Fujian (Chinese: 福建; pinyin: Fújiàn; pronounced
[fǔtɕjɛ̂n] ( listen)), formerly romanised as Foken,
Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of
Fujian is bordered by three provinces:
Zhejiang to the
Jiangxi to the west and
Guangdong to the south, along with
Taiwan 150 km to the east, across the
Taiwan strait. The name
Fujian came from the combination of
Fuzhou and Jianzhou (a former name
for Jian'ou) two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty. While its
population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally
and linguistically diverse provinces in China.
Fujian is administered by the People's Republic of China
(PRC). However, the archipelagos of
Kinmen and Matsu are under the
control of the
Republic of China
Republic of China (ROC, a.k.a. Taiwan). Thus, there are
two provincial governments: the
Fujian Province administered by the
PRC and the
Fujian Province of the ROC.
1.1 Prehistoric Fujian
1.3 Imperial China
1.3.1 Han dynasty
Han Chinese migration
1.3.3 Sui and Tang dynasties
1.3.4 Song dynasty
1.3.5 Ming dynasty
1.3.6 Qing dynasty
1.4 Republican China
1.5 People's Republic
4 Administrative divisions
6.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones
10 Notable individuals
11 Miscellaneous topics
12.1 High schools
12.2 Colleges and universities
13 See also
16 External links
Recent[when?] archaeological discoveries demonstrate that
Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC. From
the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan
Island located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Fuzhou,
numerous tools made of stones, shells, bones, jades, and ceramics
(including wheel-made ceramics) have been unearthed, together with
spinning wheels, which is definitive evidence of weaving.
The Tanshishan (昙石山) site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou
spans the Neolithic and
Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground
circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun
(黄土崙) site (ca.1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the
Bronze Age in character.
See also: Minyue
Fujian was also where the kingdom of
Minyue was located. The word
"Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" (閩/闽; Pe̍h-ōe-jī:
bân), which is perhaps an ethnic name and associated with the Chinese
word for barbarians (蠻/蛮; pinyin: mán; POJ:
bân), and "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn period
Zhejiang to the north. This is due to the royal family of
Yuè fled to
Fujian after their kingdom was annexed by the State of
Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the main river in this area,
but the ethnonym is probably earlier.
See also: Han campaigns against Minyue
Minyue was a de facto kingdom until one of the emperors of the Qin
dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished its
status. In the aftermath of the fall of the Qin dynasty, civil war
broke out between two warlords,
Xiang Yu and Liu Bang. The
Wuzhu sent his troops to fight side-by-side with
Liu Bang and his
gamble paid off.
Liu Bang was victorious and founded the Han dynasty.
In 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent
kingdom. Thus, Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in
Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have
been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the
borders of contemporary
Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern
Jiangxi, and southern Zhejiang.
After the death of Wuzhu,
Minyue maintained its militant tradition and
launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in
Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, which occurred primarily in the 2nd
century BC. This was stopped by the
Han dynasty as it expanded
southward. The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the
potential threat by sending a military campaign against Minyue. Large
Minyue simultaneously from four directions via land
and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in
Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile
fight and destruction; thus the first kingdom in
Fujian history came
to an abrupt end.
Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the
way for the
Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom
of Wu, spent nearly twenty years subduing the Shan Yue people, the
branch of the Yue living in mountains.
Han Chinese migration
The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the
province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty
collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples
from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily
from eight families in central China: Lin (林), Huang (黄), Chen
(陈), Zheng (郑), Zhan (詹), Qiu (邱), He (何), and Hu (胡). The
first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian.
Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain
contributed to Fujian's relatively undeveloped economy and level of
development, despite major population boosts from northern China
during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian
remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and
sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like
other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and
Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and
dissidents at that time.
Southern and Northern Dynasties
Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties
reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian.
Sui and Tang dynasties
See also: Early western influence in Fujian
During Sui and Tang eras a large influx of migrants came and settled
Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China
which contributed to a boom of Fujian’s culture and economy.
Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The
later years of the
Tang dynasty saw a number of political upheavals in
the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate
Tang dynasty ended,
China was torn apart in the period of the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave
of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by General
Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in
Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom
suffered from internal strife, and was soon absorbed by Southern Tang,
another southern kingdom.
Quanzhou was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min
Kingdom and was the largest seaport in the
world.[when?] Its population is also greater than Fuzhou. Due
to the Ispah Rebellion,
Quanzhou was severely damaged.
Lý dynasty monarchs of Vietnam were of Chinese ethnicity.
Fujian province, Jinjiang village was the origin of Lý Thái Tổ
李公蘊, the ancestor of the
Lý dynasty ruling
Fujian was the home of Lý Công Uẩn.
The ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn has been accepted by
Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng.
The founder of the
Trần Dynasty in Vietnam, Emperor Trần Thái
Tông, was the great-grandson of a Chinese person who came to Vietnam
Fujian from the Chinese Chen clan. Several members of the family,
like the prince
Trần Quốc Tuấn
Trần Quốc Tuấn continued to know how to speak
Chinese. The name of the prince’s great grandfather was
People from the
Song dynasty of China, like
Zhao Zhong and Xu Zongdao,
fled to the Trân dynasty after the Mongol invasion of China. The
Daoist cleric Xu Zongdaowho, who recorded the Mongol invasion, and
referred to them as "Northern bandits" also came from Fujian.
Fujian was the origin of the ethnic Chinese Tran who migrated to
Vietnam along with a large amount of other Chinese, during the
Vietnamese Ly dynasty, where they served as officials. Distinctly
Chinese last names are found in the Tran and Ly dynasty Imperial exam
records. Ethnic Chinese are recorded in Tran and Ly dynasty
records of officials. Clothing, food, and language were all
Chinese dominated in
Van Don where the Tran had moved to after leaving
their home province of Fujian. The
Chinese language could still be
spoken by the Tran in Vietnam. The side of Vietnam that borders
the ocean was colonized by Chinese migrants from Fujian. This included
the Tran among them who becamr located to the capital's southeastern
area. The Red River Delta was subjected to migration from
Fujian. The Tran and
Van Don port arose as a result of this
Fujian Chinese moved to the Halong
Van Don coastal port during Ly Anh Tong's rule in order to
engage in commerce. The usurpation of the Ly occurred after they
married with the fishing Fujianese Tran family.
Fujian was attacked by
Pi-she-ye pirates from Taiwan.
In the early Ming dynasty,
Quanzhou was the staging area and supply
depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was
severely hampered by the sea trade ban of the Ming dynasty, and the
area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou,
Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550.
Large-scale piracy by
Wokou was eventually wiped out by Chinese
military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.[citation
An account of
Fujian was written by No In 鲁认.
The Pisheya appear in
Quanzhou Ming era records.
The late Ming and early
Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx
of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi
Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of
Koxinga in the island of Taiwan.
The seaban implented by the Qing forced many people to evacuate the
coast in order to deprive Koxinga's Ming loyalists of resources. This
has led to the myth that it was because Manchus were "afraid of
Incoming refugees, however, did not translate into a major labor
force, owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of
Guangdong. In 1683, the
Qing dynasty conquered
Taiwan and annexed it
Fujian province, as
Taiwan Prefecture. Settlement of Taiwan
Han Chinese followed. Today, the majority of people in
Hokkien people from Southern Fujian.
Fujian arrived at
its present extent after
Taiwan was developed into an independent
province (Fujian-Taiwan-Province) starting in 1885. Just ten more
years later, the Qing ceded
Taiwan to Japan via the Treaty of
Shimonoseki after losing the
First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War in 1895.
