Domestication of the horse
Nordic Bronze Age
Painted Grey Ware
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Peoples and societies
Religion and mythology
Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European
Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
Journal of Indo-European Studies
Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch
Indo-European Etymological Dictionary
Greeks or Hellenes (/ˈhɛliːnz/; Greek: Έλληνες, Éllines
[ˈelines]) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern
Albania, Italy, Turkey,
Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries
surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant
diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.
Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on
the shores of the
Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek
people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where
Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until
the early 20th century,
Greeks were distributed between the Greek
peninsula, the western coast of
Asia Minor, the
Black Sea coast,
Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and
Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent
with the borders of the
Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and
Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The
cultural centers of the
Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica,
Alexandria, Smyrna, and
Constantinople at various periods.
Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern
Greek state and Cyprus. The
Greek genocide and population exchange
Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek
Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be
found from southern
Italy to the Caucasus and southern
Ukraine and in the
Greek diaspora communities in a number of other
countries. Today, most
Greeks are officially registered as members of
Greek Orthodox Church.
Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts,
exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music,
mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports,
both historically and contemporarily.
1.5 Roman Empire
1.6 Byzantine Empire
1.7 Ottoman Empire
3.6 Surnames and personal names
5 Physical appearance
7 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Further information: History of Greece
A reconstruction of the 3rd millennium BC "
Proto-Greek area", by
Vladimir I. Georgiev.
Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch
within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They
are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D.
Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people".
Further information: Proto-
Greek language and List of Ancient Greek
Greeks probably arrived at the area now called Greece, in
the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd
millennium BC.[note 1] The sequence of migrations into the
Greek mainland during the
2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on
the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves
centuries later and are therefore subject to some uncertainties. There
were at least two migrations, the first being the
Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean
Greece by the 16th century
BC, and the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th
century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended
from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods,
the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late
Bronze Age and the Doric
Bronze Age collapse.
An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir
Georgiev, who places
Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern
Early Helladic period (3rd millennium BC), i.e. towards the end of
the European Neolithic. Linguists
Russell Gray and Quentin
Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists
have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for
Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate
linguistic lineage around 4000 BC.
Main article: Mycenaean Greece
In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean
Greeks borrowed from the Minoan
civilization its syllabic writing system (i.e. Linear A) and developed
their own syllabic script known as Linear B, providing the first
and oldest written evidence of Greek. The
Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached
Cyprus and the shores of
Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed
from Epirus. Traditionally, historians have believed that the
Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but
it is likely the main attack was made by seafaring raiders (Sea
Peoples) who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC.
Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of
migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC
the landscape of Archaic and Classical
Greece was discernible.
Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors
and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the
gods and material wealth. The Homeric Epics (i.e.
Odyssey) were especially and generally accepted as part of the Greek
past and it was not until the 19th century that scholars began to
question Homer's historicity. As part of the Mycenaean heritage
that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece
Poseidon and Hades) became major figures of the Olympian
Pantheon of later antiquity.
Main article: Classical Greece
Hoplites fighting. Detail from an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 560
BC–550 BC. Louvre, Paris.
The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of
Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC. According to some scholars,
the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea
of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into
a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was primarily a matter of
common culture. The works of
Iliad and Odyssey) and
Hesiod (i.e. Theogony) were written in the 8th century BC, becoming
the basis of the national religion, ethos, history and mythology.
The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period.
The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from
the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323
BC (some authors prefer to split this period into "Classical", from
the end of the
Greco-Persian Wars to the end of the Peloponnesian War,
and "Fourth Century", up to the death of Alexander). It is so named
because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be
judged in later eras. The Classical period is also described as
the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and its art, philosophy,
architecture and literature would be instrumental in the formation and
development of Western culture.
Greeks of the classical era understood themselves to belong
to a common Hellenic genos, their first loyalty was to their city
and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with
other Greek city-states. The Peloponnesian War, the large scale
civil war between the two most powerful Greek city-states
Sparta and their allies, left both greatly weakened.
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Most of the feuding Greek city-states were, in some scholars'
opinions, united under the banner of Philip's and Alexander the
Great's Pan-Hellenic ideals, though others might generally opt,
rather, for an explanation of "Macedonian conquest for the sake of
conquest" or at least conquest for the sake of riches, glory and power
and view the "ideal" as useful propaganda directed towards the
In any case, Alexander's toppling of the Achaemenid Empire, after his
victories at the battles of the Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, and his
advance as far as modern-day
Pakistan and Tajikistan, provided an
important outlet for Greek culture, via the creation of colonies and
trade routes along the way. While the Alexandrian empire did not
survive its creator's death intact, the cultural implications of the
spread of Hellenism across much of the
Middle East and
Asia were to
prove long lived as Greek became the lingua franca, a position it
retained even in Roman times. Many
Greeks settled in Hellenistic
cities like Alexandria,
Antioch and Seleucia. Two thousand years
later, there are still communities in
Pakistan and Afghanistan, like
the Kalash, who claim to be descended from Greek settlers.
Main article: Hellenistic Greece
The major Hellenistic realms c. 300 BC; the
Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark
blue) and the
Seleucid Empire (yellow).
Bust of Cleopatra VII. Altes Museum, Berlin.
Hellenistic civilization was the next period of Greek
civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at
Alexander's death. This Hellenistic age, so called because it saw
Hellenization of many non-Greek cultures, lasted until
the conquest of
Rome in 30 BC.
This age saw the
Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in
the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of
the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi. Greeks, however,
remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works
Homer and the classical authors. An important factor in
maintaining Greek identity was contact with barbarian (non-Greek)
peoples, which was deepened in the new cosmopolitan environment of the
multi-ethnic Hellenistic kingdoms. This led to a strong desire
Greeks to organize the transmission of the Hellenic paideia to
the next generation. Greek science, technology and mathematics are
generally considered to have reached their peak during the Hellenistic
In the Indo-Greek and Greco-Bactrian kingdoms, Greco-
spreading and Greek missionaries would play an important role in
propagating it to China. Further east, the
Greeks of Alexandria
Eschate became known to the
Chinese people as the Dayuan.
Further information: Roman Greece, Greco-Roman relations, and
Following the time of the conquest of the last of the independent
Greek city-states and Hellenistic (post-Alexandrine) kingdoms, almost
all of the world's Greek speakers lived as citizens or subjects of the
Roman Empire. Despite their military superiority, the Romans admired
and became heavily influenced by the achievements of Greek culture,
hence Horace's famous statement: Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit
("Greece, although captured, took its wild conqueror captive").
In the religious sphere, this was a period of profound change. The
spiritual revolution that took place, saw a waning of the old Greek
religion, whose decline beginning in the 3rd century BC continued with
the introduction of new religious movements from the East. The
cults of deities like
Mithra were introduced into the Greek
world. Greek-speaking communities of the Hellenized East were
instrumental in the spread of early
Christianity in the 2nd and 3rd
centuries, and Christianity's early leaders and writers (notably
Saint Paul) were generally Greek-speaking, though none were from
Greece itself had a tendency to cling to paganism and
was not one of the influential centers of early Christianity: in fact,
some ancient Greek religious practices remained in vogue until the end
of the 4th century, with some areas such as the southeastern
Peloponnese remaining pagan until well into the 10th century AD.
Main articles: Byzantine
Greece and Byzantine Greeks
Statues of Saints Cyril and Methodius, missionaries of Christianity
among the Slavic peoples, Třebíč, Czech Republic.
Of the new eastern religions introduced into the Greek world, the most
successful was Christianity. From the early centuries of the Common
Greeks self-identified as Romans (Greek: Ῥωμαῖοι
Rhōmaîoi). By that time, the name Hellenes denoted pagans but
was revived as an ethnonym in the 11th century. While ethnic
distinctions still existed in the Roman Empire, they became secondary
to religious considerations and the renewed empire used Christianity
as a tool to support its cohesion and promoted a robust Roman national
identity. There are three schools of thought regarding this
Byzantine Roman identity in contemporary Byzantine scholarship: which
could be regarded as preponderant in the field considers "Romanity"
the mode of self-identification of the subjects of a multi-ethnic
empire at least up to the 12th century, where the average subject
identified as Roman; a perennialist approach, largely influenced by
Greek nationalism, views Romanity as the medieval expression of a
continuously existing Greek nation; while a view recently supported by
Anthony Kaldellis considers the eastern Roman identity as a pre-modern
Scenes of marriage and family life in Constantinople.
