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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Latin Script
Latin
Latin
or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist, which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system[1] and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70 percent of the world's population)
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Missionary
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.[1][2] The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits
Jesuits
sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom. missio), meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send".[3] The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible, Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach The gospel in his name
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
(MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is one of the official languages of China. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. The similar Taiwanese Mandarin
Taiwanese Mandarin
is a national language of Taiwan. Standard Singaporean Mandarin
Singaporean Mandarin
is one of the four official languages of Singapore. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with subsets Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
China
in mainland China
China
has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan)
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字, Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.[dubious – discuss] They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Input Method
An input method (or input method editor, commonly abbreviated IME) is an operating system component or program that allows any data, such as keyboard strokes or mouse movements, to be received as input. In this way users can enter characters and symbols not found on their input devices. Using an input method is obligatory for any language that has more graphemes than there are keys on the keyboard. For instance, on the computer, this allows the user of Latin keyboards to input Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Indic characters; on many hand-held devices, such as mobile phones, it enables using the numeric keypad to enter Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
characters (or any other alphabet characters) or a screen display to be touched to do so
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Font
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface. Each font was a matched set of type, one piece (called a "sort") for each glyph, and a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that shared an overall design. In modern usage, with the advent of digital typography, "font" is frequently synonymous with "typeface". Each style is in a separate "font file"—for instance, the typeface "Bulmer" may include the fonts "Bulmer roman", "Bulmer italic", "Bulmer bold" and "Bulmer extended"—but the term "font" might be applied either to one of these alone or to the whole typeface. In both traditional typesetting and modern usage, the word "font" refers to the delivery mechanism of the typeface design. In traditional typesetting, the font would be made from metal or wood. Today, the font is a digital file.Play mediaIsraeli typographer Henri Friedlaender
Henri Friedlaender
examines Hadassah Hebrew typeface sketches
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Christian
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Martial Law In Taiwan
On 19 May 1949, the Governor of Taiwan
Taiwan
Province, Chen Cheng, and the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of China
China
(ROC) promulgated the "Order of Martial Law" to announce the imposition of Taiwan
Taiwan
martial law (Chinese: 臺灣省戒嚴令; pinyin: Táiwān Shěng Jièyán Lìng).[1] Until the order was lifted by the President Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
on 15 July 1987,[2] Taiwan
Taiwan
had been under martial law for more than 38 years, which was qualified as "the longest imposition of martial law by a regime anywhere in the world"[3] at that time.Contents1 History of martial law in the ROC 2 Influence of martial law 3 Lifting of martial law 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesHistory of martial law in the ROC[edit] Main article: Martial Law The history of martial law of the ROC could be dated back to the final year of the Qing dynasty
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Taiwan Under Japanese Rule
Taiwan
Taiwan
under Japanese rule is the period between 1895 and 1945 in which the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
(including the Penghu
Penghu
Islands) was a dependency of the Empire of Japan, after Qing China
Qing China
lost the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan
Japan
and ceded Taiwan Province
Taiwan Province
in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The short-lived Republic of Formosa
Republic of Formosa
resistance movement ended to no avail when it was suppressed by Japanese troops. The fall of Tainan
Tainan
ended organized resistance to Japanese occupation, and inaugurated five decades of Japanese rule. The annexation of Taiwan
Taiwan
into the Japanese Empire can be viewed as Japan's first steps in implementing their "Southern Expansion Doctrine" of the late 19th century
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Diacritic
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, or diacritical sign – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
διακριτικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"), from διακρίνω (diakrī́nō, "to distinguish"). Diacritic
Diacritic
is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters. The main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script
Latin script
is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added
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Latin Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, or Southeastern Asia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia.[4] Southeast Asia
Asia
is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia
Asia
and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania
Oceania
and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia
Australia
and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia
Asia
that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere
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Chinese Emigration
Waves of Chinese emigration
Chinese emigration
(also known as the Chinese diaspora) have happened throughout history. The mass emigration known as the Chinese diaspora, which occurred from the 19th century to 1949, was mainly caused by wars and starvation in mainland China, invasion from various foreign countries, as well as problems resulting from political corruption. Most immigrants were illiterate peasants and manual labourers, called "coolies" (Chinese: 苦力; pinyin: kǔ lì; literally: "hard labour"), who emigrated to work in places such as the Americas, Australia, South Africa, Southeast Asia, and Zealandia. According to Lynn Pan's book Sons of the Yellow Emperor, the Chinese coolie emigration began after slavery was abolished throughout the British possessions. Facing a desperate shortage of manpower, European merchants looked to replace African slaves with indentured labourers from China
China
and India
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