Fujian People's Government
Fujian People's Government and
Fujian Province, Republic of
Owing to the mountainous landscape,
Fujian was the most secluded
province of the PRC in eastern
China due to the lack of rail and
underdeveloped networks of paved roads before the 1950s. The first
railway to the province, the Yingtan-
Xiamen Railway, was completed in
1957. Despite its secluded location,
Fujian has had a strong academic
tradition since the Southern Song dynasty. At the time, north China
was occupied by the Jurchen Jin dynasty during the Jin-Song wars,
which caused a shift of the cultural center of
China to the south,
Fuzhou and other southern cities. In the Chinese Academy of
Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, there are more members
Fuzhou than from any other city. In addition, it
should also be pointed out that the slow development of
Fujian in its
early days has proven a blessing for the province's ecology; today,
the province has the highest forest coverage rate and the most diverse
China whereas central
China suffers from severe
overpopulation and displays severe signs of soil erosion accompanied
by frequent droughts and floods due to lack of forest
Since the late 1970s, the economy of
Fujian along the coast has
greatly benefited from its geographic and cultural proximity to
Taiwan. In 2003,
Xiamen ranked number eight GDP per capita among 659
Chinese cities, ahead of
Shanghai and Beijing, while
Fuzhou ranked no.
21 (number 4 among 30 provincial capitals). The
development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from
the over-populated areas in the north and west, and much of the
farmland and forest as well as cultural heritage sites such as the
temples of king Wuzhu have given way to ubiquitous high-rise
buildings, and the government faces challenges at all levels to
sustain development while, at the same time, preserving the unique and
vital natural and cultural heritage of Fujian.
Min River (闽江) in
The province is mostly mountainous, and is traditionally described to
be "Eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland"
(八山一水一分田). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the
Wuyi Mountains forming the border between
Fujian and Jiangxi. It is
the most forested provincial level administrative region in China,
with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009. The highest point of
Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of
2,157 metres (1.340 mi).
Fujian province faces
East China Sea to the east, South
to the south, and the
Taiwan Strait to the southeast. The coastline is
rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy
(also known as Kinmen) (controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan
Island, and Nanri Island.
Meizhou Island occupies a central place in
the cult of the goddess Matsu, the patron deity of Chinese sailors.
The Min River (闽江) and its tributaries cut through much of
northern and central Fujian. Other rivers include the Jin River and
the Jiulong River. Due to its uneven topography,
Fujian has many
cliffs and rapids.
Fujian is separated from
Taiwan by the 180 kilometres
Taiwan Strait. Some of the small islands in the
Taiwan Strait are also part of the province. Small parts of the
province, namely the islands of
Quemoy and Matsu, are under the
administration of the Republic of China.
Fujian province is dissected by number of faults which are the
results of stresses triggered by collision between the Asiatic Plate
and the Philippine Sea Plate. The Changle-Naoao and Longan-Jinjiang
fault zones in this area are active displaying annual displacement
rates of 3–5 mm. They can cause a major earthquake in the
Fujian has a subtropical climate, with mild winters. In January, the
coastal regions average around 7–10 °C (45–50 °F)
while the hills average 6–8 °C (43–46 °F). In the
summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by
typhoons coming in from the Pacific. Average annual precipitation is
1,400–2,000 millimetres (55–79 in).
The province has improved its infrastructure considerably by adding
166 kilometres (103 mi) of new roads and 155 kilometres
(96 mi) of railways.[when?]
As of 2012[update], there are 54,876 kilometres (34,098 miles) of
highways in Fujian, including 3,500 kilometres (2,200 miles) of
expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been
the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the
Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). The 12th Five-Year
Plan, covering the period from 2011 to 2015, aims to double the length
of the province's expressways to 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi).