Concurrently, the secular, urban civilization of Late Antiquity
survived in the
Eastern Mediterranean along with the Greco-Roman
educational system; the Byzantines' essential values were drawn from
Christianity and the Homeric tradition of ancient
Roman Empire (today conventionally named the Byzantine
Empire, a name not used during its own time) became increasingly
influenced by Greek culture after the 7th century when Emperor
Heraclius (r. 610–641 AD) decided to make Greek the empire's
official language. Certainly from then on, but likely
earlier, the Greek and Roman cultures were virtually fused into a
single Greco-Roman world. Although the
Latin West recognized the
Eastern Empire's claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries,
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, as the
"Roman Emperor" on 25 December 800, an act which eventually led to the
formation of the Holy Roman Empire, the
Latin West started to favour
Franks and began to refer to the Eastern
Roman Empire largely as
the Empire of the
Greeks (Imperium Graecorum). In the
Roman Empire the use of the Latinizing term Graikoí
(Γραικοί, "Greeks") was uncommon and nonexistent in official
Byzantine political correspondence, prior to the
Fourth Crusade of
1204. While this
Latin term for the ancient Hellenes could be
used neutrally, its use by Westerners from the 9th century onwards in
order to challenge Byzantine claims to ancient Roman heritage rendered
it a derogatory exonym for the Byzantines who barely used it, mostly
in contexts relating to the West, such as texts relating to the
Council of Florence, to present the Western viewpoint.
"Much of what we know of antiquity – especially of Hellenic and
Roman literature and of Roman law — would have been lost for
ever but for the scholars and scribes and copyists of Constantinople."
John J. Norwich
Byzantine Greeks were largely responsible for the preservation
of the literature of the classical era. Byzantine
grammarians were those principally responsible for carrying, in person
and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical and literary studies to the
West during the 15th century, giving the
Italian Renaissance a major
boost. The Aristotelian philosophical tradition was nearly
unbroken in the Greek world for almost two thousand years, until the
Constantinople in 1453.
To the Slavic world, the
Byzantine Greeks contributed by the
dissemination of literacy and Christianity. The most notable example
of the later was the work of the two Byzantine Greek brothers, the
Saints Cyril and Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius from the port city of Thessalonica,
capital of the theme of Thessalonica, who are credited today with
formalizing the first Slavic alphabet.
In the classicizing tropes of Byzantine writings, the Byzantines
customarily called themselves Ausones, the ancient
Greek name for the
inhabitants of Italy. From the 12th century onwards, however,
Byzantine Roman writers started to disassociate themselves from the
Latin past, regarding henceforth the
transfer of the Roman capital to
Constantinople by Constantine as
their founding moment and reappraised the normative value of the pagan
Hellenes, though the latter were still viewed as a group distinct from
the Byzantines. A distinct Greek identity re-emerged in the 11th
century in educated circles and became more forceful after the fall of
Constantinople to the Crusaders of the
Fourth Crusade in 1204. In
the Empire of Nicaea, a small circle of the elite used the term
"Hellene" as a term of self-identification. After the Byzantines
recaptured Constantinople, however, in 1261, Rhomaioi became again
dominant as a term for self-description and there are few traces of
Hellene (Έλληνας), such as in the writings of George Gemistos
Plethon, who abandoned
Christianity and in whose writings
culminated the secular tendency in the interest in the classical
past. However, it was the combination of Orthodox Christianity
with a specifically Greek identity that shaped the Greeks' notion of
themselves in the empire's twilight years. These largely
rhetorical expressions of Hellenic identity were confined in a very
small circle and had no impact on the people, but were continued by
Byzantine intellectuals who participated in the Italian
Renaissance. The interest in the Classical Greek heritage was
complemented by a renewed emphasis on
Greek Orthodox identity, which
was reinforced in the late Medieval and Ottoman Greeks' links with
their fellow Orthodox Christians in the Russian Empire. These were
further strengthened following the fall of the
Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond in
1461, after which and until the second Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29
hundreds of thousands of
Pontic Greeks fled or migrated from the
Pontic Alps and
Armenian Highlands to southern
Russia and the Russian
South Caucasus (see also
Greeks in Russia,
Greeks in Armenia, Greeks
in Georgia, and Caucasian Greeks).
Main article: Ottoman Greeks
Engraving of a Greek merchant by
Cesare Vecellio (16th century).
Following the Fall of
Constantinople on 29 May 1453, many Greeks
sought better employment and education opportunities by leaving for
the West, particularly Italy, Central Europe,
Germany and Russia.
Greeks are greatly credited for the European cultural revolution,
later called, the Renaissance. In Greek-inhabited territory itself,
Greeks came to play a leading role in the Ottoman Empire, due in part
to the fact that the central hub of the empire, politically,
culturally, and socially, was based on
Western Thrace and Greek
Macedonia, both in Northern Greece, and of course was centred on the
mainly Greek-populated, former Byzantine capital, Constantinople. As a
direct consequence of this situation, Greek-speakers came to play a
hugely important role in the Ottoman trading and diplomatic
establishment, as well as in the church. Added to this, in the first
half of the Ottoman period men of Greek origin made up a significant
proportion of the Ottoman army, navy, and state bureaucracy, having
been levied as adolescents (along with especially
Albanians and Serbs)
into Ottoman service through the devshirme. Many Ottomans of Greek (or
Albanian or Serb) origin were therefore to be found within the Ottoman
forces which governed the provinces, from Ottoman Egypt, to Ottomans
Yemen and Algeria, frequently as provincial governors.
For those that remained under the Ottoman Empire's millet system,
religion was the defining characteristic of national groups
(milletler), so the exonym "Greeks" (Rumlar from the name Rhomaioi)
was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church,
regardless of their language or ethnic origin. The Greek speakers
were the only ethnic group to actually call themselves Romioi,
(as opposed to being so named by others) and, at least those educated,
considered their ethnicity (genos) to be Hellenic. There were,
Greeks who escaped the second-class status of Christians
inherent in the Ottoman millet system, according to which Muslims were
explicitly awarded senior status and preferential treatment. These
Greeks either emigrated, particularly to their fellow Greek Orthodox
protector, the Russian Empire, or simply converted to Islam, often
only very superficially and whilst remaining crypto-Christian. The
most notable examples of large-scale conversion to Turkish Islam among
those today defined as Greek Muslims—excluding those who had to
convert as a matter of course on being recruited through the
devshirme—were to be found in
Crete (Cretan Turks), Greek Macedonia
(for example among the
Vallahades of western Macedonia), and among
Pontic Greeks in the
Pontic Alps and Armenian Highlands. Several
Ottoman sultans and princes were also of part Greek origin, with
mothers who were either Greek concubines or princesses from Byzantine
noble families, one famous example being sultan Selim the Grim
(r. 1517–1520), whose mother
Gülbahar Hatun was a Pontic
Adamantios Korais, leading figure of the Greek enlightenment
The roots of Greek success in the
Ottoman Empire can be traced to the
Greek tradition of education and commerce exemplified in the
Phanariotes. It was the wealth of the extensive merchant class
that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival that was
the prominent feature of Greek life in the half century and more
leading to the outbreak of the
Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence in 1821.
Not coincidentally, on the eve of 1821, the three most important
centres of Greek learning were situated in Chios,
Smyrna and Aivali,
all three major centres of Greek commerce. Greek success was also
favoured by Greek domination of the
Eastern Orthodox church.
Modern Greek Enlightenment
Modern Greek Enlightenment and Greek War of Independence
The cover of Hermes o Logios, a Greek literary publication of the late
18th and early 19th century with major contribution to the Modern
The relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox
religion continued after the creation of the modern Greek nation-state
in 1830. According to the second article of the first Greek
constitution of 1822, a Greek was defined as any native Christian
resident of the Kingdom of Greece, a clause removed by 1840. A
century later, when the
Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne was signed between Greece
Turkey in 1923, the two countries agreed to use religion as the
determinant for ethnic identity for the purposes of population
exchange, although most of the
Greeks displaced (over a million of the
total 1.5 million) had already been driven out by the time the
agreement was signed.[note 2] The Greek genocide, in particular
the harsh removal of
Pontian Greeks from the southern shore area of
the Black Sea, contemporaneous with and following the failed Greek
Asia Minor Campaign, was part of this process of
Turkification of the
Ottoman Empire and the placement of its economy and trade, then
largely in Greek hands under ethnic Turkish control.
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History of Greece
The terms used to define Greekness have varied throughout history but
were never limited or completely identified with membership to a Greek
Herodotus gave a famous account of what defined Greek
(Hellenic) ethnic identity in his day, enumerating
shared descent (ὅμαιμον - homaimon, "of the same blood"),
shared language (ὁμόγλωσσον - homoglōsson, "speaking the
shared sanctuaries and sacrifices (Greek: θεῶν ἱδρύματά
τε κοινὰ καὶ θυσίαι - theōn hidrumata te koina kai
shared customs (Greek: ἤθεα ὁμότροπα - ēthea homotropa,
"customs of like fashion").
By Western standards, the term
Greeks has traditionally referred to
any native speakers of the Greek language, whether Mycenaean,
Byzantine or modern Greek.
Byzantine Greeks self-identified
as Romaioi ("Romans"), Graikoi ("Greeks") and Christianoi
("Christians") since they were the political heirs of imperial Rome,
the descendants of their classical Greek forebears and followers of
the Apostles; during the mid-to-late Byzantine period
(11th–13th century), a growing number of Byzantine Greek
intellectuals deemed themselves Hellenes although for most
Greek-speakers, "Hellene" still meant pagan. On the eve of
the Fall of
Constantinople the Last Emperor urged his soldiers to
remember that they were the descendants of
Greeks and Romans.
