) as a relatively small tribe settled in Thessalic Phthia , with its warriors under the command of Achilleus . The Parian Chronicle says that Phthia was the homeland of the Hellenes and that this name was given to those previously called Greeks (Γραικοί). In Greek mythology , Hellen , the patriarch of the Hellenes who ruled around Phthia, was the son of Pyrrha and Deucalion , the only survivors after the Great Deluge . The Greek philosopher Aristotle names ancient Hellas as an area in Epirus between Dodona and the Achelous river, the location of the Great Deluge of Deucalion , a land occupied by the Selloi and the "Greeks" who later came to be known as "Hellenes". In the Homeric tradition, the Selloi were the priests of Dodonian Zeus.

In the Hesiodic _ Catalogue of Women _, Graecus is presented as the son of Zeus and Pandora II , sister of Hellen the patriarch of the Hellenes. According to the Parian Chronicle , when Deucalion became king of Phthia, the GRAIKOI (Γραικοί) were named Hellenes. Aristotle notes in his _Meteorologica_ that the Hellenes were related to the Graikoi.

CONTINUITY

Family group on a funerary stele from Athens, National Archaeological Museum , Athens .

The most obvious link between modern and ancient Greeks is their language, which has a documented tradition from at least the 14th century BC to the present day, albeit with a break during the Greek Dark Ages (lasting from the 11th to the 8th century BC). Scholars compare its continuity of tradition to Chinese alone. Since its inception, Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture and the national continuity of the Greek world is a lot more certain than its demographic. Yet, Hellenism also embodied an ancestral dimension through aspects of Athenian literature that developed and influenced ideas of descent based on autochthony. During the later years of the Eastern Roman Empire, areas such as Ionia and Constantinople experienced a Hellenic revival in language, philosophy, and literature and on classical models of thought and scholarship. This revival provided a powerful impetus to the sense of cultural affinity with ancient Greece and its classical heritage. Throughout their history, the Greeks have retained their language and alphabet , certain values and cultural traditions, customs, a sense of religious and cultural difference and exclusion (the word _barbarian _ was used by 12th-century historian Anna Komnene to describe non-Greek speakers), a sense of Greek identity and common sense of ethnicity despite the undeniable socio-political changes of the past two millennia. In recent anthropological studies, both ancient and modern Greek osteological samples were analyzed demonstrating a bio-genetic affinity and continuity shared between both groups.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main articles: Demographics of Greece and Demographics of Cyprus

Today, Greeks are the majority ethnic group in the Hellenic Republic , where they constitute 93% of the country's population, and the Republic of Cyprus where they make up 78% of the island's population (excluding Turkish settlers in the occupied part of the country). Greek populations have not traditionally exhibited high rates of growth; a large percentage of Greek population growth since Greece's foundation in 1832 was attributed to annexation of new territories, as well as the influx of 1.5 million Greek refugees after the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey. About 80% of the population of Greece is urban, with 28% concentrated in the city of Athens.

Greeks from Cyprus have a similar history of emigration, usually to the English-speaking world because of the island's colonization by the British Empire . Waves of emigration followed the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, while the population decreased between mid-1974 and 1977 as a result of emigration, war losses, and a temporary decline in fertility. After the ethnic cleansing of a third of the Greek population of the island in 1974, there was also an increase in the number of Greek Cypriots leaving, especially for the Middle East, which contributed to a decrease in population that tapered off in the 1990s. Today more than two-thirds of the Greek population in Cyprus is urban.

There is a sizeable Greek minority of approximately 200,000 people in Albania . The Greek minority of Turkey , which numbered upwards of 200,000 people after the 1923 exchange, has now dwindled to a few thousand, after the 1955 Constantinople Pogrom and other state sponsored violence and discrimination. This effectively ended, though not entirely, the three-thousand-year-old presence of Hellenism in Asia Minor. There are smaller Greek minorities in the rest of the Balkan countries, the Levant and the Black Sea states, remnants of the Old Greek Diaspora (pre-19th century).

DIASPORA

Main article: Greek diaspora Zach Galifianakis , American stand-up comedian and actor of Greek ancestry.

The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus today is a contentious issue. Where Census figures are available, they show around 3 million Greeks outside Greece and Cyprus . Estimates provided by the SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad put the figure at around 7 million worldwide. According to George Prevelakis of Sorbonne University , the number is closer to just below 5 million. Integration, intermarriage, and loss of the Greek language influence the self-identification of the Omogeneia . Important centres of the New Greek Diaspora today are London , New York , Melbourne and Toronto . In 2010, the Hellenic Parliament introduced a law that enables Diaspora Greeks in Greece to vote in the elections of the Greek state. This law was later repealed in early 2014.

Ancient

Greek colonization in antiquity.

In ancient times, the trading and colonizing activities of the Greek tribes and city states spread the Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, especially in Sicily and southern Italy (also known as Magna Grecia ), Spain, the south of France and the Black sea coasts . Under Alexander the Great's empire and successor states, Greek and Hellenizing ruling classes were established in the Middle East , India and in Egypt . The Hellenistic period is characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization that established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa . Under the Roman Empire, easier movement of people spread Greeks across the Empire and in the eastern territories, Greek became the lingua franca rather than Latin . The modern-day Griko community of southern Italy, numbering about 60,000, may represent a living remnant of the ancient Greek populations of Italy.

Modern

Distribution of ethnic groups in 1918, National Geographic Greek Diaspora (20th century).

During and after the Greek War of Independence , Greeks of the diaspora were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and awareness abroad. Greek merchant families already had contacts in other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France , Livorno in Italy , Alexandria in Egypt ), Russia ( Odessa and Saint Petersburg ), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in textiles and grain. Businesses frequently comprised the extended family, and with them they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox Church .

As markets changed and they became more established, some families grew their operations to become shippers , financed through the local Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers . With economic success, the Diaspora expanded further across the Levant , North Africa, India and the USA.

In the 20th century, many Greeks left their traditional homelands for economic reasons resulting in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to the United States , Great Britain, Australia, Canada, Germany , and South Africa , especially after the Second World War (1939–1945), the Greek Civil War (1946–1949), and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.

While official figures remain scarce, polls and anecdotal evidence point to renewed Greek emigration as a result of the Greek financial crisis . According to data published by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany in 2011, 23,800 Greeks emigrated to Germany, a significant increase over the previous year. By comparison, about 9,000 Greeks emigrated to Germany in 2009 and 12,000 in 2010.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Greece

Greek culture has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginning in the Mycenaean civilization, continuing through the classical era, the Hellenistic period, the Roman and Byzantine periods and was profoundly affected by Christianity, which it in turn influenced and shaped. Ottoman Greeks had to endure through several centuries of adversity that culminated in genocide in the 20th century. The Diafotismos is credited with revitalizing Greek culture and giving birth to the synthesis of ancient and medieval elements that characterize it today.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Greek language Ancient Greek Ostracon bearing the name of Cimon . Museum of the Ancient Agora , Athens .

Most Greeks speak the Greek language , an Indo-European language that forms a branch itself, with its closest relations being Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian ) and the Indo-Iranian languages (see Graeco-Aryan ). It has one of the longest documented histories of any language and Greek literature has a continuous history of over 2,500 years. Several notable literary works, including the Homeric epics , Euclid\'s Elements and the New Testament , were originally written in Greek.