Fuzhou train station
Due to Fujian's mountainous terrain and traditional reliance on
maritime transportation, railways came to the province comparatively
late. The first rail links to neighboring Jiangxi,
Zhejiang Province, opened respectively, in 1959, 2000 and 2009. As of
Fujian has four rail links with
Jiangxi to the
northwest: the Yingtan–
Xiamen Railway (opened 1957), the
Hengfeng–Nanping Railway (1998),
Ganzhou–Longyan Railway (2005)
and the high-speed
Xiangtang–Putian Railway (2013). Fujian's lone
rail link to
Guangdong to the west, the Zhangping–Longchuan Railway
(2000), will be joined with the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway
(Xiashen Line) in late 2013. The Xiashen Line forms the southern-most
section of China's Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor. The
Fuzhou and Fuzhou–
Xiamen sections of this corridor entered
operation in 2009 and links
Zhejiang with trains running
at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph).
Within Fujian, coastal and interior cities are linked by the
Fuzhou (1959), Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo (2007) and
Xiamen Railways, (2012). To attract Taiwanese investment,
the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to
2,500 km (1,553 mi).
The major airports are
Fuzhou Changle International Airport, Xiamen
Gaoqi International Airport,
Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport,
Nanping Wuyishan Airport,
Longyan Guanzhishan Airport
Longyan Guanzhishan Airport and Sanming
Xiamen is capable of handling 15.75 million
passengers as of 2011.
Fuzhou is capable of handling 6.5 million
passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons.
The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including
international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Hong
List of administrative divisions of Fujian and List of
township-level divisions of Fujian
People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China controls most of the province and
divides it into nine prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level
cities (including a sub-provincial city):
Administrative divisions of Fujian
Area in km2
* - including Jinmen County claimed by the PRC controlled by the ROC
(included in the total Counties' count)
All of the prefecture-level cities except Longyan, Sanming, and
Nanping are found along the coast.
The nine prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 85
county-level divisions (28 districts, 13 county-level cities, and 44
counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,107 township-level
divisions (605 towns, 328 townships, 18 ethnic townships, and 156
subdistricts). Note: these are the official PRC numbers. Thus, Quemoy
(Jinmen) is included as one of the 45 counties and Matsu (Mazu) as one
of the 334 townships.
Quemoy (Jinmen) County is nominally controlled by Quanzhou
Prefecture-Level city, but it is administered in its entirety by the
Republic of China. The PRC-administered Lianjiang County, under the
Fuzhou Prefecture-level City, nominally includes the
Matsu Islands (Mazu), but Matsu (Mazu), in reality, is controlled by
the Republic of China, which administers Matsu as Lienchiang County
(which is the same name but romanized differently). The
islands are nominally administered in the PRC by
Xiuyu District of
Putian Prefecture, but, in reality, is controlled by the Republic of
China, which administers
Wuchiu (Wuqiu) as part of
Further information: List of provincial leaders of the People's
Republic of China
List of the Secretaries of the CPC
Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): June 1949-October 1954
Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954-June 1958
Jiang Yizhen (江一真): acting 1958–1970
Han Xianchu (韩先楚): April 1971-December 1973
Liao Zhigao (廖志高): December 1974-February 1982
Xiang Nan (项南): February 1982-March 1986
Chen Guangyi (陈光毅)； March 1986-December 1993
Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): December 1993-October 1996
Chen Mingyi (陈明义): October 1996-December 2000
Song Defu (宋德福): December 2000-February 2004
Lu Zhangong (卢展工): February 2004-November 2009
Sun Chunlan (孙春兰): November 2009-December 2012
You Quan (尤权): December 2012 – October 2017
Yu Weiguo (于伟国): October 2017 – present
List of Governors
Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): August 1949-October 1954
Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954-January 1959
Jiang Yizhen (江一真): October 1959-December 1962
Wen Jinshui (魏金水): December 1962-August 1968
Han Xianchu (韩先楚): August 1968-December 1973
Liao Zhigao (廖志高): November 1974-December 1979
Ma Xingyuan (马兴元): December 1979-January 1983
Hu Ping (胡平): January 1983-September 1987
Wang Zhaoguo (王兆国): September 1987-November 1990
Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): November 1990-April 1994
Chen Mingyi (陈明义): April 1994-October 1996
He Guoqiang (贺国强): October 1996-August 1999
Xi Jinping (习近平): August 1999-October 2002
Lu Zhangong (卢展工): October 2002-December 2004
Huang Xiaojing (黄小晶): December 2004-April 2011
Su Shulin (苏树林): April 2011-November 2015
Yu Weiguo (于伟国): November 2015 – January 2018
Tang Dengjie (唐登杰): January 2018 – present
Fuzhou, the capital and largest city in
Fujian is one of the more affluent provinces with many industries
spanning tea production, clothing and sports manufacturers such as
Anta, 361 Degrees, Xtep,
Peak Sport Products
Peak Sport Products and Septwolves. Many
foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell,
GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK and Panasonic.