Before the establishment of the modern Greek nation-state, the link
between ancient and modern
Greeks was emphasized by the scholars of
Greek Enlightenment especially by Rigas Feraios. In his "Political
Constitution", he addresses to the nation as "the people descendant of
the Greeks". The modern Greek state was created in 1829, when the
Greeks liberated a part of their historic homelands, Peloponnese, from
the Ottoman Empire. The large
Greek diaspora and merchant class
were instrumental in transmitting the ideas of western romantic
nationalism and philhellenism, which together with the conception
of Hellenism, formulated during the last centuries of the Byzantine
Empire, formed the basis of the
Diafotismos and the current conception
Greeks today are a nation in the meaning of an ethnos, defined by
possessing Greek culture and having a Greek mother tongue, not by
citizenship, race, and religion or by being subjects of any particular
state. In ancient and medieval times and to a lesser extent today
the Greek term was genos, which also indicates a common
Achaeans (Homer) and Names of the Greeks
Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece, and adjacent
Greeks and Greek-speakers have used different names to refer to
themselves collectively. The term Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί) is one of
the collective names for the
Greeks in Homer's
Homeric "long-haired Achaeans" would have been a part of the Mycenaean
civilization that dominated
Greece from c. 1600 BC until 1100 BC). The
other common names are Danaans (Δαναοί) and Argives
(Ἀργεῖοι) while Panhellenes (Πανέλληνες) and
Hellenes (Ἕλληνες) both appear only once in the Iliad;
all of these terms were used, synonymously, to denote a common Greek
identity. In the historical period,
Herodotus identified the
Achaeans of the northern
Peloponnese as descendants of the earlier,
Homer refers to the "Hellenes" (/ˈhɛliːnz/) as a relatively small
tribe settled in Thessalic Phthia, with its warriors under the command
of Achilleus. The
Parian Chronicle says that
Phthia was the
homeland of the Hellenes and that this name was given to those
Greeks (Γραικοί). In Greek mythology,
Hellen, the patriarch of the Hellenes who ruled around Phthia, was the
Pyrrha and Deucalion, the only survivors after the Great
Deluge. The Greek philosopher
Aristotle names ancient Hellas as
an area in
Dodona and the
Achelous river, the location
of the Great Deluge of Deucalion, a land occupied by the
the "Greeks" who later came to be known as "Hellenes". In the
Homeric tradition, the
Selloi were the priests of Dodonian Zeus.
In the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women,
Graecus is presented as the son of
Zeus and Pandora II, sister of
Hellen the patriarch of the
Hellenes. According to the Parian Chronicle, when Deucalion
became king of Phthia, the Graikoi (Γραικοί) were named
Aristotle notes in his Meteorologica that the Hellenes
were related to the Graikoi.
Family group on a funerary stele from Athens, National Archaeological
The most obvious link between modern and ancient
Greeks is their
language, which has a documented tradition from at least the 14th
century BC to the present day, albeit with a break during the Greek
Dark Ages (lasting from the 11th to the 8th century BC). Scholars
compare its continuity of tradition to Chinese alone. Since
its inception, Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture and
the national continuity of the Greek world is a lot more certain than
its demographic. Yet, Hellenism also embodied an ancestral
dimension through aspects of Athenian literature that developed and
influenced ideas of descent based on autochthony. During the
later years of the Eastern Roman Empire, areas such as
Constantinople experienced a Hellenic revival in language, philosophy,
and literature and on classical models of thought and
scholarship. This revival provided a powerful impetus to the
sense of cultural affinity with ancient
Greece and its classical
heritage. Throughout their history, the
Greeks have retained
their language and alphabet, certain values and cultural traditions,
customs, a sense of religious and cultural difference and exclusion
(the word barbarian was used by 12th-century historian
Anna Komnene to
describe non-Greek speakers), a sense of Greek identity and
common sense of ethnicity despite the undeniable socio-political
changes of the past two millennia. In recent anthropological
studies, both ancient and modern Greek osteological samples were
analyzed demonstrating a bio-genetic affinity and continuity shared
between both groups.
Main articles: Demographics of
Greece and Demographics of Cyprus
Greeks are the majority ethnic group in the Hellenic
Republic, where they constitute 93% of the country's
population, and the Republic of
Cyprus where they make up 78% of
the island's population (excluding Turkish settlers in the occupied
part of the country). Greek populations have not traditionally
exhibited high rates of growth; a large percentage of Greek population
growth since Greece's foundation in 1832 was attributed to annexation
of new territories, as well as the influx of 1.5 million Greek
refugees after the 1923 population exchange between
Turkey. About 80% of the population of
Greece is urban, with 28%
concentrated in the city of Athens.
Cyprus have a similar history of emigration, usually to
the English-speaking world because of the island's colonization by the
British Empire. Waves of emigration followed the Turkish invasion of
Cyprus in 1974, while the population decreased between mid-1974 and
1977 as a result of emigration, war losses, and a temporary decline in
fertility. After the ethnic cleansing of a third of the Greek
population of the island in 1974, there was also an increase
in the number of
Greek Cypriots leaving, especially for the Middle
East, which contributed to a decrease in population that tapered off
in the 1990s. Today more than two-thirds of the Greek population
Cyprus is urban.
There is a sizeable Greek minority of approximately 200,000 people in
Albania. The Greek minority of Turkey, which numbered upwards of
200,000 people after the 1923 exchange, has now dwindled to a few
thousand, after the 1955
Constantinople Pogrom and other state
sponsored violence and discrimination. This effectively ended,
though not entirely, the three-thousand-year-old presence of Hellenism
Asia Minor. There are smaller Greek minorities in the
rest of the Balkan countries, the
Levant and the
Black Sea states,
remnants of the Old
Greek Diaspora (pre-19th century).
Main article: Greek diaspora
Zach Galifianakis, American stand-up comedian and actor of Greek
The total number of
Greeks living outside
Cyprus today is a
contentious issue. Where Census figures are available, they show
around 3 million
Greece and Cyprus. Estimates provided
SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad
SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad put the figure at around
7 million worldwide. According to George Prevelakis of Sorbonne
University, the number is closer to just below 5 million.
Integration, intermarriage, and loss of the
Greek language influence
the self-identification of the Omogeneia. Important centres of the New
Greek Diaspora today are London, New York, Melbourne and Toronto.
In 2010, the
Hellenic Parliament introduced a law that enables
Greece to vote in the elections of the Greek
state. This law was later repealed in early 2014.
See also: Colonies in antiquity
Greek colonization in antiquity.
In ancient times, the trading and colonizing activities of the Greek
tribes and city states spread the Greek culture, religion and language
around the Mediterranean and
Black Sea basins, especially in Sicily
Italy (also known as Magna Grecia), Spain, the south of
France and the Black sea coasts. Under Alexander the Great's
empire and successor states, Greek and Hellenizing ruling classes were
established in the Middle East, India and in Egypt. The
Hellenistic period is characterized by a new wave of Greek
colonization that established Greek cities and kingdoms in
Africa. Under the Roman Empire, easier movement of people spread
Greeks across the Empire and in the eastern territories, Greek became
the lingua franca rather than Latin. The modern-day Griko
community of southern Italy, numbering about 60,000, may
represent a living remnant of the ancient Greek populations of Italy.
Distribution of ethnic groups in 1918, National Geographic
Greek Diaspora (20th century).
During and after the Greek War of Independence,
Greeks of the diaspora
were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and
awareness abroad. Greek merchant families already had contacts in
other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around
the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno in Italy,
Alexandria in Egypt),
Odessa and Saint Petersburg), and
Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in
textiles and grain. Businesses frequently comprised the extended
family, and with them they brought schools teaching Greek and the
Greek Orthodox Church.
As markets changed and they became more established, some families
grew their operations to become shippers, financed through the local
Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano
Brothers. With economic success, the Diaspora expanded further
across the Levant, North Africa, India and the USA.
In the 20th century, many
Greeks left their traditional homelands for
economic reasons resulting in large migrations from
Greece and Cyprus
to the United States, Great Britain, Australia, Canada, Germany, and
South Africa, especially after the
Second World War
Second World War (1939–1945), the
Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War (1946–1949), and the Turkish Invasion of
While official figures remain scarce, polls and anecdotal evidence
point to renewed Greek emigration as a result of the Greek financial
crisis. According to data published by the Federal Statistical
Germany in 2011, 23,800
Greeks emigrated to Germany, a
significant increase over the previous year. By comparison, about
Greeks emigrated to
Germany in 2009 and 12,000 in
Culture of Greece
Greek culture has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginning
in the Mycenaean civilization, continuing through the classical era,
the Hellenistic period, the Roman and Byzantine periods and was
profoundly affected by Christianity, which it in turn influenced and
Ottoman Greeks had to endure through several centuries of
adversity that culminated in genocide in the 20th century.
