HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1500] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern Min Amoy Taiwanese CREATOR Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage TIME PERIOD 1830s–present CHILD SYSTEMS TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters.PE̍H-ōE-Jī (pronounced ( listen ), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as CHURCH ROMANIZATION) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min and Amoy Hokkien
Hokkien
. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan
Tainan
, it uses a modified Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian , POJ became most widespread in Taiwan
Taiwan
and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material, religious and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan
Taiwan
's first newspaper, the Taiwan
Taiwan
Church News
[...More...]

"Pe̍h-ōe-jī" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Pochak, Hormozgan
POCHAK (Persian : پچك‎‎; also known as POJ and POJAK) is a village in Piveshk Rural District , Lirdaf District , Jask County , Hormozgan Province , Iran . At the 2006 census, its population was 442, in 106 families. REFERENCES * ^ Pochak can be found at GEOnet Names Server , at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3078434" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". * ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" . Islamic Republic of Iran . Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11
[...More...]

"Pochak, Hormozgan" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Latin Alphabet
The CLASSICAL LATIN ALPHABET, also known as the ROMAN ALPHABET, is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language
Latin language
. The Latin
Latin
alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet , which was itself descended from the Phoenician abjad , which in turn was derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics . The Etruscans who ruled early Rome adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet which was modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet , which was in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin
Latin
alphabet. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the Latin
Latin
alphabet was used (sometimes with modifications) for writing Romance languages
Romance languages
, direct descendants of Latin
Latin
, as well as Celtic , Germanic , Baltic , and some Slavic languages . With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism , the Latin script spread beyond Europe
Europe
, coming into use for writing indigenous American , Australian , Austronesian , Austroasiatic
Austroasiatic
, and African languages
[...More...]

"Latin Alphabet" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Southern Min
SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in certain parts of China
China
including southern Fujian
Fujian
(the Minnan region
Minnan region
), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and in Taiwan
Taiwan
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. In common parlance, Southern Min
Southern Min
usually refers to Hokkien
Hokkien
, including Amoy and Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
; both are combinations of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speeches. The Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group also includes Teochew , though Teochew has limited mutual intelligibility with Hokkien
[...More...]

"Southern Min" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Amoy Dialect
The AMOY DIALECT or XIAMEN DIALECT (Chinese : 廈門話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : Ē-mn̂g-ōe), also known as AMOYNESE, AMOY HOKKIEN, XIAMENESE or XIAMEN HOKKIEN, is a dialect of Hokkien spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and surrounding areas, in the southern part of Fujian province. It is one of the most widely researched and studied varieties of the Southern Min languages, and has historically come to be one of the more standardized varieties. Spoken Amoynese and Taiwanese are both mixtures of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou spoken dialects. As such, they are very closely aligned phonologically . However, there are some subtle differences between the two, as a result of physical separation and other historical factors. The lexical differences between the two are slightly more pronounced. Generally speaking, the Hokkien dialects of Xiamen, Quanzhou , Zhangzhou , Taiwan and Southeast Asia are mutually intelligible with only slight differences. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Special characteristics * 2.1 Accents * 2.2 Tones * 2.3 Tone sandhi * 2.4 Literary and colloquial readings * 3 Vocabulary * 4 Grammar * 4.1 Complement constructions * 4.2 Negative particles * 4.3 Common particles * 5 Romanization * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links HISTORYIn 1842, as a result of the signing of the Treaty of Nanking , Amoy was designated as a trading port
[...More...]

"Amoy Dialect" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Taiwanese Hokkien
/ (coastal) / (inland) NATIVE TO Taiwan NATIVE SPEAKERS 15 million (1997) LANGUAGE FAMILY Sino-Tibetan * Chinese * Min * Southern Min * Hokkien * TAIWANESE HOKKIEN WRITING SYSTEM Latin (pe̍h-ōe-jī ), Han characters (traditional ) OFFICIAL STATUS OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IN None, de facto status in Taiwan as one of the statutory languages for public transport announcements and for the naturalization test in Taiwan. REGULATED BY None. LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-3 – GLOTTOLOG _None_ LINGUASPHERE 79-AAA-jh Proportion of residents aged 6 or older using Hokkien at home in Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Tâi-oân Bân-lâm-gú_; translated as TAIWANESE MIN NAN), commonly known as TAIWANESE/TAIWANESE LANGUAGE (臺灣話; _Tâi-oân-oē_ / 臺灣語; _Tâi-oân-gú_), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan . It is spoken by the Taiwanese Hoklo people , who descended from immigrants from southern Fujian during the Qing dynasty . The Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) romanization is a popular orthography for this variant of Hokkien
[...More...]