Greek demonstrates several linguistic features that are shared with other Balkan languages , such as Albanian , Bulgarian and Eastern Romance languages (see Balkan sprachbund ), and has absorbed many foreign words, primarily of Western European and Turkish origin. Because of the movements of Philhellenism and the Diafotismos in the 19th century, which emphasized the modern Greeks' ancient heritage, these foreign influences were excluded from official use via the creation of Katharevousa , a somewhat artificial form of Greek purged of all foreign influence and words, as the official language of the Greek state. In 1976, however, the Hellenic Parliament voted to make the spoken Dimotiki the official language, making Katharevousa obsolete.

Modern Greek has, in addition to Standard Modern Greek or Dimotiki, a wide variety of dialects of varying levels of mutual intelligibility, including Cypriot , Pontic , Cappadocian , Griko and Tsakonian (the only surviving representative of ancient Doric Greek ). Yevanic is the language of the Romaniotes , and survives in small communities in Greece, New York and Israel. In addition to Greek, many Greeks in Greece and the Diaspora are bilingual in other languages or dialects such as English, Arvanitika /Albanian , Aromanian , Macedonian Slavic , Russian and Turkish.

RELIGION

Main articles: Religion in ancient Greece and Orthodox Church

Most Greeks are Christians , belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church . During the first centuries after Jesus Christ , the New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek , which remains the liturgical language of the Greek Orthodox Church, and most of the early Christians and Church Fathers were Greek-speaking. There are small groups of ethnic Greeks adhering to other Christian denominations like Greek Catholics , Greek Evangelicals , Pentecostals , and groups adhering to other religions including Romaniot and Sephardic Jews and Greek Muslims . About 2,000 Greeks are members of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism congregations.

Greek-speaking Muslims live mainly outside Greece in the contemporary era. There are both Christian and Muslim Greek-speaking communities in Lebanon and Syria , while in the Pontus region of Turkey there is a large community of indeterminate size who were spared from the population exchange because of their religious affiliation.

ARTS

See also: Greek art , Music of Greece , Ancient Greek theatre , Modern Greek theatre , and Cinema of Greece

*

Dominikos Theotokopoulos *

Maria Callas *

Constantine P. Cavafy *

Mikis Theodorakis

Greek art has a long and varied history. Greeks have contributed to the visual, literary and performing arts. In the West, classical Greek art was influential in shaping the Roman and later the modern Western artistic heritage . Following the Renaissance in Europe , the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists. Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece played an important role in the art of the Western world. In the East, Alexander the Great 's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art , whose influence reached as far as Japan .

Byzantine Greek art , which grew from classical art and adapted the pagan motifs in the service of Christianity, provided a stimulus to the art of many nations. Its influences can be traced from Venice in the West to Kazakhstan in the East. In turn, Greek art was influenced by eastern civilizations (i.e. Egypt , Persia , etc.) during various periods of its history.

Notable modern Greek artists include Renaissance painter Dominikos Theotokopoulos (El Greco), Panagiotis Doxaras , Nikolaos Gyzis , Nikiphoros Lytras , Yannis Tsarouchis , Nikos Engonopoulos , Constantine Andreou , Jannis Kounellis , sculptors such as Leonidas Drosis , Georgios Bonanos , Yannoulis Chalepas and Joannis Avramidis , conductor Dimitri Mitropoulos , soprano Maria Callas , composers such as Mikis Theodorakis , Nikos Skalkottas , Iannis Xenakis , Manos Hatzidakis , Eleni Karaindrou , Yanni and Vangelis , one of the best-selling singers worldwide Nana Mouskouri and poets such as Kostis Palamas , Dionysios Solomos , Angelos Sikelianos and Yannis Ritsos . Alexandrian Constantine P. Cavafy and Nobel laureates Giorgos Seferis and Odysseas Elytis are among the most important poets of the 20th century. Novel is also represented by Alexandros Papadiamantis and Nikos Kazantzakis .

Notable Greek actors include Marika Kotopouli , Melina Mercouri , Ellie Lambeti , Academy Award winner Katina Paxinou , Dimitris Horn , Manos Katrakis and Irene Papas . Alekos Sakellarios , Michael Cacoyannis and Theo Angelopoulos are among the most important directors.

SCIENCE

See also: Greek mathematics , Ancient Greek medicine , Byzantine science , Greek scholars in the Renaissance , and List of Greek inventions and discoveries Aristarchus of Samos was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric system , in the 3rd century BC

The Greeks of the Classical and Hellenistic eras made seminal contributions to science and philosophy, laying the foundations of several western scientific traditions, such as astronomy , geography , historiography , mathematics , medicine and philosophy . The scholarly tradition of the Greek academies was maintained during Roman times with several academic institutions in Constantinople , Antioch , Alexandria and other centers of Greek learning, while Byzantine science was essentially a continuation of classical science. Greeks have a long tradition of valuing and investing in _paideia_ (education). _Paideia_ was one of the highest societal values in the Greek and Hellenistic world while the first European institution described as a university was founded in 5th century Constantinople and operated in various incarnations until the city\'s fall to the Ottomans in 1453. The University of Constantinople was Christian Europe's first secular institution of higher learning since no theological subjects were taught, and considering the original meaning of the world university as a corporation of students, the world's first university as well.

As of 2007, Greece had the eighth highest percentage of tertiary enrollment in the world (with the percentages for female students being higher than for male) while Greeks of the Diaspora are equally active in the field of education. Hundreds of thousands of Greek students attend western universities every year while the faculty lists of leading Western universities contain a striking number of Greek names. Notable modern Greek scientists of modern times include Dimitrios Galanos , Georgios Papanikolaou (inventor of the Pap test ), Nicholas Negroponte , Constantin Carathéodory , Manolis Andronikos , Michael Dertouzos , John Argyris , Panagiotis Kondylis , John Iliopoulos (2007 Dirac Prize for his contributions on the physics of the charm quark, a major contribution to the birth of the Standard Model, the modern theory of Elementary Particles), Joseph Sifakis (2007 Turing Award , the "Nobel Prize" of Computer Science), Christos Papadimitriou (2002 Knuth Prize , 2012 Gödel Prize ), Mihalis Yannakakis (2005 Knuth Prize ) and Dimitri Nanopoulos .

SYMBOLS

See also: Flag of Greece The flag of the Greek Orthodox Church is based on the coat of arms of the Palaiologoi , the last dynasty of the Byzantine Empire . Traditional Greek flag.

The most widely used symbol is the flag of Greece , which features nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white representing the nine syllables of the Greek national motto _ Eleftheria i Thanatos _ (Freedom or Death), which was the motto of the Greek War of Independence . The blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bears a white cross, which represents Greek Orthodoxy . The Greek flag is widely used by the Greek Cypriots , although Cyprus has officially adopted a neutral flag to ease ethnic tensions with the Turkish Cypriot minority (see flag of Cyprus ).

The pre-1978 (and first) flag of Greece, which features a Greek cross (_crux immissa quadrata_) on a blue background, is widely used as an alternative to the official flag, and they are often flown together. The national emblem of Greece features a blue escutcheon with a white cross surrounded by two laurel branches. A common design involves the current flag of Greece and the pre-1978 flag of Greece with crossed flagpoles and the national emblem placed in front.