Diafotismos is credited with revitalizing Greek culture and giving
birth to the synthesis of ancient and medieval elements that
characterize it today.
Main article: Greek language
Ostracon bearing the name of Cimon. Museum of the
Ancient Agora, Athens.
Greeks speak the Greek language, an independent branch of the
Indo-European languages, with its closest relations possibly being
Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian) or the
Indo-Iranian languages (see
Graeco-Aryan). It has the longest documented history of any
living language and
Greek literature has a continuous history of over
2,500 years. Several notable literary works, including the
Euclid's Elements and the New Testament, were
originally written in Greek.
Greek demonstrates several linguistic features that are shared with
other Balkan languages, such as Albanian, Bulgarian and Eastern
Romance languages (see Balkan sprachbund), and has absorbed many
foreign words, primarily of Western European and Turkish origin.
Because of the movements of
Philhellenism and the
Diafotismos in the
19th century, which emphasized the modern Greeks' ancient heritage,
these foreign influences were excluded from official use via the
creation of Katharevousa, a somewhat artificial form of Greek purged
of all foreign influence and words, as the official language of the
Greek state. In 1976, however, the
Hellenic Parliament voted to make
Dimotiki the official language, making Katharevousa
Modern Greek has, in addition to Standard
Modern Greek or Dimotiki, a
wide variety of dialects of varying levels of mutual intelligibility,
including Cypriot, Pontic, Cappadocian, Griko and Tsakonian (the only
surviving representative of ancient Doric Greek). Yevanic is the
language of the Romaniotes, and survives in small communities in
Greece, New York and Israel. In addition to Greek, many
Greece and the Diaspora are bilingual in other languages or dialects
such as English, Arvanitika/Albanian, Aromanian, Macedonian Slavic,
Russian and Turkish.
Main articles: Religion in ancient
Greece and Orthodox Church
Greeks are Christians, belonging to the Greek Orthodox
Church. During the first centuries after
Jesus Christ, the New
Testament was originally written in Koine Greek, which remains the
liturgical language of the
Greek Orthodox Church, and most of the
early Christians and Church Fathers were Greek-speaking. There
are small groups of ethnic
Greeks adhering to other Christian
denominations like Greek Catholics, Greek Evangelicals, Pentecostals,
and groups adhering to other religions including Romaniot and
Sephardic Jews and Greek Muslims. About 2,000
Greeks are members of
Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism
Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism congregations.
Greek-speaking Muslims live mainly outside
Greece in the contemporary
era. There are both
Christian and Muslim Greek-speaking communities in
Lebanon and Syria, while in the Pontus region of
Turkey there is a
large community of indeterminate size who were spared from the
population exchange because of their religious affiliation.
See also: Greek art,
Music of Greece, Ancient Greek theatre, Modern
Greek theatre, and Cinema of Greece
Constantine P. Cavafy
Greek art has a long and varied history.
Greeks have contributed to
the visual, literary and performing arts. In the West, classical
Greek art was influential in shaping the Roman and later the modern
Western artistic heritage. Following the
Renaissance in Europe, the
humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art
inspired generations of European artists. Well into the 19th
century, the classical tradition derived from
Greece played an
important role in the art of the Western world. In the East,
Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of
exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting
in Greco-Buddhist art, whose influence reached as far as Japan.
Byzantine Greek art, which grew from classical art and adapted the
pagan motifs in the service of Christianity, provided a stimulus to
the art of many nations. Its influences can be traced from Venice
in the West to
Kazakhstan in the East. In turn, Greek art
was influenced by eastern civilizations (i.e. Egypt, Persia, etc.)
during various periods of its history.
Notable modern Greek artists include
Renaissance painter Dominikos
Theotokopoulos (El Greco), Panagiotis Doxaras, Nikolaos Gyzis,
Nikiphoros Lytras, Yannis Tsarouchis, Nikos Engonopoulos, Constantine
Andreou, Jannis Kounellis, sculptors such as Leonidas Drosis, Georgios
Yannoulis Chalepas and Joannis Avramidis, conductor Dimitri
Mitropoulos, soprano Maria Callas, composers such as Mikis
Theodorakis, Nikos Skalkottas, Iannis Xenakis, Manos Hatzidakis, Eleni
Yanni and Vangelis, one of the best-selling singers
Nana Mouskouri and poets such as Kostis Palamas, Dionysios
Angelos Sikelianos and Yannis Ritsos. Alexandrian Constantine
P. Cavafy and Nobel laureates
Giorgos Seferis and
Odysseas Elytis are
among the most important poets of the 20th century. Novel is also
Alexandros Papadiamantis and Nikos Kazantzakis.
Notable Greek actors include Marika Kotopouli, Melina Mercouri, Ellie
Academy Award winner Katina Paxinou, Dimitris Horn, Manos
Katrakis and Irene Papas. Alekos Sakellarios,
Michael Cacoyannis and
Theo Angelopoulos are among the most important directors.
See also: Greek mathematics, Ancient Greek medicine, Byzantine
science, Greek scholars in the Renaissance, and List of Greek
inventions and discoveries
Samos was the first known individual to propose a
heliocentric system, in the 3rd century BC
Greeks of the Classical and Hellenistic eras made seminal
contributions to science and philosophy, laying the foundations of
several western scientific traditions, such as astronomy, geography,
historiography, mathematics, medicine and philosophy. The scholarly
tradition of the Greek academies was maintained during Roman times
with several academic institutions in Constantinople, Antioch,
Alexandria and other centers of Greek learning, while Byzantine
science was essentially a continuation of classical science.
Greeks have a long tradition of valuing and investing in paideia
Paideia was one of the highest societal values in the
Hellenistic world while the first European institution
described as a university was founded in 5th century Constantinople
and operated in various incarnations until the city's fall to the
Ottomans in 1453. The University of
Constantinople was Christian
Europe's first secular institution of higher learning since no
theological subjects were taught, and considering the original
meaning of the world university as a corporation of students, the
world's first university as well.
As of 2007,
Greece had the eighth highest percentage of tertiary
enrollment in the world (with the percentages for female students
being higher than for male) while
Greeks of the Diaspora are equally
active in the field of education. Hundreds of thousands of Greek
students attend western universities every year while the faculty
lists of leading Western universities contain a striking number of
Greek names. Notable modern Greek scientists of modern times
include Dimitrios Galanos,
Georgios Papanikolaou (inventor of the Pap
test), Nicholas Negroponte, Constantin Carathéodory, Manolis
Andronikos, Michael Dertouzos, John Argyris, Panagiotis Kondylis, John
Dirac Prize for his contributions on the physics of
the charm quark, a major contribution to the birth of the Standard
Model, the modern theory of Elementary Particles), Joseph Sifakis
(2007 Turing Award, the "Nobel Prize" of Computer Science), Christos
Papadimitriou (2002 Knuth Prize, 2012 Gödel Prize), Mihalis
Yannakakis (2005 Knuth Prize) and Dimitri Nanopoulos.
See also: Flag of Greece
The flag of the
Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church is based on the coat of arms of
the Palaiologoi, the last dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.
Traditional Greek flag.
The most widely used symbol is the flag of Greece, which features nine
equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white representing
the nine syllables of the Greek national motto Eleftheria i Thanatos
(Freedom or Death), which was the motto of the Greek War of
Independence. The blue square in the upper hoist-side corner
bears a white cross, which represents Greek Orthodoxy. The Greek flag
is widely used by the Greek Cypriots, although
Cyprus has officially
adopted a neutral flag to ease ethnic tensions with the Turkish
Cypriot minority (see flag of Cyprus).
The pre-1978 (and first) flag of Greece, which features a Greek cross
(crux immissa quadrata) on a blue background, is widely used as an
alternative to the official flag, and they are often flown together.
The national emblem of
Greece features a blue escutcheon with a white
cross surrounded by two laurel branches. A common design involves the
current flag of
Greece and the pre-1978 flag of
Greece with crossed
flagpoles and the national emblem placed in front.
Another highly recognizable and popular Greek symbol is the
double-headed eagle, the imperial emblem of the last dynasty of the
Roman Empire and a common symbol in
Asia Minor and, later,
Eastern Europe. It is not part of the modern Greek flag or
coat-of-arms, although it is officially the insignia of the Greek Army
and the flag of the Church of Greece. It had been incorporated in the
Greek coat of arms between 1925 and 1926.
Surnames and personal names
Greek name and Ancient Greek personal names
Greek surnames began to appear in the 9th and 10th century, at first
among ruling families, eventually supplanting the ancient tradition of
using the father's name as disambiguator. Nevertheless,
Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics, such those ending
in the suffix -opoulos or -ides, while others derive from trade
professions, physical characteristics, or a location such as a town,
village, or monastery. Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s,
which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the
nominative case. Occasionally (especially in Cyprus), some surnames
end in -ou, indicating the genitive case of a patronymic name.