Historical GDP of
Fujian Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008)
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF
WEO October 2017)
GDP per capita (GDPpc) based on mid-year population
GDP in millions
1 foreign currency
In terms of agricultural land,
Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse.
Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and
barley. Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed.
the provinces of
China in longan production, and is also a major
producer of lychees and tea.
Seafood is another important product,
with shellfish production especially prominent.
Because of the geographic location with Taiwan,
Fujian has been
considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between
China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment
from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the
China before 1978. Since 1978, when
China opened to the world,
Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese
around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although
Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita
is only about the average of China's coastal administrative
List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP
List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita
Minnan Golden Triangle
Minnan Golden Triangle which includes Xiamen,
Quanzhou and Zhangzhou
accounts for 40 percent of the GDP of
Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening
up of direct transport with
Taiwan which commenced on December 15,
2008. This includes direct flights from
Taiwan to major
Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen,
Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic
trade with Taiwan.
Fujian is the host of
China International Fair for Investment and
Trade annually. It is held in
Xiamen to promote foreign investment for
all of China.
In 2011, Fujian's nominal GDP was 1.74 trillion yuan (US$276.3
billion), a rise of 13 percent from the previous year. Its GDP per
capita was 46,802 yuan (US$7,246 (9th)).
Fujian expects to have at least 50 enterprises that have over
10 billion RMB in annual revenues. The government also expects 55
percent of GDP growth to come from the industrial sector.
Economic and Technological Development Zones
Mud clams, oysters and shrimp are raised in
Anhai Bay off Shuitou.
Dongshan Economic and Technology Development Zone
Fuzhou Economic & Technical Development Zone
Fuzhou Free Trade Zone
Fuzhou Hi-Tech Park
Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
Meizhou Island National Tourist Holiday Resort
Wuyi Mountain National Tourist Holiday Resort
Xiamen Export Processing Zone
Xiamen Free Trade Zone
Xiamen Haicang Economic and Technological Development Zone
Xiamen Torch New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese
Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
She ethnic townships in Fujian
As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated
"population of fourteen millions."
Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Fujianese peoples
(Min-speaking groups) make up the largest subgroups of
Han Chinese in
Fujian. This includes the Hoklo people,
Fuzhounese people, Teochew
Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in
the southwestern parts of the province bordering Guangdong. Hui'an,
also a Han branch with their distinct culture and fashion, populate
Fujian's southeast coastline near
Hui'an County. The She,
scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest
minority ethnic group of the province.
Many ethnic Chinese around the world, especially in Southeast Asia,
trace their ancestries to Fujian. Descendants of Fujianese emigrants
make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan,
Indonesia and Philippines. Fujian, especially
Fuzhou City, is also the major source of Chinese immigrants in the
United States, especially since the 1990s.
Religion in Fujian[b]
Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion (31.31%)
Other religions or not religious people[c] (65.19%)
The predominant religions in
Fujian are Chinese folk religions, Taoist
traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in
2007 and 2009, 31.31% of the population believes and is involved in
Chinese ancestral religion, while 3.5% of the population identifies as
Christian. The reports didn't give figures for other types of
religion; 65.19% of the population may be either irreligious or
involved in Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism,
folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.