Another highly recognizable and popular Greek symbol is the double-headed eagle , the imperial emblem of the last dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire and a common symbol in Asia Minor and, later, Eastern Europe . It is not part of the modern Greek flag or coat-of-arms, although it is officially the insignia of the Greek Army and the flag of the Church of Greece . It had been incorporated in the Greek coat of arms between 1925 and 1926.

SURNAMES AND PERSONAL NAMES

See also: Greek name and Ancient Greek personal names

Greek surnames began to appear in the 9th and 10th century, at first among ruling families, eventually supplanting the ancient tradition of using the father's name as disambiguator. Nevertheless, Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics, such those ending in the suffix _-opoulos_ or _-ides_, while others derive from trade professions, physical characteristics, or a location such as a town, village, or monastery. Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s, which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the nominative case . Occasionally (especially in Cyprus), some surnames end in _-ou_, indicating the genitive case of a patronymic name. Many surnames end in suffixes that are associated with a particular region, such as _-akis_ (Crete), _-eas_ or _-akos_ ( Mani Peninsula ), _-atos_ (island of Cephalonia ), and so forth. In addition to a Greek origin, some surnames have Turkish or Latin/Italian origin, especially among Greeks from Asia Minor and the Ionian Islands , respectively. Female surnames end in a vowel and are usually the genitive form of the corresponding males surname, although this usage is not followed in the diaspora, where the male version of the surname is generally used.

With respect to personal names, the two main influences are Christianity and classical Hellenism; ancient Greek nomenclatures were never forgotten but have become more widely bestowed from the 18th century onwards. As in antiquity, children are customarily named after their grandparents, with the first born male child named after the paternal grandfather, the second male child after the maternal grandfather, and similarly for female children. Personal names are often familiarized by a diminutive suffix, such as _-akis_ for male names and _-itsa_ or _-oula_ for female names. Greeks generally do not use middle names, instead using the genitive of the father's first name as a middle name. This usage has been passed on to the Russians and other East Slavs (otchestvo ).

SEA

Main article: Greek shipping Aristotle Onassis , the best known Greek shipping magnate.

The traditional Greek homelands have been the Greek peninsula and the Aegean Sea, Southern Italy ( Magna Graecia ), the Black Sea , the Ionian coasts of Asia Minor and the islands of Cyprus and Sicily . In Plato's _Phaidon _, Socrates remarks, "we (Greeks) live around a sea like frogs around a pond" when describing to his friends the Greek cities of the Aegean. This image is attested by the map of the Old Greek Diaspora, which corresponded to the Greek world until the creation of the Greek state in 1832. The sea and trade were natural outlets for Greeks since the Greek peninsula is rocky and does not offer good prospects for agriculture.

Notable Greek seafarers include people such as Pytheas of Marseilles, Scylax of Caryanda who sailed to Iberia and beyond, Nearchus , the 6th century merchant and later monk Cosmas Indicopleustes (_Cosmas who Sailed to India_) and the explorer of the Northwestern Passage, Apostolos Valerianos also known as Juan de Fuca . In later times, the Byzantine Greeks plied the sea-lanes of the Mediterranean and controlled trade until an embargo imposed by the Byzantine emperor on trade with the Caliphate opened the door for the later Italian pre-eminence in trade.

The Greek shipping tradition recovered during Ottoman rule when a substantial merchant middle class developed, which played an important part in the Greek War of Independence. Today, Greek shipping continues to prosper to the extent that Greece has the largest merchant fleet in the world, while many more ships under Greek ownership fly flags of convenience . The most notable shipping magnate of the 20th century was Aristotle Onassis , others being Yiannis Latsis , George Livanos , and Stavros Niarchos .

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

A study from 2013 for prediction of hair and eye colour from DNA of the Greek people showed that the self-reported phenotype frequencies according to hair and eye colour categories was as follows: 119 individuals – hair colour, 11 was blond , 45 dark blond/light brown, 49 dark brown, 3 brown red/auburn and 11 had black hair; eye colour, 13 with blue , 15 with intermediate (green, heterochromia) and 91 had brown eye colour.

Another study from 2012 included 150 dental school students from the University of Athens , and the results of the study showed that light hair colour (blonde/light ash brown) was predominant in 10.7% of the students. 36% had medium hair colour (light brown/medium darkest brown), 32% had darkest brown and 21% black (15.3 off black, 6% midnight black). In conclusion, the hair colour of young Greeks are mostly brown, ranging from light to dark brown with significant minorities having black and blonde hair. The same study also showed that the eye colour of the students was 14.6% blue/green, 28% medium (light brown) and 57.4% dark brown.

TIMELINE

The history of the Greek people is closely associated with the history of Greece, Cyprus, Constantinople, Asia Minor and the Black Sea. During the Ottoman rule of Greece, a number of Greek enclaves around the Mediterranean were cut off from the core, notably in Southern Italy, the Caucasus, Syria and Egypt. By the early 20th century, over half of the overall Greek -speaking population was settled in Asia Minor (now Turkey), while later that century a huge wave of migration to the United States, Australia, Canada and elsewhere created the modern Greek diaspora.

TIME EVENTS

C. 3RD MILLENNIUM BC Proto-Greek tribes from around the Southern Balkans/Aegean are generally thought to have arrived in the Greek mainland.

16TH CENTURY BC Decline of the Minoan civilization , possibly because of the eruption of Thera . Emergence of the Achaeans and formation of the Mycenaean civilization , the first Greek-speaking civilization.

13TH CENTURY BC First colonies established in Asia Minor .

11TH CENTURY BC The Mycenaean civilization ends in the presumed Dorian invasion . The Greek Dark Ages begin. Dorians move into peninsular Greece . Achaeans flee to Aegean Islands , Asia Minor and Cyprus .

9TH CENTURY BC Major colonization of Asia Minor and Cyprus by the Greek tribes.

8TH CENTURY BC First major colonies established in Sicily and Southern Italy . The first Pan-Hellenic festival, the Olympic games, is held in 776 BC. The emergence of Pan-Hellenism marks the ethnogenesis of the Greek nation.

6TH CENTURY BC Colonies established across the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea .

5TH CENTURY BC Defeat of the Persians and emergence of the Delian League in Ionia , the Black Sea and Aegean perimeter culminates in Athenian Empire and the Classical Age of Greece ; ends with Athens defeat by Sparta at the close of the Peloponnesian War

4TH CENTURY BC Rise of Theban power and defeat of the Spartans; Campaign of Alexander the Great ; Greek colonies established in newly founded cities of Ptolemaic Egypt and Asia.

2ND CENTURY BC Conquest of Greece by the Roman Empire . Migrations of Greeks to Rome .

4TH CENTURY AD Eastern Roman Empire . Migrations of Greeks throughout the Empire, mainly towards Constantinople .

7TH CENTURY Slavic conquest of several parts of Greece , Greek migrations to Southern Italy , Roman emperors capture main Slavic bodies and transfer them to Cappadocia . The Bosphorus is re-populated by Macedonian and Cypriot Greeks.

8TH CENTURY Roman dissolution of surviving Slavic settlements in Greece and full recovery of the Greek peninsula.

9TH CENTURY Retro-migrations of Greeks from all parts of the Empire (mainly from Southern Italy and Sicily) into parts of Greece that were depopulated by the Slavic Invasions (mainly western Peloponnesus and Thessaly).