Many surnames end in suffixes that are associated with a particular
region, such as -akis (Crete), -eas or -akos (Mani Peninsula), -atos
(island of Cephalonia), and so forth. In addition to a Greek
origin, some surnames have Turkish or Latin/Italian origin, especially
Asia Minor and the Ionian Islands,
respectively. Female surnames end in a vowel and are usually the
genitive form of the corresponding males surname, although this usage
is not followed in the diaspora, where the male version of the surname
is generally used.
With respect to personal names, the two main influences are
Christianity and classical Hellenism; ancient Greek nomenclatures were
never forgotten but have become more widely bestowed from the 18th
century onwards. As in antiquity, children are customarily named
after their grandparents, with the first born male child named after
the paternal grandfather, the second male child after the maternal
grandfather, and similarly for female children. Personal names
are often familiarized by a diminutive suffix, such as -akis for male
names and -itsa or -oula for female names.
Greeks generally do
not use middle names, instead using the genitive of the father's first
name as a middle name. This usage has been passed on to the Russians
East Slavs (otchestvo).
Main article: Greek shipping
Aristotle Onassis, the best known
Greek shipping magnate.
The traditional Greek homelands have been the
Greek peninsula and the
Aegean Sea, Southern
Italy (Magna Graecia), the Black Sea, the Ionian
Asia Minor and the islands of
Cyprus and Sicily. In Plato's
Phaidon, Socrates remarks, "we (Greeks) live around a sea like frogs
around a pond" when describing to his friends the Greek cities of the
Aegean. This image is attested by the map of the Old Greek
Diaspora, which corresponded to the Greek world until the creation of
the Greek state in 1832. The sea and trade were natural outlets for
Greeks since the
Greek peninsula is rocky and does not offer good
prospects for agriculture.
Notable Greek seafarers include people such as
Pytheas of Marseilles,
Scylax of Caryanda who sailed to Iberia and beyond, Nearchus, the 6th
century merchant and later monk
Cosmas Indicopleustes (Cosmas who
Sailed to India) and the explorer of the Northwestern Passage,
Apostolos Valerianos also known as Juan de Fuca. In later times,
Byzantine Greeks plied the sea-lanes of the Mediterranean and
controlled trade until an embargo imposed by the
Byzantine emperor on
trade with the
Caliphate opened the door for the later Italian
pre-eminence in trade.
Greek shipping tradition recovered during Ottoman rule when a
substantial merchant middle class developed, which played an important
part in the Greek War of Independence. Today, Greek shipping
continues to prosper to the extent that
Greece has the largest
merchant fleet in the world, while many more ships under Greek
ownership fly flags of convenience. The most notable shipping
magnate of the 20th century was
Aristotle Onassis, others being
Yiannis Latsis, George Livanos, and Stavros Niarchos.
Gene flow within West Eurasia is shown by lines linking the
best-matching donor group to the sources of admixture with recipient
Pan-Euorpean autosomal plot. Below: genetic distance map of European
Admixture analysis of autosomal SNPs of the Balkan region in a global
context on the resolution level of 7 assumed ancestral populations:
African (brown), South/West European (light blue), Asian (yellow),
Middle Eastern (green), North/East European (dark blue) and
Caucasian/Anatolian component (beige).
Factor Correspondence Analysis Comparing Different Individuals from
European Ancestry Groups.
Genetic studies using multiple autosomal gene markers, Y chromosomal
DNA haplogroup analysis and mitochondrial gene markers (mtDNA) show
Greeks share similar backgrounds as the rest of the Europeans and
especially southern Europeans (
Italians and southern Balkan
populations). According to the studies using multiple autosomal gene
Greeks are some of the earliest contributors of genetic
material to the rest of the Europeans as they are one of the oldest
populations in Europe. A study in 2008 showed that
genetically closest to
Italians and Romanians and another 2008
study showed that they are close to Italians, Albanians,
southern Balkan Slavs. A 2003 study showed that
with other South European (mainly Italians) and North-European
populations and are close to the Basques, and FST distances
showed that they group with other European and Mediterranean
populations, especially with
Italians (−0.0001) and
Tuscans (0.0005). A 2017 study showed that Southern Italian
populations appear genetically closer to Greek islands than to
Y DNA studies show that
Greeks cluster with other
Europeans and that they carry some of the
oldest Y haplogroups in Europe, in particular the J2 haplogroup (and
other J subhaplogroups) and E haplogroups, which are genetic markers
denoting early farmers. The Y-chromosome lineage
E-V13 appears to have originated in
Greece or the southern
is high in
Greeks as well as in Albanians, southern
E-V13 is also found in Corsicans and Provencals, where
an admixture analysis estimated that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of
Provence may be attributed to Greek colonization, and is also found at
low frequencies on the Anatolian mainland. These results suggest that
E-V13 may trace the demographic and socio-cultural impact of Greek
colonization in Mediterranean Europe, a contribution that appears to
be considerably larger than that of a
colonization. A study in 2008 showed that Greek
regional samples from the mainland cluster with those from the Balkans
Greeks cluster with the central Mediterranean and Eastern
Mediterranean samples. Greek signature DNA influence can be seen
Italy and Sicily, where the genetic contribution of Greek
chromosomes to the Sicilian gene pool is estimated to be about 37%,
and the Southern Balkans.
Studies using mitochondrial DNA gene markers (mtDNA) showed that
Greeks group with other Mediterranean European
populations and principal component analysis (PCA)
confirmed the low genetic distance between
Greeks and Italians
and also revealed a cline of genes with highest frequencies in the
Balkans and Southern Italy, spreading to lowest levels in Britain and
the Basque country, which Cavalli-Sforza associates it with "the Greek
expansion, which reached its peak in historical times around 1000 and
500 BC but which certainly began earlier".
A 2017 study on the genetic origins of the
Minoans and Mycenaeans
showed that modern
Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some
additional dilution of the early neolithic ancestry. The results of
the study support the idea of genetic continuity between these
civilizations and modern
Greeks but not isolation in the history of
populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest
civilizations. In an interview, the study's author,
Harvard University geneticist Iosif Lazaridis, precised "that all
Bronze Age groups (Minoans, Mycenaeans, and Bronze Age
southwestern Anatolians) trace most of their ancestry from the earlier
Neolithic populations that were very similar in
Greece and western
Anatolia. But, they also had some ancestry from the 'east', related to
populations of the Caucasus and Iran", and argues that "some had
theorized that the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were influenced
both culturally and genetically by the old civilizations of the Levant
and Egypt, but there is no quantifiable genetic influence".
A study from 2013 for prediction of hair and eye colour from DNA of
the Greek people showed that the self-reported phenotype frequencies
according to hair and eye colour categories was as follows: 119
individuals – hair colour, 11 blond, 45 dark blond/light brown, 49
dark brown, 3 brown red/auburn and 11 had black hair; eye colour, 13
with blue, 15 with intermediate (green, heterochromia) and 91 had
brown eye colour.
Another study from 2012 included 150 dental school students from the
University of Athens, and the results of the study showed that light
hair colour (blonde/light ash brown) was predominant in 10.7% of the
students. 36% had medium hair colour (light brown/medium darkest
brown), 32% had darkest brown and 21% black (15.3 off black, 6%
midnight black). In conclusion, the hair colour of young
mostly brown, ranging from light to dark brown with significant
minorities having black and blonde hair. The same study also showed
that the eye colour of the students was 14.6% blue/green, 28% medium
(light brown) and 57.4% dark brown.
The history of the Greek people is closely associated with the history
of Greece, Cyprus, Constantinople,
Asia Minor and the Black Sea.
During the Ottoman rule of Greece, a number of Greek enclaves around
the Mediterranean were cut off from the core, notably in Southern
Italy, the Caucasus,
Syria and Egypt. By the early 20th century, over
half of the overall Greek-speaking population was settled in Asia
Minor (now Turkey), while later that century a huge wave of migration
to the United States, Australia,
Canada and elsewhere created the
modern Greek diaspora.
c. 3rd millennium BC
Proto-Greek tribes from around the Southern Balkans/Aegean are
generally thought to have arrived in the Greek mainland.
16th century BC
Decline of the Minoan civilization, possibly because of the eruption
of Thera. Emergence of the Achaeans and formation of the Mycenaean
civilization, the first Greek-speaking civilization.
13th century BC
First colonies established in
11th century BC
Mycenaean civilization ends in the presumed Dorian invasion. The
Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages begin.
Dorians move into peninsular Greece. Achaeans
flee to Aegean Islands,
Asia Minor and Cyprus.
9th century BC
Major colonization of
Asia Minor and
Cyprus by the Greek tribes.
8th century BC
First major colonies established in
Sicily and Southern Italy. The
first Pan-Hellenic festival, the Olympic games, is held in 776 BC. The
emergence of Pan-Hellenism marks the ethnogenesis of the Greek nation.
6th century BC
Colonies established across the
Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.
5th century BC
Defeat of the Persians and emergence of the
Delian League in Ionia,
Black Sea and Aegean perimeter culminates in
Athenian Empire and
the Classical Age of Greece; ends with
Athens defeat by
Sparta at the
close of the Peloponnesian War
4th century BC
Rise of Theban power and defeat of the Spartans; Rise of Macedon;
Campaign of Alexander the Great;
Greek colonies established in newly
founded cities of Ptolemaic
Egypt and Asia.