Temple of Tianhou (the Queen of Heaven) in Quanzhou
A roadside Buddhist temple in Siming, Xiamen
A small folk temple in Shuitou
A folk temple in Zhangzhou
One of the oldest mosques in
China is located in Quanzhou.
Rare Rose Hill Catholic parish in Fuzhou
See also: Music of Fujian, Hakka architecture, and Dog Kung Fu
Because of its mountainous nature and the numerous waves of migration
China in the course of history,
Fujian is one of the most
linguistically diverse places in all
Han Chinese areas of China. Local
dialects can become unintelligible within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi).
This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in
Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language
does". Most varieties spoken in
Fujian are assigned to a broad Min
category. Early classifications, such as those of
Li Fang-Kuei in 1937
Yuan Jiahua in 1960, divided Min into Northern and Southern
subgroups. More recent classifications subdivide Min into
Southern Min, including the
Amoy dialect and Taiwanese
Pu-Xian, spoken in central coastal areas
Eastern Min (the former Northern group), including the
Northern Min, spoken in inland northern areas
Central Min, spoken in the west of the province
Shao-Jiang, spoken in the northwest
(The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen, is not spoken in Fujian.)
Hakka, another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan
Hakka people who live there.
As is true of other provinces, the official language in
Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different
localities, although native
Fujian peoples still converse in their
native languages and dialects respectively.
Several regions of
Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Min
opera is popular around Fuzhou; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou;
Xiangju around Zhangzhou;
Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and
Putian and Xianyou County.
Kompyang (房村光饼) sold on the streets of
Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great
traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from
various regions, including
Fuzhou cuisine and
Min Nan cuisine. The
most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the
wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark
fin, sea cucumber, abalone and
Shaoxing wine (a type of Chinese
Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi
Lapsang souchong and
Fuzhou jasmine tea. Indeed, the tea
processing techniques for three major classes tea, namely, oolong,
white tea and black tea were all developed in the province.
ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact,
the English word "tea" is borrowed from
Hokkien of the Min Nan
languages. (Mandarin and
Cantonese pronounce the word chá.)
Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a noted type of lacquer ware, is noted
for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body
Fuzhou is also known for Shoushan stone carvings.
Hekeng village, in Shuyang Town, is one of the many tulou villages of
Fujian's Nanjing County.
Places of interest include:
Fujian Tulou, listed by the
UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Site
Guanghua Temple, mainland Putian
Gulangyu Island, Xiamen
Kaiyuan Temple, Quanzhou
Mount Taimu, Fuding
Nanshan Temple, Zhangzhou
The Matsu pilgrimage centers around
Meizhou Island (Putian
Municipality), because she was born there and died on the Matsu
Wuyi Mountains, listed by
UNESCO as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 1999
Yongquan Temple, Fuzhou
The province and its diaspora abroad also has a tradition of
educational achievement, and has produced many important scholars,
statesmen and other notable persons since the time of the Song
dynasty, such as:
Huang Qiaoshan (871–953), Vice-Minister of Works, Tang dynasty
Zheng Qiao (1108–1166), historian
Zhu Xi (1130–1200), Confucian philosopher
Huang Senping (14th–15th century), royal son-in-law of Sultan
Muhammad Shah of Brunei
Hong Chengchou (1593–1665),
Ming dynasty official
Shi Lang (1621–1696),
Qing dynasty admiral
Ming dynasty general who expelled the Dutch
Lin Zexu (1785–1850), scholar and official
Wong Nai Siong
Wong Nai Siong (1849–1924), scholar, revolutionary, discovered the
Sibu in Sarawak, east
Malaysia in 1901
Lin Shu (1852–1924), translator
Yan Fu (1854–1921), scholar and translator
Lin Yutang (1894–1976), writer
Zheng Zhenduo (1898–1958), literary historian
Ong Schan Tchow
Ong Schan Tchow (Chinese: 翁占秋) (1900–1945), artist well known
for the painting of the “Book of Chrysanthemums”
José Rizal (1861–1896), National Hero of the
lineage is from Fujian
Tsai Chi-Kun (1912–2004), "father of the
Go Seigen (1914–2014), pseudonym of Go champion Wú Qīngyuán
Zhang Jingchu (born 1980), actress
Raymond Lam (born 1979),
Hong Kong actor
Lin Dan (born 1983), professional badminton player
Jeremy Lin (born 1988), Basketball player
Corporations with headquarters in
China Clean Energy
Professional sports teams in
Chinese Basketball Association
Chinese Football Association Jia League
Xiamen Lanshi F.C.