13TH CENTURY Roman Empire dissolves, Constantinople taken by the Fourth Crusade ; becoming the capital of the Latin Empire . Liberated after a long struggle by the Empire of Nicaea, but fragments remain separated. Migrations between Asia Minor, Constantinople and mainland Greece take place.

15th century – 19th century Conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire . Greek diaspora into Europe begins. Ottoman settlements in Greece. Phanariot Greeks occupy high posts in Eastern European millets.

1830S Creation of the Modern Greek State . Immigration to the New World begins. Large-scale migrations from Constantinople and Asia Minor to Greece take place.

TIME EVENTS

1913 European Ottoman lands partitioned; unorganized migrations of Greeks, Bulgarians and Turks towards their respective states.

1914–1923 Greek genocide ; hundreds of thousands of Ottoman Greeks are estimated to have died during this period.

1919 Treaty of Neuilly ; Greece and Bulgaria exchange populations, with some exceptions.

1922 The Destruction of Smyrna (modern-day Izmir) more than 40 thousand Greeks killed; end of significant Greek presence in Asia Minor.

1923 Treaty of Lausanne ; Greece and Turkey agree to exchange populations with limited exceptions of the Greeks in Constantinople , Imbros , Tenedos and the Muslim minority of Western Thrace . 1.5 million of Asia Minor and Pontic Greeks settle in Greece, and some 450 thousands of Muslims settle in Turkey.

1940S Hundred of thousands Greeks died from starvation during the Axis Occupation of Greece

1947 Communist regime in Romania begins evictions of the Greek community, approx. 75,000 migrate.

1948 Greek Civil War . Tens of thousands of Greek communists and their families flee into Eastern Bloc nations. Thousands settle in Tashkent .

1950S Massive emigration of Greeks to West Germany , the United States, Australia, Canada, and other countries.

1955 Istanbul Pogrom against Greeks. Exodus of Greeks from the city accelerates; less than 2,000 remain today.

1958 Large Greek community in Alexandria flees Nasser\'s regime in Egypt .

1960S Republic of Cyprus created as an independent state under Greek, Turkish and British protection. Economic emigration continues.

1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus . Almost all Greeks living in Northern Cyprus flee to the south and the United Kingdom.

1980S Many civil war refugees were allowed to re-emigrate to Greece. Retro-migration of Greeks from Germany begins.

1990S Collapse of Soviet Union . Approximately 340,000 ethnic Greeks migrate from Georgia, Armenia, southern Russia, and Albania to Greece.

EARLY 2000S Some statistics show the beginning of a trend of reverse migration of Greeks from the United States and Australia.

2010S Over 200,000 people, particularly young skilled individuals , emigrate to other EU states due to high unemployment (see also Greek government-debt crisis ).

SEE ALSO

* Ancient Greece portal * Greece portal

* Antiochian Greeks * Arvanites * Cappadocian Greeks * Caucasian Greeks * Greek Cypriots

* Greek Diaspora * Griko people * Macedonians (Greeks) * Maniots * Greek Muslims

* Northern Epirotes * Pelasgians * Pontic Greeks * Romaniotes * Sarakatsani

* List of ancient Greeks * List of Greeks * List of Greek Americans

NOTES

* ^ Though there is a range of interpretations; Carl Blegen dates the arrival of the Greeks around 1900 BC, John Caskey believes that there were two waves of immigrants and Robert Drews places the event as late as 1600 BC. A variety of more theories has also been supported, but there is a general consensus that the coming of the Greek tribes occurred around 2100 BC. * ^ While Greek authorities signed the agreement legalizing the population exchange this was done on the insistence of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and after a million Greeks had already been expelled from Asia Minor (Gilbar 1997 , p. 8).

CITATIONS

* ^ Maratou-Alipranti 2013 , p. 196: "The Greek diaspora remains large, consisting of up to 4 million people globally." * ^ Clogg 2013 , p. 228: " Greeks of the diaspora, settled in some 141 countries, were held to number 7 million although it is not clear how this figure was arrived at or what criteria were used to define Greek ethnicity, while the population of the homeland, according to the 1991 census, amounted to some 10.25 million." * ^ "2011 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). _Hellenic Statistical Authority_. 12 September 2014. The Resident Population of Greece is 10.816.286, of which 5.303.223 male (49,0%) and 5.513.063 female (51,0%) ... The total number of permanent residents of Greece with foreign citizenship during the Census was 912.000. * ^ "Statistical Data on Immigrants in Greece: An Analytic Study of Available Data and Recommendations for Conformity with European Union Standards" (PDF). _Archive of European Integration (AEI)_. University of Pittsburgh. 15 November 2004. Retrieved 18 May 2016. The Census recorded 762.191 persons normally resident in Greece and without Greek citizenship, constituting around 7% of total population. Of these, 48.560 are EU or EFTA nationals; there are also 17.426 Cypriots with privileged status. * ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2011–2013 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". _American FactFinder_. U.S. Department of Commerce: United States Census Bureau. 2013. * ^ "U.S. Relations with Greece". United States Department of State . 10 March 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016. Today, an estimated three million Americans resident in the United States claim Greek descent. This large, well-organized community cultivates close political and cultural ties with Greece. * ^ Statistical Service (2003–2016). "Preliminary Results of the Census of Population, 2011". Republic of Cyprus, Ministry of Finance, Statistical Service. * ^ Cole 2011 , Yiannis Papadakis, "Cypriots, Greek", pp. 92–95 * ^ "Where are the Greek communities of the world?". _themanews.com_. Protothemanews.com. 2013. * ^ "United Kingdom: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 9 July 2013. There are between 40 and 45 thousand Greeks residing permanently in the UK, and the Greek Orthodox Church has a strong presence in the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain ... There is a significant Greek presence of Greek students in tertiary education in the UK. A large Cypriot community – numbering 250–300 thousand – rallies round the National Federation of Cypriots in Great Britain and the Association of Greek Orthodox Communities of Great Britain. * ^ "Statistical Yearbook Germany Extract Chapter 2: Population, Families and Living Arrangements in Germany". _Statistisches Bundesamt _. 14 March 2013. p. 21. * ^ "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". _ Australian Bureau of Statistics _. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2014. * ^ "Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". _Statistics Canada_. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jeffries 2002 , p. 69: "It is difficult to know how many ethnic Greeks there are in Albania. The Greek government, it is typically claimed, says there are around 300,000 ethnic Greeks in Albania, but most Western estimates are around the 200,000 mark ..." * ^ "Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года в отношении демографических и социально-экономических характеристик отдельных национальностей". * ^ "Ukraine: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 4 February 2011. There is a significant Greek presence in southern and eastern Ukraine, which can be traced back to ancient Greek and Byzantine settlers. Ukrainian citizens of Greek descent amount to 91,000 people, although their number is estimated to be much higher by the Federation of Greek communities of Mariupol. * ^ "Italy: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 9 July 2013. The Greek Italian community numbers some 30,000 and is concentrated mainly in central Italy. The age-old presence in Italy of Italians of Greek descent – dating back to Byzantine and Classical times – is attested to by the Griko dialect, which is still spoken in the Magna Graecia region. This historically Greek-speaking villages are Condofuri, Galliciano, Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Bova and Bova Marina, which are in the Calabria region (the capital of which is Reggio). The Grecanic region, including Reggio, has a population of some 200,000, while speakers of the Griko dialect number fewer that 1,000 persons. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Grecia Salentina" (in Italian). Unione dei Comuni della Grecìa Salentina. 2016. La popolazione complessiva dell'Unione è di 54278 residenti così distribuiti (Dati Istat al 31° dicembre 2005. Comune Popolazione Calimera 7351 Carpignano Salentino 3868 Castrignano dei Greci 4164 Corigliano d'Otranto 5762 Cutrofiano 9250 Martano 9588 Martignano 1784 Melpignano 2234 Soleto 5551 Sternatia 2583 Zollino 2143 Totale 54278). * ^ _A_ _B_ Bellinello 1998 , p. 53: "Le attuali colonie Greche calabresi; La Grecìa calabrese si inscrive nel massiccio aspromontano e si concentra nell'ampia e frastagliata valle dell'Amendolea e nelle balze più a oriente, dove sorgono le fiumare dette di S. Pasquale, di Palizzi e Sidèroni e che costituiscono la Bovesia vera e propria. Compresa nei territori di cinque comuni (Bova Superiore, Bova Marina, Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Condofuri), la Grecia si estende per circa 233 kmq. La popolazione anagrafica complessiva è di circa 14.000 unità." * ^ "South Africa: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 4 February 2011. It is difficult to determine the precise number of Greeks due to constant comings and goings, although the estimated figure is above 45,000. * ^ "The Greek Community". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. * ^ "France: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 9 July 2013. Some 15,000 Greeks reside in the wider region of Paris, Lille and Lyon. In the region of Southern France, the Greek community numbers some 20,000. * ^ "Argentina: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 9 July 2013. It is estimated that some 20,000 to 30,000 persons of Greek origin currently reside in Argentina, and there are Greek communities in the wider region of Buenos Aires. * ^ _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_ (PDF). 9 March 2011 http://cizinci.cz/repository/2240/file/Rekove2.pdf. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ "Belgium: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 28 January 2011. Some 35,000 Greeks reside in Belgium. Official Belgian data numbers Greeks in the country at 17,000, but does not take into account Greeks who have taken Belgian citizenship or work for international organizations and enterprises. * ^ "Georgia: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 31 January 2011. The Greek community of Georgia is currently estimated at 15,000 people, mostly elderly people living in the Tsalkas area. * ^ "Sweden: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 4 February 2011. The Greek community in Sweden consists of approximately 12,000 – 15,000 Greeks who are permanent inhabitants, included in Swedish society and active in various sectors: science, arts, literature, culture, media, education, business, and politics. * ^ "Kazakhstan: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 3 February 2011. There are between 10,000 and 12,000 ethnic Greeks living in Kazakhstan, organized in several communities. * ^ "Switzerland: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 10 December 2015. The Greek community in Switzerland is estimated to number some 11,000 persons (of a total of 1.5 million foreigners residing in the country.