"Taiwanese Hokkien" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Walter Henry Medhurst
WALTER HENRY MEDHURST (29 April 1796 – 24 January 1857), was an English Congregationalist missionary to China
China
, born in London
London
and educated at St Paul\'s School . He was one of the early translators of the Bible into Chinese language editions. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Delegates Version of the Bible * 3 Significant books * 4 Death font-style: normal;"> (zh) together with Dr William Lockhart , and later was joined by Joseph Edkins , and William Charles Milne . There he continued until 1856, laying the foundations of a successful mission. DELEGATES VERSION OF THE BIBLE Medhurst's book on China
China
inspired many to become missionaries including Hudson Taylor
Hudson Taylor
. Medhurst's principal labour for several years, was in leading the committee of delegates, which created the Delegates Version of the Bible. In the 1840s, a group of four people (Walter Henry Medhurst, John Stronach , Elijah Coleman Bridgman , and William Charles Milne) cooperated to translate the Bible into Chinese . The translation of the Hebrew language part was done mostly by Gutzlaff from the Netherlands Missionary Society , with the exception of the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
and the book of Joshua, which were done by the group collectively
[...More...]

"Walter Henry Medhurst" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Elihu Doty
ELIHU DOTY (20 September 1809 – 30 November 1864) was an American missionary to China. He was responsible for the first textbook of Southern Min in English. Along with John Van Nest Talmage he is credited with the invention of Peh-oe-ji , the most common orthography used to write Southern Min, although some doubt remains as to the exact origins of this system. CONTENTS * 1 Early mission * 2 Mission in Amoy
Amoy
* 3 Publications * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY MISSIONDoty arrived in Batavia (now Jakarta
Jakarta
) in the Dutch East Indies in 1836 and spent his first three years as a missionary there. His next station was Borneo
Borneo
, from 1839 to 1844, at which point he relocated to Amoy
Amoy
(now Xiamen) in Fujian
Fujian
, China. MISSION IN AMOYIt was while stationed in Amoy
Amoy
that Doty produced the _Anglo Chinese Manual of the Amoy
Amoy
Dialect_ (1853), which was "the earliest existing textbook for a Southern Min dialect". PUBLICATIONS * Doty, Elihu (1850). _Some thoughts on the proper term to be employed to translate Elohim and Theos into Chinese_. Shanghae: Mission Press. OCLC 31245161 . * Doty, Elihu (1853). _Anglo Chinese Manual of the Amoy
Amoy
Dialect_. Guangzhou: Samuel Wells Williams
[...More...]

"Elihu Doty" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

John Van Nest Talmage
JOHN VAN NEST TALMAGE (18 August 1819 – 19 August 1892), was a Protestant Christian missionary to Amoy , Fujian , China. He was sent by the Reformed Church in America from 1847 to 1890. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYHis younger brother Thomas De Witt Talmage was also a clergyman, and his family, within the Reformed tradition , migrated to North America from the Netherlands . His father's family had emigrated from England, and were the founders of the towns of South Hampton, and East Hampton in New York. WORKS * Van Nest Talmage, John (1852). Tn̂g-oē Hoan-jī Chho͘-ha̍k. OCLC 66646231 : an early book on Pe̍h-oē-jī , the Latin orthography for Southern Min Chinese * ————— (1885). Chinese-English Dictionary: a dictionary of Amoy vernacular and English * ————— (1894). New Dictionary in the Amoy Dialect. OCLC 41548900 . He is memorialized in the classic work Forty Years in China, which was written by Rev. John Gerardus Fagg in 1894, a biography genre. REFERENCES * ^ John Gerardus Fagg (1894). Forty Years in South China: A Biography of the Rev. John Van Nest Talmage, D.D. Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America. OCLC 2009683 . OL 20609556M
[...More...]