Fuzhou Gezhi High School
Fuzhou No.1 Middle School
Fuzhou No.3 Middle School
Quanzhou No.5 Middle School
Xiamen Shuangshi High School
Xiamen Foreign Language School
Xiamen No.1 Middle School
Colleges and universities
See also: List of universities and colleges in Fujian
Xiamen University (founded 1921, also known as University of Amoy)
Huaqiao University (Quanzhou)
Fuzhou University (founded 1958, one of "211 project" key
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Fuzhou)
Fujian College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Fuzhou)
Fujian Medical University
Fujian Medical University (Fuzhou)
Fujian Normal University
Fujian Normal University (founded 1907) (Fuzhou)
Fujian University of Technology (Fuzhou)
Xiamen University (Xiamen)
Jimei University (Xiamen)
Xiamen University of Technology (Xiamen)
Longyan University (Longyan)
Minnan Normal University (Zhangzhou)
Minjiang University (Fuzhou)
Putian University (Putian)
Quanzhou Normal College (Quanzhou)
Wuyi University (Wuyishan)
Yang-en University (Quanzhou)
Major national historical and cultural sites in Fujian
^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS)
of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007, reported and
assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the
proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures:
① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of
the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities
often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data
for other religions with a significant presence in
China (deity cults,
Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not
reported by Wang.
^ This may include:
Members of folk religious sects;
And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or
^ a b These are the official PRC numbers from 2009
Quemoy is included as a county and Matsu as a township.
^ "Doing Business in
China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's
Republic Of China. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013.
Retrieved 5 August 2013.
^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's
Republic of China
Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census 
(No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011.
Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved 4 August
中国统计信息网. Retrieved April 6, 2016
China National Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations
Development Programme. p. 146. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
^ "深空(R) Web 应用防火墙 拦截提示 SkyDeep Web
Application Firewall Blocking Tips". 1.cn. Retrieved May 7,
^ Fuijan. Britannica.com.
^ The Pan-Pearl River Delta: An Emerging Regional Economy in a
Globalizing China. p. 41.
^ Fukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20,
2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
新华网. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
^ (in simplified Chinese) 千年前泉州人李公蕴越南当皇帝
^ (in simplified Chinese) 两安海人曾是安南皇帝
^ Lynn Pan. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Harvard
University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0674252101.
^ Cuong Tu Nguyen (1997). Thiền Uyển Tập Anh. University of
Hawaii Press. p. 371. ISBN 978-0-8248-1948-4.
^ a b K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese.
Cambridge University Press. pp. 120–.
^ a b Kenneth R. Hall (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in
the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800. Lexington Books.
pp. 159–. ISBN 978-0-7391-2835-0.
^ Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A
Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First
Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center.
pp. 8–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5.
^ Geoffrey C. Gunn (1 August 2011). History Without Borders: The
Making of an Asian World Region, 1000-1800.
Hong Kong University
Press. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-988-8083-34-3.
^ Hall (1 January 1955). Secondary Cities & Urban Networking in
the Indian Ocean Realm, c. 1400-1800. Lexington Books.
pp. 159–. ISBN 978-0-7391-3043-8.
^ Jayne Werner; John K. Whitmore; George Dutton (21 August 2012).
Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press.
pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-231-51110-0.
^ Philippe Truong (2007). The Elephant and the Lotus: Vietnamese
Ceramics in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. MFA Pub. p. 18.