* ^ " Greeks in Uzbekistan". _Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst_. The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute. 21 June 2000. Currently there are about 9,500 Greeks living in Uzbekistan, with 6,500 living in Tashkent. * ^ "Romania: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 6 December 2013. The Greek Romanian community numbers some 10,000, and there are many Greeks working in established Greek enterprises in Romania. * ^ Asatryan & Arakelova 2002 , p. 8. * ^ "Mexico: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 9 July 2013. There are about 1,500 families of Greek origin living in Mexico and they are organised in three Greek associations, in Mexico City, Guadalajaras, and Sinaloa. Greece has Honorary Consulates in Merida and Monterey. * ^ "Austria: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 28 January 2011. Today, the Greeks residing permanently in Austria are graduates of Austrian universities and number some 5,000, half of whom are Greek citizens. * ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Turkey: Rum Orthodox Christians". Minority Rights Group (MRG). 2005. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014. * ^ "Pontic". _Ethnologue: Languages of the World_. SIL International. 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. * ^ "Hungary: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 31 January 2011. There are some 5,000 Greek Hungarians in Hungary, and they have received official minority recognition. * ^ "Bulgaria: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 28 January 2011. There are some 28,500 persons of Greek origin and citizenship residing in Bulgaria. This number includes approximately 15,000 Sarakatsani, 2,500 former political refugees, 8,000 "old Greeks", 2,000 university students and 1,000 professionals and their families. * ^ "Poland: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 4 February 2011. The Greek Polish community is approximately 3,000 strong, with half living in the city of Wroclaw in south east Poland. * ^ "2013 Census ethnic group profiles: Greek". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ "Syria: VI. The Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. December 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. There are about 1,500 people of Greek descent, most of whom have Syrian nationality, and live mainly in Aleppo Syria's main trade and financial centre and Damascus. * ^ "Chile: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". _Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs_. 9 July 2013. There is a very energetic, albeit small Greek community in Chile, numbering some 1,500 people. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Roberts 2007 , pp. 171–172, 222. * ^ Latacz 2004 , pp. 159, 165–166. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Sutton 1996 . * ^ Beaton 1996 , pp. 1–25. * ^ CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. * ^ Georgiev 1981 , p. 156: "The Proto-Greek region included Epirus, approximately up to _Αυλών_ in the north including Paravaia, Tymphaia, Athamania, Dolopia, Amphilochia, and Acarnania), west and north Thessaly (Hestiaiotis, Perrhaibia, Tripolis, and Pieria), i.e. more or less the territory of contemporary northwestern Greece)." * ^ Guibernau & Hutchinson 2004 , p. 23: "Indeed, Smith emphasizes that the myth of divine election sustains the continuity of cultural identity, and, in that regard, has enabled certain pre-modern communities such as the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks to survive and persist over centuries and millennia (Smith 1993: 15–20)." * ^ Smith 1999 , p. 21: "It emphasizes the role of myths, memories and symbols of ethnic chosenness, trauma, and the 'golden age' of saints, sages, and heroes in the rise of modern nationalism among the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks—the archetypal diaspora peoples." * ^ Bryce 2006 , p. 91 * ^ Cadogan & Langdon Caskey 1986 , p. 125 * ^ Bryce 2006 , p. 92 * ^ Drews 1994 , p. 21 * ^ Mallory & Adams 1997 , p. 243 * ^ "The Greeks". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. US: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition. * ^ Chadwick, John (1976). _The Mycenaean world_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 0-521-29037-6 . * ^ Vladimir I. Georgiev , for example, placed Proto-Greek in northwestern Greece during the Late Neolithic period. (Georgiev 1981 , p. 192: "_Late Neolithic Period_: in northwestern Greece the Proto- Greek language had already been formed: this is the original home of the Greeks.") * ^ Gray Atkinson & Gray 2006 , p. 102. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Linear A and Linear B". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 3 March 2016. * ^ Castleden 2005 , p. 228. * ^ Tartaron 2013 , p. 28; Schofield 2006 , pp. 71–72; Panayotou 2007 , pp. 417–426. * ^ Hall 2014 , p. 43. * ^ Chadwick 1976 , p. 176. * ^ _A_ _B_ Castleden 2005 , p. 2. * ^ Hansen 2004 , p. 7; Podzuweit 1982 , pp. 65–88. * ^ Castleden 2005 , p. 235; Dietrich 1974 , p. 156. * ^ Burckhardt 1999 , p. 168: "The establishment of these Panhellenic sites, which yet remained exclusively Hellenic, was a very important element in the growth and self-consciousness of Hellenic nationalism; it was uniquely decisive in breaking down enmity between tribes, and remained the most powerful obstacle to fragmentation into mutually hostile _poleis_." * ^ Zuwiyya 2011 , pp. 142–143; Budin 2009 , pp. 66–67. * ^ Morgan 1990 , pp. 1–25, 148–190. * ^ "Ancient Greek Civilization". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 18 February 2016. 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Philips campaign had the slogan of "freeing the Greeks" in Asia and "punishing the Persians" for their past sacrileges during their own invasion (a century and a half earlier) of Greece. No doubt, Philip wanted glory and plunder. * ^ Brice 2012 , pp. 281–286. * ^ "Alexander the Great". _Columbia Encyclopedia_. United States: Columbia University Press. 2008. Online Edition. * ^ Green 2008 , p. xiii. * ^ Morris, Ian (December 2005). "Growth of the Greek Colonies in the First Millennium BC" (PDF). _Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics_. Princeton/Stanford University. * ^ Wood 2001 , p. 8. * ^ _A_ _B_ Boardman, Griffin & Murray 1991 , p. 364 * ^ Arun, Neil (7 August 2007). "Alexander\'s Gulf outpost uncovered". BBC News. * ^ Grant 1990 , Introduction. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Hellenistic age". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 27 May 2015. 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AD 300–c. 1453), Population and languages, Emerging Greek identity". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition. * ^ See for example Anthony Bryer, 'The Empire of Trebizond and the Pontus' (Variourum, 1980), and his 'Migration and Settlement in the Caucasus and Anatolia' (Variourum, 1988), and other works listed in Caucasian Greeks and Pontic Greeks . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Mazower 2002 , pp. 105–107. * ^ "History of Europe, The Romans". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition. * ^ Mavrocordatos, Nicholaos (1800). _Philotheou Parerga_. Grēgorios Kōnstantas (Original from Harvard University Library). Γένος μεν ημίν των άγαν Ελλήνων * ^ "Phanariote". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2016. Online Edition. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "History of Greece, Ottoman Empire, The merchant middle class". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. 