2nd century BC
Greece by the Roman Empire. Migrations of
Greeks to Rome.
4th century AD
Eastern Roman Empire. Migrations of
Greeks throughout the Empire,
mainly towards Constantinople.
Slavic conquest of several parts of Greece, Greek migrations to
Southern Italy, Roman emperors capture main Slavic bodies and transfer
them to Cappadocia. The
Bosphorus is re-populated by Macedonian and
Roman dissolution of surviving Slavic settlements in
Greece and full
recovery of the Greek peninsula.
Greeks from all parts of the Empire (mainly from
Italy and Sicily) into parts of
Greece that were depopulated
by the Slavic Invasions (mainly western Peloponnesus and Thessaly).
Roman Empire dissolves,
Constantinople taken by the Fourth Crusade;
becoming the capital of the
Latin Empire. Liberated after a long
struggle by the Empire of Nicaea, but fragments remain separated.
Constantinople and mainland
Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire.
Greek diaspora into
Europe begins. Ottoman settlements in Greece.
high posts in Eastern European millets.
Creation of the
Modern Greek State. Immigration to the New World
begins. Large-scale migrations from
Asia Minor to
Greece take place.
European Ottoman lands partitioned; unorganized migrations of Greeks,
Bulgarians and Turks towards their respective states.
Greek genocide; hundreds of thousands of
Ottoman Greeks are estimated
to have died during this period.
Treaty of Neuilly;
Bulgaria exchange populations, with some
The Destruction of
Smyrna (modern-day Izmir) more than 40 thousand
Greeks killed; end of significant Greek presence in
Treaty of Lausanne;
Turkey agree to exchange populations
with limited exceptions of the
Greeks in Constantinople, Imbros,
Tenedos and the Muslim minority of Western Thrace. 1.5 million of Asia
Pontic Greeks settle in Greece, and some 450 thousands of
Muslims settle in Turkey.
Hundred of thousands
Greeks died from starvation during the Axis
Occupation of Greece
Communist regime in
Romania begins evictions of the Greek community,
approx. 75,000 migrate.
Greek Civil War. Tens of thousands of Greek communists and their
families flee into
Eastern Bloc nations. Thousands settle in Tashkent.
Massive emigration of
Greeks to West Germany, the United States,
Australia, Canada, and other countries.
Istanbul Pogrom against Greeks. Exodus of
Greeks from the city
accelerates; less than 2,000 remain today.
Large Greek community in
Alexandria flees Nasser's regime in Egypt.
Cyprus created as an independent state under Greek,
Turkish and British protection. Economic emigration continues.
Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Almost all
Greeks living in Northern
Cyprus flee to the south and the United Kingdom.
Many civil war refugees were allowed to re-emigrate to Greece.
Collapse of Soviet Union. Approximately 340,000 ethnic
from Georgia, Armenia, southern Russia, and
Albania to Greece.
Some statistics show the beginning of a trend of reverse migration of
Greeks from the
United States and Australia.
Over 200,000 people, particularly young skilled individuals,
emigrate to other EU states due to high unemployment (see also Greek
List of ancient Greeks
List of Greeks
List of Greek Americans
^ Though there is a range of interpretations;
Carl Blegen dates the
arrival of the
Greeks around 1900 BC, John Caskey believes that there
were two waves of immigrants and
Robert Drews places the event as late
as 1600 BC. A variety of more theories has also been
supported, but there is a general consensus that the coming of the
Greek tribes occurred around 2100 BC.
^ While Greek authorities signed the agreement legalizing the
population exchange this was done on the insistence of Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk and after a million
Greeks had already been expelled from
Asia Minor (Gilbar 1997, p. 8).
^ Maratou-Alipranti 2013, p. 196: "The
Greek diaspora remains
large, consisting of up to 4 million people globally."
^ Clogg 2013, p. 228: "
Greeks of the diaspora, settled in some
141 countries, were held to number 7 million although it is not clear
how this figure was arrived at or what criteria were used to define
Greek ethnicity, while the population of the homeland, according to
the 1991 census, amounted to some 10.25 million."
^ "2011 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Hellenic Statistical
Authority. 12 September 2014. The Resident Population of
10.816.286, of which 5.303.223 male (49,0%) and 5.513.063 female
(51,0%) ... The total number of permanent residents of Greece
with foreign citizenship during the Census was 912.000. [See Graph 6:
Resident Population by Citizenship]
^ "Statistical Data on Immigrants in Greece: An Analytic Study of
Available Data and Recommendations for Conformity with European Union
Standards" (PDF). Archive of European Integration (AEI). University of
Pittsburgh. 15 November 2004. Retrieved 18 May 2016. [p. 5] The Census
recorded 762.191 persons normally resident in
Greece and without Greek
citizenship, constituting around 7% of total population. Of these,
48.560 are EU or EFTA nationals; there are also 17.426 Cypriots with
^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more
ancestry categories reported 2011–2013 American Community Survey
3-Year Estimates". American FactFinder. U.S. Department of Commerce:
United States Census Bureau. 2013.
^ "U.S. Relations with Greece".
United States Department of State. 10
March 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016. Today, an estimated three million
Americans resident in the
United States claim Greek descent. This
large, well-organized community cultivates close political and
cultural ties with Greece.
^ Statistical Service (2003–2016). "Preliminary Results of the
Census of Population, 2011". Republic of Cyprus, Ministry of Finance,
^ Cole 2011, Yiannis Papadakis, "Cypriots, Greek", pp. 92–95
^ "Where are the Greek communities of the world?". themanews.com.
^ "United Kingdom: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. There are between
40 and 45 thousand
Greeks residing permanently in the UK, and the
Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church has a strong presence in the Archdiocese of
Thyateira and Great Britain ... There is a significant Greek
presence of Greek students in tertiary education in the UK. A large
Cypriot community – numbering 250–300 thousand – rallies round
the National Federation of Cypriots in Great Britain and the
Greek Orthodox Communities of Great Britain.
^ "Statistical Yearbook
Germany Extract Chapter 2: Population,
Families and Living Arrangements in Germany". Statistisches Bundesamt.
14 March 2013. p. 21.
^ "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census,
2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved
13 February 2014.
^ "Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses
(3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the
Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories,
Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National
Household Survey". Statistics Canada. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May
^ a b Jeffries 2002, p. 69: "It is difficult to know how many
Greeks there are in Albania. The Greek government, it is
typically claimed, says there are around 300,000 ethnic
Albania, but most Western estimates are around the 200,000
^ "Ukraine: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. There is a
significant Greek presence in southern and eastern Ukraine, which can
be traced back to ancient Greek and Byzantine settlers. Ukrainian
citizens of Greek descent amount to 91,000 people, although their
number is estimated to be much higher by the Federation of Greek
communities of Mariupol.
^ "Итоги Всероссийской переписи
населения 2010 года в отношении
^ "Italy: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. The Greek Italian community
numbers some 30,000 and is concentrated mainly in central Italy. The
age-old presence in
Italians of Greek descent – dating back
to Byzantine and Classical times – is attested to by the Griko
dialect, which is still spoken in the
Magna Graecia region. This
historically Greek-speaking villages are Condofuri, Galliciano,
Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Bova and Bova Marina, which are in the
Calabria region (the capital of which is Reggio). The Grecanic region,
including Reggio, has a population of some 200,000, while speakers of
the Griko dialect number fewer that 1,000 persons.
^ a b "Grecia Salentina" (in Italian). Unione dei Comuni della Grecìa
Salentina. 2016. La popolazione complessiva dell'Unione è di 54278
residenti così distribuiti (Dati Istat al 31° dicembre 2005. Comune
Popolazione Calimera 7351 Carpignano Salentino 3868 Castrignano dei
Greci 4164 Corigliano d'Otranto 5762 Cutrofiano 9250 Martano 9588
Martignano 1784 Melpignano 2234 Soleto 5551 Sternatia 2583 Zollino
2143 Totale 54278).
^ a b Bellinello 1998, p. 53: "Le attuali colonie Greche
calabresi; La Grecìa calabrese si inscrive nel massiccio aspromontano
e si concentra nell'ampia e frastagliata valle dell'Amendolea e nelle
balze più a oriente, dove sorgono le fiumare dette di S. Pasquale, di
Palizzi e Sidèroni e che costituiscono la Bovesia vera e propria.
Compresa nei territori di cinque comuni (Bova Superiore, Bova Marina,
Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Condofuri), la Grecia si estende per
circa 233 kmq. La popolazione anagrafica complessiva è di circa
^ "South Africa: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. It is
difficult to determine the precise number of
Greeks due to constant
comings and goings, although the estimated figure is above
^ "The Greek Community". Archived from the original on 13 June
^ "France: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. Some 15,000
Greeks reside in
the wider region of Paris, Lille and Lyon. In the region of Southern
France, the Greek community numbers some 20,000.