^ Ainslie Thomas Embree; Robin Jeanne Lewis (1988). Encyclopedia of
Asian history. Scribner. p. 190.
^ Chuan-chou Fu-chi (Ch.10) Year 1512
^ Skinner, George William; Baker, Hugh D. R. (1977). The City in late
imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 197.
^ "Forestry in
Fujian Province" (in Chinese). English.forestry.gov.cn.
January 21, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
^ Guo, Jianming; Xu, Shiyang; Fan, Hailong (2017-05-05). "Neotectonic
interpretations and PS-InSAR monitoring of crustal deformations in the
Fujian area of China". Open Geosciences. 9 (1): 126–132.
doi:10.1515/geo-2017-0010. ISSN 2391-5447.
China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2012. Archived
from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved February 8,
^ a b "
China Expat city Guide Dalian".
China Expat. 2008. Retrieved
February 8, 2009.
^ 深圳市统计局. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》. 深圳统计网.
中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji
ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010
population census of the people's republic of
China by township /
compiled by Population census office under the state; population,
Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of
(2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi
liao (Di 1 ban. ed.).
Beijing Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she.
^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (August 2014).
^ Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces,
China NBS / Bulletin on Reforming Fujian's GDP Accounting and Data
Release System: fj.gov.cn (23-Oct-17) (Chinese)
Purchasing power parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate according
to IMF WEO (October 2017) data; Exchange rate of CN￥ to US$ is
according to State Administration of Foreign Exchange, published on
China Statistical Yearbook.
^ ukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20,
2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
^ a b "
Fujian GDP expected to hit 1 trillion yuan".
December 19, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
^ "Ever cuddlier". The Economist. December 18, 2008.
China Pledges Loans to
Taiwan Firms to Boost Ties (Update2)".
Bloomberg. December 21, 2008.
^ 用户名:密码: 验证码: 匿名? CheckLogin(); 发表评论
(March 2, 2010).
Tjcn.org. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
Fujian Economic News and Data
^ Ruǎn Jīnshān; Li Xiùzhū; Lín Kèbīng; Luō Dōnglián; Zhōu
Chén; Cài Qīnghǎi
安海湾南岸滩涂养殖贝类死亡原因调查分析 (Analysis of
the causes of death of farmed shellfish on the mudflats in the
southern part of Anhai Bay), 《福建水产》 (
^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of
Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers.
^ Semple, Kirk (21 October 2009). "In Chinatown, Sound of the Future
Is Mandarin". New York Times. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
^ a b c
China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life
Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived
September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b French, Howard W. "Uniting
China to Speak Mandarin, the One
Official Language: Easier Said Than Done." The New York Times. July
10, 2005. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the
Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects". Walter de
Gruyter. pp. 49, 52, 71. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2.
^ Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-521-29653-3.
Economic profile for Fujian
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fujian.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Fujian travel guide from Wikivoyage
Fujian Government Website (PRC)
Fujian Provincial Government (ROC)
(in English) (in Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces
Places adjacent to Fujian
Taiwan Strait / Changhua County, Chiayi County,
Hsinchu County, Kaohsiung, Kinmen,
Lienchiang County, Miaoli County, Penghu County,
Pingtung County, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan,
Taoyuan and Yunlin County, Taiwan
Fuzhou (PRC capital)
Jincheng (ROC capital)
East China Sea
Xiamen University of Technology
Min Chinese language
Hokkien earthen buildings
Shoushan stone carvings
Tale of the
Gongfu tea ceremony
Fujian White Crane
Dog Kung Fu
Bak kut teh
Buddha jumps over the wall
South Putuo Temple
County-level divisions of
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
¹ — Jinmen (Kinmen/Quemoy) is administered as a county by the
Republic of China, but claimed by the PRC.
Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China
Special administrative regions
Taiwan is claimed by the
People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China but
administered by the
Republic of China
Republic of China (see Political status of
BNF: cb12139611q (d