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In the Iliad, the names "Achaeans" and "Danaans" and "Argives" are used synonymously in the sense of Panhellenes = "all Hellenes" = "all Greeks."" * ^ Herodotus . _Histories_, 7.94 and 8.73. * ^ Homer. _ Iliad _, 2.681–685 * ^ _A_ _B_ The Parian Marble, Entry #6: "From when Hellen Deuc became king of otis and those previously called Graekoi were named Hellenes." * ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus. _Bibliotheca _. * ^ _A_ _B_ Aristotle. _Meteorologica_, 1.14: "The deluge in the time of Deucalion, for instance took place chiefly in the Greek world and in it especially about ancient Hellas, the country about Dodona and the Achelous." * ^ Homer . _Iliad_, 16.233–16.235: "King Zeus, lord of Dodona ... you who hold wintry Dodona in your sway, where your prophets the Selloi dwell around you." * ^ Hesiod. _Catalogue of Women_, Fragment 5. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Adrados 2005 , pp. xii, 3–5. * ^ Browning 1983 , p. vii: "The Homeric poems were first written down in more or less their present form in the seventh century B.C. Since then Greek has enjoyed a continuous tradition down to the present day. Change there has certainly been. But there has been no break like that between Latin and Romance languages. Ancient Greek is not a foreign language to the Greek of today as Anglo-Saxon is to the modern Englishman. The only other language which enjoys comparable continuity of tradition is Chinese." * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Smith 1991 , pp. 29–32. * ^ Isaac 2004 , p. 504: "Autochthony, being an Athenian idea and represented in many Athenian texts, is likely to have influenced a broad public of readers, wherever Greek literature was read." * ^ Anna Comnena. _ Alexiad _, Books 1–15. * ^ Papagrigorakis, Kousoulis & Synodinos 2014 , p. 237: "Interpreted with caution, the craniofacial morphology in modern and ancient Greeks indicates elements of ethnic group continuation within the unavoidable multicultural mixtures." * ^ Argyropoulos, Sassouni ">(PDF) (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 2001. 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* Isaac, Benjamin H. (2004). _The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity_. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12598-8 . * Jeffries, Ian (2002). _Eastern Europe at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century: A Guide to the Economies in Transition_. London and New York: Routledge (Taylor & Francis). ISBN 978-0-415-23671-3 . * Kaldellis, Anthony (2007). _Hellenism in Byzantium: The Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-87688-5 . * Kardasis, Vassilis (2001). _Diaspora Merchants in the Black Sea: The Greeks in Southern Russia, 1775–1861_. Lanham and Oxford: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0245-1 . * Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich; Constable, Giles (1982). _People and Power in Byzantium: An Introduction to Modern Byzantine Studies_. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0-88402-103-3 . * Kenyon, Sherrilyn (2005). _The Writer\'s Digest Character Naming Sourcebook_. Cincinnati, OH: Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 1-58297-295-8 . * Klein, Holgen A. (2004). "Eastern Objects and Western Desires: Relics and Reliquaries between Byzantium and the West". _Dumbarton Oaks Papers_. 58: 283–314. JSTOR 3591389 . doi :10.2307/3591389 . * Koliopoulos, John S.; Veremis, Thanos M. (2002). _Greece: The Modern Sequel: From 1831 to the Present_. New York, NY: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-4767-1 . * Koliopoulos, Giannes (1987). _Brigands with a Cause: Brigandage and Irredentism in Modern Greece, 1821–1912_. Oxford: Clarendon. * Konstan, David (2001). "To Hellenikon Ethnos: Ethnicity and the Construction of Ancient Greek Identity". In Malkin, Irad. _Ancient Perceptions of Greek Ethnicity_. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies, Trustees for Harvard University. pp. 29–50. ISBN 0-674-00662-3 . * Lagouvardos, Panagiotis E.; Tsamali, Ioana; Papadopoulou, Christine; Polyzois, Gregory (2012). "Tooth, Skin, Hair and Eye Colour Interrelationships in Greek Young Adults". _Odontology_. The Society of The Nippon Dental University. 101: 75–83. doi :10.1007/s10266-012-0058-1 . * Laliotou, Ioanna (2004). "Greek Diaspora". In Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R.; Skoggard, Ian. _Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume II: Diaspora Communities_. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. ISBN 0-306-48321-1 . * Latacz, Joachim (2004). _Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926308-0 . * Levene, Mark (1998). "Creating a Modern "Zone of Genocide": The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923". _Holocaust and Genocide Studies_. 12 (3): 393–433. doi :10.1093/hgs/12.3.393 . * Lucore, Sandra K. (2009). "Archimedes, the North Baths at Morgantina, and Early Developments in Vaulted Construction". In Kosso, Cynthia; Scott, Anne. _The Nature and Function of Water, Baths, Bathing and Hygiene from Antiquity through the Renaissance_. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. pp. 43–60. ISBN 90-04-17357-9 . * Mackridge, Peter (1990). " Katharevousa (c. 1800–1974): An Obituary for an Official Language". In Sarafis, Marion; Eve, Marion. _Background to Contemporary Greece (Volume 1)_. London: The Merlin Press, Limited. pp. 25–52. ISBN 0-85036-393-4 . * Magdalino, Paul (1991). _Tradition and Transformation in Medieval Byzantium_. Aldershot: Variorum. ISBN 0-86078-295-6 . * Makrides, Vasilios (2009). _Hellenic Temples and Christian Churches: A Concise History of the Religious Cultures of Greece from Antiquity to the Present_. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-9568-4 . * Mango, Cyril A. (2002). _The Oxford History of Byzantium_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814098-3 . * Mango, Cyril A. (1986). _The Art of the Byzantine Empire, 312-1453: Sources and Documents_. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6627-5 . * Maratou-Alipranti, Laura (2013). "5 Greece: From Emigration to Immigration and the Problems of Inter-Ethnic Relations". In Roberts, Lance W.; Ferguson, Barry; Bös, Mathias; Von Below, Susanne. _Multicultural Variations: Social Incorporation in Europe and North America_. Montreal & Kingston, London, Ithaca: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 196–232. ISBN 978-0-7735-8905-6 . * Mazower, Mark (2000). _The Balkans: A Short History_. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 0-8129-6621-X . * McCabe, Ina Baghdiantz; Harlaftis, Gelina (2005). _Diaspora Entrepreneurial Networks: Four Centuries of History_. Oxford and New York: Berg. ISBN 978-1-85973-875-7 . * Milburn, Robert (1988). _Early Christian Art and Architecture_. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07412-5 . * Morgan, Catherine (1990). _Athletes and Oracles: The Transformation of Olympia and Delphi in the Eighth Century BC_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-37451-4 . * Nagy, Gregory (2014). "The Heroic and the Anti-Heroic in Classical Greek Civilization". Cambridge, MA: President and Fellows of Harvard College. * Norwich, John Julius (1998). _A Short History of Byzantium_. Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-025960-5 . * Osborne, Robin (1998). _Archaic and Classical Greek Art_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-284202-1 . * Özkırımlı, Umut; Sofos, Spyros A. (2008). _Tormented by History: Nationalism in Greece and Turkey_. London: Hurst Publishers Limited. ISBN 1-85065-899-4 . * Panayotou, A. (2007). "4 Arcado-Cypriot". In Christidis, A.