"John Van Nest Talmage" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet
TAIWANESE LANGUAGE PHONETIC ALPHABET (Chinese : 台灣語言音標方案; pinyin : Táiwān yǔyán yīnbiāo fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : Tâi-ôan gí-giân im-piau hong-àn), more commonly known by its initials TLPA, is a romanization for the Taiwanese language , Taiwanese Hakka language , and Formosan languages . Based on Pe̍h-ōe-jī and first published in full in 1998, it was intended as a transcription system rather than as a full-fledged orthography . REFERENCES * Taiwan portal * Languages portal * ^ Klöter, Henning (2004), "Language Policy in the KMT and DPP eras", China perspectives, 56, retrieved 2010-02-10 This article related to the Latin script is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taiwanese_Language_Phonetic_Alphabet additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
[...More...]

"Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Taiwanese Romanization System
The TAIWANESE ROMANIZATION SYSTEM (Taiwanese Romanization: _Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn_, Chinese : 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin : _Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn_; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn_; often referred to as TâI-Lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been officially promoted by Taiwan
Taiwan
's Ministry of Education . It is nearly identical to Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA) Romanization for Hakka apart from using _ts tsh j_ instead of _c ch j_ for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/. Taiwanese Romanization System CONTENTS * 1 Alphabet * 2 Values * 2.1 Consonants * 2.2 Vowels & Rhymes * 2.3 Tones * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links ALPHABET Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones
[...More...]

"Taiwanese Romanization System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet , may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics . For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, , or with a letter plus diacritics, , depending on how precise one wishes to be. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription ; thus, /t/ is less specific than, and could refer to, either or , depending on the context and language
[...More...]

"International Phonetic Alphabet" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Mojibake
MOJIBAKE (文字化け) (IPA: ; lit. "character transformation"), from the Japanese 文字 (moji) "character" + 化け (bake, pronounced "bah-keh") "transform", is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding . The result is a systematic replacement of symbols with completely unrelated ones, often from a different writing system . This display may include the generic replacement character � in places where the binary representation is considered invalid. A replacement can also involve multiple consecutive symbols, as viewed in one encoding, when the same binary code constitutes one symbol in the other encoding. This is either because of differing constant length encoding (as in Asian 16-bit encodings vs European 8-bitencodings), or the use of variable length encodings (notably UTF-8
UTF-8
and UTF-16). Failed rendering of glyphs due to either missing fonts or missing glyphs in a font is a different issue that is not to be confused with mojibake. Symptoms of this failed rendering include blocks with the codepoint displayed in hexadecimal or using the generic replacement character �. Importantly, these replacements are _valid_ and are the result of correct error handling by the software
[...More...]

"Mojibake" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . Developed in conjunction with the Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) standard and published as _The Unicode Standard_, the latest version of Unicode
Unicode
contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts). As of June 2017 , the most recent version is _ Unicode
Unicode
10.0_. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium . Unicode's success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread and predominant use in the internationalization and localization of computer software . The standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems , XML , Java (and other programming languages), and the .NET Framework . Unicode
Unicode
can be implemented by different character encodings
[...More...]

"Unicode" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Orthography
An ORTHOGRAPHY is a set of conventions for writing a language . It includes norms of spelling , hyphenation , capitalization , word breaks , emphasis , and punctuation . Most significant languages in the modern era are written down, and for most such languages a standard orthography has been developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language. Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, as between American and British spelling in the case of English orthography . In some languages orthography is regulated by language academies , although for many languages (including English) there are no such authorities, and orthography develops in a more organic way. Even in the latter languages, a significant amount of consensus arises naturally , although a maximum of consistency or standardization occurs only when prescriptively imposed according to style guides . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and meaning * 2 Units and notation * 3 Types * 4 Correspondence with pronunciation * 4.1 Defective orthographies * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ETYMOLOGY AND MEANINGThe English word _orthography_ dates from the 15th century. It comes from the French _orthographie_, from Latin _orthographia_, which derives from Greek ὀρθός _orthós_, "correct", and γράφειν _gráphein_, "to write"
[...More...]

"Orthography" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Missionary
A MISSIONARY is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education , literacy , social justice , health care , and economic development . The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin _missionem_ (nom. _missio_), meaning "act of sending" or _mittere_, meaning "to send". The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible , Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach in his name. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology
[...More...]

"Missionary" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.
Time at 25056878.816667, Busy percent: -83.821540109752
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25056878.816667 3logs/periodic-service_log.txt
Warning: file_get_contents(periodicTasks.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 40

Warning: file_get_contents(file-server-ip.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/const.php on line 59

Notice: Undefined offset: 1 in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/const.php on line 62

Warning: error_log(logs/isfileserver_log.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/helper.php on line 21

Warning: file_put_contents(periodicTasks.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 171