^ "Argentina: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. It is estimated
that some 20,000 to 30,000 persons of Greek origin currently reside in
Argentina, and there are Greek communities in the wider region of
^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs (PDF). 9 March 2011
http://cizinci.cz/repository/2240/file/Rekove2.pdf. Missing or
empty title= (help)
^ "Belgium: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 28 January 2011. Some 35,000
Greeks reside in Belgium. Official Belgian data numbers
Greeks in the
country at 17,000, but does not take into account
Greeks who have
taken Belgian citizenship or work for international organizations and
^ "Georgia: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 31 January 2011. The Greek
community of Georgia is currently estimated at 15,000 people, mostly
elderly people living in the Tsalkas area.
^ "Sweden: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. The Greek community in
Sweden consists of approximately 12,000 – 15,000
Greeks who are
permanent inhabitants, included in Swedish society and active in
various sectors: science, arts, literature, culture, media, education,
business, and politics.
^ "Kazakhstan: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 3 February 2011. There are
between 10,000 and 12,000 ethnic
Greeks living in Kazakhstan,
organized in several communities.
^ "Switzerland: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 10 December 2015. The Greek
Switzerland is estimated to number some 11,000 persons
(of a total of 1.5 million foreigners residing in the country.
Greeks in Uzbekistan". Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst. The Central
Asia-Caucasus Institute. 21 June 2000. Currently there are about 9,500
Greeks living in Uzbekistan, with 6,500 living in Tashkent.
^ "Romania: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 6 December 2013. The Greek
Romanian community numbers some 10,000, and there are many Greeks
working in established Greek enterprises in Romania.
^ Asatryan & Arakelova 2002, p. 8.
^ "Mexico: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. There are about 1,500
families of Greek origin living in
Mexico and they are organised in
three Greek associations, in
Mexico City, Guadalajaras, and Sinaloa.
Greece has Honorary Consulates in Merida and Monterey.
^ "Austria: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 28 January 2011. Today, the
Greeks residing permanently in
Austria are graduates of Austrian
universities and number some 5,000, half of whom are Greek
^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Turkey:
Rum Orthodox Christians". Minority Rights Group (MRG). 2005. Archived
from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
^ "Pontic". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International.
2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
^ "Hungary: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 31 January 2011. There are some
5,000 Greek Hungarians in Hungary, and they have received official
^ "Bulgaria: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic
Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 28 January 2011. There are some
28,500 persons of Greek origin and citizenship residing in Bulgaria.
This number includes approximately 15,000 Sarakatsani, 2,500 former
political refugees, 8,000 "old Greeks", 2,000 university students and
1,000 professionals and their families.
^ "Poland: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. The Greek Polish
community is approximately 3,000 strong, with half living in the city
of Wroclaw in south east Poland.
^ "2013 Census ethnic group profiles: Greek". Statistics New Zealand.
Retrieved 9 December 2015.
^ "Syria: VI. The Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of
Foreign Affairs. December 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May
2007. There are about 1,500 people of Greek descent, most of whom have
Syrian nationality, and live mainly in Aleppo Syria's main trade and
financial centre and Damascus.
^ "Chile: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. There is a very energetic,
albeit small Greek community in Chile, numbering some 1,500
^ a b c d e Roberts 2007, pp. 171–172, 222.
^ Latacz 2004, pp. 159, 165–166.
^ a b c d Sutton 1996.
^ Beaton 1996, pp. 1–25.
CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook on Greece:
Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%,
^ Georgiev 1981, p. 156: "The
Proto-Greek region included Epirus,
approximately up to Αυλών in the north including Paravaia,
Tymphaia, Athamania, Dolopia, Amphilochia, and Acarnania), west and
Thessaly (Hestiaiotis, Perrhaibia, Tripolis, and Pieria), i.e.
more or less the territory of contemporary northwestern Greece)."
^ Guibernau & Hutchinson 2004, p. 23: "Indeed, Smith
emphasizes that the myth of divine election sustains the continuity of
cultural identity, and, in that regard, has enabled certain pre-modern
communities such as the Jews, Armenians, and
Greeks to survive and
persist over centuries and millennia (Smith 1993: 15–20)."
^ Smith 1999, p. 21: "It emphasizes the role of myths, memories
and symbols of ethnic chosenness, trauma, and the 'golden age' of
saints, sages, and heroes in the rise of modern nationalism among the
Jews, Armenians, and Greeks—the archetypal diaspora peoples."
^ Bryce 2006, p. 91
^ Cadogan & Langdon Caskey 1986, p. 125
^ Bryce 2006, p. 92
^ Drews 1994, p. 21
^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 243
^ "The Greeks". Encyclopædia Britannica. US: Encyclopædia Britannica
Inc. 2008. Online Edition.
^ Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean world. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 0-521-29037-6.
^ Vladimir I. Georgiev, for example, placed
Greece during the Late
Neolithic period. (Georgiev 1981,
p. 192: "Late
Neolithic Period: in northwestern
Greece the Proto-Greek
language had already been formed: this is the original home of the
^ Gray & Atkinson 2003, pp. 437–438; Atkinson & Gray
2006, p. 102.
^ a b "
Linear A and Linear B". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
^ Castleden 2005, p. 228.
^ Tartaron 2013, p. 28; Schofield 2006, pp. 71–72;
Panayotou 2007, pp. 417–426.
^ Hall 2014, p. 43.
^ Chadwick 1976, p. 176.
^ a b Castleden 2005, p. 2.
^ Hansen 2004, p. 7; Podzuweit 1982, pp. 65–88.
^ Castleden 2005, p. 235; Dietrich 1974, p. 156.
^ Burckhardt 1999, p. 168: "The establishment of these Panhellenic
sites, which yet remained exclusively Hellenic, was a very important
element in the growth and self-consciousness of Hellenic nationalism;
it was uniquely decisive in breaking down enmity between tribes, and
remained the most powerful obstacle to fragmentation into mutually
^ Zuwiyya 2011, pp. 142–143; Budin 2009, pp. 66–67.
^ Morgan 1990, pp. 1–25, 148–190.
^ "Ancient Greek Civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica. United
States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 18 February 2016. Online
^ Konstan 2001, pp. 29–50.
^ Steinberger 2000, p. 17; Burger 2008, pp. 57–58.
^ Burger 2008, pp. 57–58: "Poleis continued to go to war with
each other. The
Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) made this painfully
clear. The war (really two wars punctuated by a peace) was a duel
between Greece's two leading cities,
Athens and Sparta. Most other
poleis, however, got sucked into the conflict as allies of one side or
the other ... The fact that
Greeks were willing to fight for
their cities against other
Greeks in conflicts like the Peloponnesian
War showed the limits of the pull of Hellas compared with that of the
^ Fox, Robin Lane (2004). "Riding with Alexander". Archaeology. The
Archaeological Institute of America. Alexander inherited the idea of
an invasion of the Persian Empire from his father Philip whose
advance-force was already out in
Asia in 336 BC. Philips campaign had
the slogan of "freeing the Greeks" in
Asia and "punishing the
Persians" for their past sacrileges during their own invasion (a
century and a half earlier) of Greece. No doubt, Philip wanted glory
^ Brice 2012, pp. 281–286.
^ "Alexander the Great". Columbia Encyclopedia. United States:
Columbia University Press. 2008. Online Edition.
^ Green 2008, p. xiii.
^ Morris, Ian (December 2005). "Growth of the Greek Colonies in the
First Millennium BC" (PDF). Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in
Classics. Princeton/Stanford University.
^ Wood 2001, p. 8.
^ a b Boardman, Griffin & Murray 1991, p. 364
^ Arun, Neil (7 August 2007). "Alexander's Gulf outpost uncovered".
^ Grant 1990, Introduction.
^ a b "Hellenistic age". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States:
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 27 May 2015. Online Edition.
^ a b c d Harris 1991, pp. 137–138.
^ Lucore 2009, p. 51: "The
Hellenistic period is commonly
portrayed as the great age of Greek scientific discovery, above all in
mathematics and astronomy."
^ Foltz 2010, pp. 43–46.
^ Burton 1993, pp. 244–245.
^ Zoch 2000, p. 136.
^ "Hellenistic religion". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States:
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 13 May 2015. Online Edition.
^ Ferguson 2003, pp. 617–618.
^ Dunstan 2011, p. 500.
^ Milburn 1988, p. 158.
^ Makrides 2009, p. 206.
^ Howatson 1989, p. 264: "From the fourth century AD onwards the
Greeks of the eastern Roman empire called themselves Rhomaioi
^ a b Cameron 2009, p. 7.
^ Kaldellis 2008, pp. 35–40.
^ Stouraitis 2014, pp. 176, 177.
^ Finkelberg 2012, p. 20.
^ a b Burstein 1988, pp. 47–49.
^ "Byzantine Empire". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States:
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 23 December 2015. Online Edition.
^ a b Haldon 1997, p. 50.
^ Shahid 1972, pp. 295–296, 305.