-F.; Arapopoulou, Maria; Chritē, Maria. _A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity_. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 786–791. * Papadakis, Yiannis (1995). "4. Nationalist Imaginings of War in Cyprus". In Hinde, Robert A.; Watson, Helen. _War, a Cruel Necessity?: The Bases of Institutionalized Violence_. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. pp. 54–67. ISBN 1-85043-824-2 . * Papadakis, Yiannis; Peristianis, Nicos; Welz, Gisela (2006). "Introduction – Modernity, History, and Conflict in Divided Cyprus: An Overview". In Papadakis, Nicos; Peristianis, Yiannis; Welz, Gisela. _Divided Cyprus: Modernity, History, and an Island in Conflict_. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 1–29. ISBN 0-253-21851-9 . * Papagrigorakis, M.J.; Kousoulis, A.A.; Synodinos, P.N. (2014). "Craniofacial Morphology in Ancient and Modern Greeks through 4,000 Years". _Anthropologischer Anzeiger_. 71 (3): 237–257. PMID 25065118 . doi :10.1127/0003-5548/2014/0277 . * Patterson, Cynthia (1998). _The Family in Greek History_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00568-6 . * Pletcher, Kenneth, ed. (2013). _Explorers of Antiquity: From Alexander the Great to Marco Polo_. New York, NY: Britannica Educational Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62275-027-6 . * Podzuweit, Christian (1982). "Die mykenische Welt und Troja". In Hänsel, B. _Südosteuropa zwischen 1600 und 1000 v. Chr._ (in German). Berlin: Prahistorische Archäologie in Sudosteuropa. pp. 65–88. * Pollitt, Jerome Jordan (1972). _Art and Experience in Classical Greece_. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09662-6 . * Postan, Michael Moïssey; Miller, Edward; Postan, Cynthia (1987). _The Cambridge Economic History of Europe (Volume 2)_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-08709-0 . * Puri, Baij Nath (1987). _Buddhism in Central Asia_. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0372-8 . * Renfrew, Colin (2003). "Time Depth, Convergence Theory, and Innovation in Proto-Indo-European: 'Old Europe' as a PIE Linguistic Area". In Bammesberger, Alfred; Vennemann, Theo. _Languages in Prehistoric Europe_. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmBH. pp. 17–48. ISBN 978-3-8253-1449-1 . * Rezun, Miron (2001). _Europe\'s Nightmare: The Struggle for Kosovo_. London and Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97072-8 . * Roberts, J.M. (2007). _The New Penguin History of the World_. London and New York: Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 0-14-103042-9 . * Robins, Robert Henry (1993). _The Byzantine Grammarians: Their Place in History_. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-013574-4 . * Runciman, Steven (1970). _The Last Byzantine Renaissance_. London and New York: Cambridge University Press. * Schaller, Dominik J.; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman Genocides: The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish Population and Extermination Policies - Introduction". _Journal of Genocide Research_. 10 (1): 7–14. doi :10.1080/14623520801950820 . * Schofield, Louise (2006). _The Mycenaeans_. Los Angeles, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 978-0-89236-867-9 . * Ševčenko, Ihor (2002). "11 Palaiologan Learning". In Mango, Cyril. _The Oxford History of Byzantium_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 284–293. ISBN 0-19-814098-3 . * Shahid, Irfan (1972). "The Iranian Factor in Byzantium during the Reign of Heraclius". _Dumbarton Oaks Papers_. Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. 26: 293–320. JSTOR 1291324 . doi :10.2307/1291324 . * Smith, Anthony D. (1991). _National Identity_. Reno: University of Nevada Press. ISBN 0-87417-204-7 . * Smith, Anthony D. (2003). _Chosen Peoples: Sacred Sources of National Identity_. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-210017-3 . * Smith, Anthony D. (1999). _Myths and Memories of the Nation_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829534-0 . * Sutton, Susan (1996). "Greeks". _Encyclopedia of World Cultures_. The Gale Group, Inc. * Sofos, Spyros A.; Özkırımlı, Umut (2008). _Tormented by History: Nationalism in Greece and Turkey_. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-70052-8 . * Stansbury-O'Donnell, Mark D. (2015). _A History of Greek Art_. Malden and Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4443-5014-2 . * Steinberger, Peter J. (2000). _Readings in Classical Political Thought_. Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-87220-512-3 . * Tarbell, Frank Bigelow (1907) . _A History of Greek Art_. London: MacMillan and Company, Limited. * Tatakes, Vasileios N.; Moutafakis, Nicholas J. (2003). _Byzantine Philosophy_. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett. ISBN 0-87220-563-0 . * Tatz, Colin (2003). _With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide_. London and New York: Verso. ISBN 978-1-85984-550-9 . * Tartaron, Thomas F. (2013). _Maritime Networks in the Mycenaean World_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-06713-4 . * Tomić, Olga Mišeska (2006). _Balkan Sprachbund Morpho-Syntactic Features_. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 1-4020-4487-9 . * Tonkin, Elizabeth; Chapman, Malcolm Kenneth; McDonald, Maryon (1989). _History and Ethnicity_. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00056-4 . * Üngör, Uğur Ümit (March 2008). "On Young Turk Social Engineering in Eastern Turkey from 1913 to 1950". _Journal of Genocide Research_. 10 (1): 15–39. doi :10.1080/14623520701850278 . * van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1998). _Hellenism-Judaism-Christianity: Essays on Their Interaction_. Leuven: Peeters Publishers. ISBN 90-429-0578-6 . * Voegelin, Eric; Moulakis, Athanasios (1997). _History of Political Ideas: Hellenism, Rome, and Early Christianity_. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0-8262-1126-7 . * Vryonis, Speros (2005). _The Mechanism of Catastrophe: The Turkish Pogrom of September 6–7, 1955, and the Destruction of the Greek Community of Istanbul_. New York: Greekworks.com. ISBN 978-0-9747660-3-4 . * Walsh, Susan et. al. (January 2013). "The HIrisPlex System for Simultaneous Prediction of Hair and Eye Colour from DNA". _Forensic Science International: Genetics_. 7 (1): 98–115. doi :10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.07.005 . * Wickham, Chris (2005). _Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean 400-800_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926449-X . * Withey, Lynne (1989) . _Voyages of Discovery: Captain Cook and the Exploration of the Pacific_. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06564-6 . * Winford, Donald (2003). _An Introduction to Contact Linguistics_. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21251-5 . * Winstedt, Eric Otto (1909). _The Christian Topography of Cosmas Indicopleustes_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Wood, Michael (2001) . _In the Footsteps of Alexander The Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia_. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23192-9 . * Yotopoulos-Marangopoulos, Alice (2001). "Non-governmental Organizations and Human Rights in Today's World". In Sicilianos, Linos-Alexandre. _The Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights: Twenty Years of Activity_. Athens and Komotini: Ant. N. Sakkoulas Publishers. pp. 21–38. ISBN 90-411-1672-9 . * Zoch, Paul (2000). _Ancient Rome: An Introductory History_. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3287-7 . * Zuwiyya, David (2011). _A Companion to Alexander Literature in the Middle Ages_. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-18345-2 .

