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Petrol
Gasoline
Gasoline
(American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. On average, a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil (159 L) yields about 19 US gallons (72 L) of gasoline when processed in an oil refinery, though this varies based on the crude oil source's assay. The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline
Gasoline
is produced in several grades of octane rating
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Highveld
The Highveld
Highveld
(Afrikaans: Hoëveld) is the portion of the South African inland plateau which has an altitude above roughly 1500 m, but below 2100 m, thus excluding the Lesotho
Lesotho
mountain regions to the south-east of the Highveld
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Octane
Octane
Octane
is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3. Octane
Octane
has many structural isomers that differ by the amount and location of branching in the carbon chain. One of these isomers, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) is used as one of the standard values in the octane rating scale. Octane
Octane
is a component of gasoline (petrol)
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John Cassell
John Cassell
John Cassell
(23 January 1817 – 2 April 1865) was an English publisher, printer, writer and editor, who founded the firm Cassell & Co, famous for its educational books and periodicals, and which pioneered the serial publication of novels.[1] He was also a well-known tea and coffee merchant and a general business entrepreneur
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The Times
The Times
The Times
is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
(founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp
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Deflagration
Deflagration
Deflagration
(Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it. Most "fires" found in daily life, from flames to explosions, are deflagrations. Deflagration
Deflagration
is different from detonation, which propagates supersonically through shock waves. This means that when a substance detonates, it decomposes extremely quickly instead of deflagration. Black powder is an example of a substance that deflagrates when it is ignited.Contents1 Applications 2 Oil/wax fire and water 3 Flame
Flame
physics 4 Damaging events 5 See also 6 ReferencesApplications[edit] In engineering applications, deflagrations are easier to control than detonations
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Isomer
An isomer (/ˈaɪsəmər/; from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos = "equal", méros = "part") is a molecule with the same molecular formula as another molecule, but with a different chemical structure. Isomers contain the same number of atoms of each element, but have different arrangements of their atoms.[1][2] Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have the same functional groups
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Fractional Distillation
Fractional distillation
Fractional distillation
is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions. Chemical compounds are separated by heating them to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the mixture will vaporize. It uses distillation to fractionate. Generally the component parts have boiling points that differ by less than 25 °C from each other under a pressure of one atmosphere
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Coal Gas
Coal
Coal
gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system. The gas obtained when coal is heated strongly in the absence of air is called coal gas. Town gas is a more general term referring to manufactured gaseous fuels produced for sale to consumers and municipalities. Coal
Coal
gas contains a variety of calorific gases including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and volatile hydrocarbons together with small quantities of non-calorific gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Prior to the development of natural gas supply and transmission—during the 1940s and 1950s in the United States
United States
and during the late 1960s and 1970s in Great Britain
Great Britain
and Australia—virtually all gas for fuel and lighting was manufactured from coal
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Organic Compound
An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary.[1] However, the traditional definition used by most chemists is limited to compounds containing a carbon-hydrogen bond. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds
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Finland
Finland
Finland
(/ˈfɪnlənd/ ( listen); Finnish: Suomi [suo̯mi] ( listen); Swedish: Finland
Finland
[ˈfɪnland]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland)[7] is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. The country has land borders with Sweden
Sweden
to the northwest, Norway
Norway
to the north, and Russia
Russia
to the east. To the south is the Gulf of Finland
Finland
with Estonia
Estonia
on the opposite side
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Sweden
Coordinates: 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige[a]FlagGreater coat of armsMotto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a] "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times"[1]Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b] Thou ancient, thou freeRoyal anthem: Kungssången Song of the KingLocation of  Sweden  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Stockholm 59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.
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British English
British English
British English
is the standard dialect of English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.[3] Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken,[4] so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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American English
American English
American English
(AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US),[3] sometimes called United States
United States
English or U.S. English,[4][5] is the set of dialects of the English language
English language
native to the United States
United States
of America.[6] English is the most widely spoken language in the United States
United States
and is the common language used by the federal government, to the extent that all laws and compulsory education are practiced in English
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Hiroshima
(広島市, Hiroshima-shi, Japanese: [çiɾoɕima]) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
and the largest city in the Chūgoku region
Chūgoku region
of western Honshu
Honshu
- the largest island of Japan. Hiroshima, a name meaning "Broad Island", gained city status on April 1, 1889. On April 1, 1980, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
became a designated city. As of August 2016[update], the city has an estimated population of 1,196,274
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