^ Klein 2004, p. 290 (Note #39); Annales Fuldenses, 389: "Mense
lanuario c. epiphaniam Basilii, Graecorum imperatoris, legati cum
muneribus et epistolis ad Hludowicum regem Radasbonam
^ Fouracre & Gerberding 1996, p. 345: "The Frankish court no
longer regarded the
Byzantine Empire as holding valid claims of
universality; instead it was now termed the 'Empire of the Greeks'."
^ Angelov 2007, p. 96 (including footnote #67); Makrides 2009,
p. 74; Magdalino 1991, Chapter XIV: "Hellenism and Nationalism in
Byzantium", p. 10.
^ Page 2008, pp. 66, 87, 256
^ Kaplanis 2014, pp. 86–7
^ a b Norwich 1998, p. xxi.
^ Harris 1999, Part II Medieval Libraries: Chapter 6 Byzantine and
Moslem Libraries, pp. 71–88
^ a b "Renaissance". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States:
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 30 March 2016. Online Edition.
^ Robins 1993, p. 8.
^ "Aristotelianism". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States:
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2016. Online Edition.
^ "Cyril and Methodius, Saints". The Columbia Encyclopedia. United
States: Columbia University Press. 2016. Online Edition.
^ Kaldellis 2007, p. 66
^ Malatras 2011, pp. 425–7
^ a b c d e f "
Greece during the Byzantine period (c. AD 300–c.
1453), Population and languages, Emerging Greek identity".
Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
2008. Online Edition.
^ Angold 1975, p. 65, Page 2008, p. 127.
^ Kaplanis 2014, p. 92.
^ Mango 1965, p. 33.
^ See for example Anthony Bryer, 'The
Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond and the
Pontus' (Variourum, 1980), and his 'Migration and Settlement in the
Caucasus and Anatolia' (Variourum, 1988), and other works listed in
Caucasian Greeks and Pontic Greeks.
^ a b c d Mazower 2002, pp. 105–107.
^ "History of Europe, The Romans". Encyclopædia Britannica. United
States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition.
^ Mavrocordatos, Nicholaos (1800). Philotheou Parerga. Grēgorios
Kōnstantas (Original from
Harvard University Library). Γένος
μεν ημίν των άγαν Ελλήνων
^ "Phanariote". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc. 2016. Online Edition.
^ a b c "History of Greece, Ottoman Empire, The merchant middle
class". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition.
^ "Greek Constitution of 1822 (Epidaurus)" (PDF) (in Greek).
^ Barutciski 2003, p. 28; Clark 2006, pp. xi–xv; Hershlag
1980, p. 177; Özkırımlı & Sofos 2008, pp. 116–117.
^ Üngör 2008, pp. 15–39.
^ Broome 1996, "Greek Identity", pp. 22–27
^ ὅμαιμος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English
Lexicon, on Perseus
^ ὁμόγλωσσος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
^ I. Polinskaya, "Shared sanctuaries and the gods of others: On the
meaning Of 'common' in
Herodotus 8.144", in: R. Rosen & I. Sluiter
(eds.), Valuing others in Classical Antiquity (LEiden: Brill, 2010),
^ ὁμότροπος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus)
^ Herodotus, 8.144.2: "The kinship of all
Greeks in blood and speech,
and the shrines of gods and the sacrifices that we have in common, and
the likeness of our way of life."
^ Athena S. Leoussi, Steven Grosby, Nationalism and Ethnosymbolism:
Culture and Ethnicity in the Formation of Nations, Edinburgh
University Press, 2006, p. 115
^ Adrados 2005, p. xii.
^ Finkelberg 2012, p. 20; Harrison 2002, p. 268; Kazhdan
& Constable 1982, p. 12; Runciman 1970, p. 14.
^ Ševčenko 2002, p. 284.
^ Sphrantzes, George (1477). The Chronicle of the Fall.
^ Feraios, Rigas. New Political Constitution of the Inhabitants of
Asia Minor, the Islands of the Aegean, and the Principalities
of Moldavia and Wallachia.
^ Koliopoulos & Veremis 2002, p. 277.
^ Smith 2003, p. 98: "After the Ottoman conquest in 1453,
recognition by the Turks of the Greek millet under its Patriarch and
Church helped to ensure the persistence of a separate ethnic identity,
which, even if it did not produce a "precocious nationalism" among the
Greeks, provided the later Greek enlighteners and nationalists with a
cultural constituency fed by political dreams and apocalyptic
prophecies of the recapture of
Constantinople and the restoration of
Greek Byzantium and its Orthodox emperor in all his glory."
^ Tonkin, Chapman & McDonald 1989.
^ Patterson 1998, pp. 18–19.
^ Psellos, Michael (1994). Michaelis Pselli Orationes Panegyricae.
Stuttgart/Leipzig: Walter de Gruyter. p. 33.
^ See Iliad, II.2.530 for "Panhellenes" and
Iliad II.2.653 for
^ Cartledge 2011, Chapter 4: Argos, p. 23: "The Late
Bronze Age in
Greece is also called conventionally 'Mycenaean', as we saw in the
last chapter. But it might in principle have been called 'Argive',
'Achaean', or 'Danaan', since the three names that
Homer does apply to
Greeks collectively were 'Argives', 'Achaeans', and 'Danaans'."
^ Nagy 2014, Texts and Commentaries – Introduction #2: "Panhellenism
is the least common denominator of ancient Greek civilization ...
The impulse of Panhellenism is already at work in Homeric and Hesiodic
poetry. In the Iliad, the names "Achaeans" and "Danaans" and "Argives"
are used synonymously in the sense of Panhellenes = "all Hellenes" =
^ Herodotus. Histories, 7.94 and 8.73.
^ Homer. Iliad, 2.681–685
^ a b The Parian Marble, Entry #6: "From when
Hellen [son of]
Deuc[alion] became king of [Phthi]otis and those previously called
Graekoi were named Hellenes."
^ Pseudo-Apollodorus. Bibliotheca.
^ a b Aristotle. Meteorologica, 1.14: "The deluge in the time of
Deucalion, for instance took place chiefly in the Greek world and in
it especially about ancient Hellas, the country about
Dodona and the
^ Homer. Iliad, 16.233–16.235: "King Zeus, lord of Dodona ...
you who hold wintry
Dodona in your sway, where your prophets the
Selloi dwell around you."
^ Hesiod. Catalogue of Women, Fragment 5.
^ a b c d Adrados 2005, pp. xii, 3–5.
^ Browning 1983, p. vii: "The Homeric poems were first written
down in more or less their present form in the seventh century B.C.
Since then Greek has enjoyed a continuous tradition down to the
present day. Change there has certainly been. But there has been no
break like that between
Latin and Romance languages. Ancient Greek is
not a foreign language to the Greek of today as Anglo-Saxon is to the
modern Englishman. The only other language which enjoys comparable
continuity of tradition is Chinese."
^ a b c d Smith 1991, pp. 29–32.
^ Isaac 2004, p. 504: "Autochthony, being an Athenian idea and
represented in many Athenian texts, is likely to have influenced a
broad public of readers, wherever
Greek literature was read."
^ Anna Comnena. Alexiad, Books 1–15.
^ Papagrigorakis, Kousoulis & Synodinos 2014, p. 237:
"Interpreted with caution, the craniofacial morphology in modern and
Greeks indicates elements of ethnic group continuation within
the unavoidable multicultural mixtures."
^ Argyropoulos, Sassouni & Xeniotou 1989, p. 200: "An overall
view of the finding obtained from these cephalometric analyses
indicates that the Greek ethnic group has remained genetically stable
in its cephalic and facial morphology for the last 4,000 years."
^ "Πίνακας 9. Πληθυσμός κατά υπηκοότητα
και φύλο" (PDF) (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
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^ Papadakis, Peristianis & Welz 2006, pp. 2–3; Borowiec
2000, p. 2; Rezun 2001, p. 6; Brown 2004, p. 48.
^ Yotopoulos-Marangopoulos 2001, p. 24: "In occupied
the other hand, where heavy ethnic cleansing took place, only 300
Greek Cypriots remain from the original 200,000!"
^ Gilson, George (24 June 2005). "Destroying a minority: Turkey's
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^ Vryonis 2005, pp. 1–10.
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^ Horden & Purcell 2000, pp. 111, 128.
^ Calotychos 2003, p. 16.
^ a b McCabe & Harlaftis 2005, pp. 147–149.
^ a b Kardasis 2001, pp. xvii–xxi.
^ Clogg 2000, "The
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^ Laliotou 2004, pp. 85–92.
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^ Mackridge 1990, p. 25.
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^ Fasold 1984, p. 160.
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^ de Quetteville, Harry (8 May 2004). "Modern Athenians fight for the
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^ Tsokalidou, Roula (2002). "Greek-Speaking Enclaves of Lebanon and
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^ a b Osborne 1998, pp. 1–3.
^ Pollitt 1972, pp. xii–xv.
^ Puri 1987, pp. 28–29.
^ a b Mango 1986, pp. ix–xiv, 183.
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