FURTHER READING

MYCENAEAN GREEKS

* Dickinson, Oliver (1977). _The Origins of Mycenaean Civilization_. Götenberg: Paul Aströms Förlag. * Dickinson, Oliver (December 1999). _Invasion, Migration and the Shaft Graves_. _Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies_. 43. pp. 97–107. doi :10.1111/j.2041-5370.1999.tb00480.x . * Dickinson, Oliver (2006). _The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age: Continuity and Change between the Twelfth and Eighth Centuries BC_. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-96836-9 . * Forsén, Jeannette (1992). _The Twilight of the Early Helladics_. Partille, Sweden: Paul Aströms Förlag. ISBN 91-7081-031-1 . * Mallory, James; Adams, Douglas (1997). _Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture_. New York: Routledge. ISBN 1-884964-98-2 . * Mylonas, George Emmanuel (1966). _Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age_. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. * Tandy, David W. (2001). _Prehistory and History: Ethnicity, Class and Political Economy_. Montréal, Québec, Canada: Black Rose Books Limited. ISBN 1-55164-188-7 .

CLASSICAL GREEKS

* Burkert, Walter (1987) . _Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical_. Oxford and Malden: Blackwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-118-72499-6 . * Cartledge, Paul (2011). _Ancient Greece: A Very Short Introduction_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-960134-9 . * Cartledge, Paul (2002). _The Greeks: A Portrait of Self and Others_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280388-3 . * Freeman, Charles (2014). _Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean_ (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-965192-4 . * Finkelberg, Margalit (2006). _ Greeks and Pre-Greeks: Aegean Prehistory and Greek Heroic Tradition_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-44836-9 . * Hall, Jonathan M. (2002). _Hellenicity: Between Ethnicity and Culture_. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31329-8 . * Hall, Jonathan M. (2000). _Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity_. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78999-0 . * MacKendrick, Paul Lachlan (1981). _The Greek Stones Speak: The Story of Archaeology in Greek Lands_. New York and London: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-30111-7 . * Malkin, Irad (1998). _The Returns of Odysseus: Colonization and Ethnicity_. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21185-5 . * Walbank, Frank W. (1985). _Selected Papers: Studies in Greek and Roman History and Historiography_. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30752-X .

HELLENISTIC GREEKS

* Chamoux, François (2002). _Hellenistic Civilization_. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing . ISBN 0-631-22241-3 . * Bilde, P.; Engberg-Pedersen, T.; Hannestad, L.; Zahle, J., eds. (1997). _Conventional Values of the Hellenistic Greeks (Studies in Hellenistic Civilization 8)_. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. ISBN 87-7288-555-6 .

BYZANTINE GREEKS

* Ahrweiler, Hélène; Laiou, Angeliki E. (1998). _Studies on the Internal Diaspora of the Byzantine Empire_. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. ISBN 0-88402-247-1 . * Ahrweiler, Hélène (1975). _L\'idéologie politique de l\'Empire byzantin_. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. * Harris, Jonathan (2007). _Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium (Hambledon Continuum)_. London: Hambledon & London. ISBN 1-84725-179-X . * Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich, ed. (1991). _The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium_. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8 . * Runciman, Steven (1966). _Byzantine Civilisation_. London: Edward Arnold (publisher) Limited. ISBN 1-56619-574-8 . * Toynbee, Arnold J. (1973). _Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-215253-X .

OTTOMAN GREEKS

* Davis, Jack E.; Zarinebaf, Fariba; Bennet, John (2005). _A Historical and Economic Geography of Ottoman Greece: The Southwestern Morea in the 18th Century_. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. ISBN 0-87661-534-5 . * Davis, Jack E.; Davies, Siriol (2007). _Between Venice and Istanbul: Colonial Landscapes in Early Modern Greece_. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. ISBN 0-87661-540-X . * Gondicas, Dimitri; Issawi, Charles Philip (1999). _Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism: Politics, Economy, and Society in the Nineteenth Century_. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-096-0 .

* Lampe, John R.; Jackson, Marvin R. (1982). _Balkan Economic History, 1550–1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations_. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-30368-0 .

MODERN GREEKS

* Herzfeld, Michael (1982). _Ours Once More: Folklore, Ideology, and the Making of Modern Greece_. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-76018-3 . * Holden, David (1972). _ Greece without Columns: The Making of the Modern Greeks_. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-397-00779-5 . * Karakasidou, Anastasia N. (1997). _Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood: Passages to Nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870–1990_. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-42494-4 . * Mackridge, Peter; Yannakakis, Eleni (1997). _Ourselves and Others: The Development of a Greek Macedonian Cultural Identity since 1912_. Oxford, United Kingdom: Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-85973-138-4 . * Mazower, Mark, ed. (2000). _After The War Was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation and State in Greece, 1943–1960_. Priceton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05842-3 . * Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1981). _The Greeks and Their Heritages_. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. * Trudgill, Peter (2002). _Sociolinguistic Variation and Change_. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1515-6 . * Zacharia, Katerina (2008). _Hellenisms: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity_. Surrey, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing, Limited. ISBN 978-0-7546-6525-0 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutGREEKSat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Learning resources from Wikiversity

Omogenia

* World Council of Hellenes Abroad (SAE), Umbrella Diaspora Organization

Religious

* Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople * Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria * Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch * Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem * Church of Cyprus * Church of Greece

Academic

* Transnational Communities Programme at the University of Oxford, includes papers on the Greek Diaspora * Greeks on

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