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Peru
Coordinates : 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76 Republic
Republic
of Peru República del Perú (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" ANTHEM: Himno Nacional del Perú (Spanish) National Anthem of Peru NATIONAL SEAL : Gran Sello del Estado (Spanish) Great Seal of the State Location of
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Semi-presidential System
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic (1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic (established in 1958)
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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List Of Presidents Of Peru
This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Human Development Index
The HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy , education , and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development . A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is higher. The HDI was developed by Indian Economist Amartya Sen and Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq , often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in their life, and was published by the United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Development Programme
. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(IHDI)
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Gini Coefficient
In economics , the GINI COEFFICIENT (sometimes expressed as a GINI RATIO or a normalized GINI INDEX) (/dʒini/ jee-nee ) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian : Variabilità e mutabilità). The Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income ). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income)
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Official Language
An OFFICIAL LANGUAGE is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction . Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration). Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law", the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government. Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages . Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Seal (device)
A SEAL is a device for making an impression in wax , clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects. The seal-making device is also referred to as the seal matrix or die; the imprint it creates as the SEAL IMPRESSION (or, more rarely, the sealing). If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal; in other cases ink or another liquid or liquefied medium is used, in another color than the paper. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio (cut below the flat surface) and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief (raised above the surface)
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Great Seal Of The State
STATE may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Law and politics * 2 Science and technology * 2.1 Medicine * 2.2 Physics and chemistry * 2.3 Computing * 2.4 Mathematics * 3 Arts and entertainment * 3.1 Media * 3.2 Magazines * 4 Other uses * 5 See also LAW AND POLITICS * State (polity) , an organized community living under a single political structure and government, sovereign or constituent * Sovereign state , a sovereign political entity in international law, commonly referred to as a "country" * The Estates or the States, a national assembly of the estates, a legislature * Rechtsstaat , the legal state (constitutional state, state subordinated to law) in philosophy of law and as principle of many national constitutions* Constituent state , a type of political subdivision of a nation * Federated state , a constituent state that is part of a federal model and shares sovereignty with the federal gov
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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History Of Spain (1814-1873)
SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY was a country in turmoil. Occupied by Napoleon from 1808 to 1814, a massively destructive "war of independence " ensued, driven by an emergent Spanish nationalism . An era of reaction against the liberal ideas associated with revolutionary France followed the war, personified by the rule of Ferdinand VII and – to a lesser extent – his daughter Isabella II . Ferdinand's rule included the loss of the Spanish colonies in the New World , except for Cuba and Puerto Rico , in the 1810s and 1820s. A series of civil wars then broke out in Spain, pitting Spanish liberals and then republicans against conservatives, culminating in the Carlist Wars between the moderate Queen Isabella and her uncle, the reactionary Infante Carlos . Disaffection with Isabella's government from many quarters led to repeated military intervention in political affairs and to several revolutionary attempts against the government
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population . It includes sovereign states , inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1 . For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall. Some countries, notably Thailand
Thailand
, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens; for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate
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