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FUJIAN (Chinese : 福建; pinyin : _Fújiàn_; pronounced ( listen )), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China
China
. Fujian
Fujian
is bordered by Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to the north, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
to the west, and Guangdong
Guangdong
to the south. The name Fujian
Fujian
came from the combination of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Jianzhou (a former name for Jian\'ou ) two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China.

Most of Fujian
Fujian
is administered by the People\'s Republic of China (PRC). However, the archipelagos of Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu are under the control of the Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC, aka Taiwan
Taiwan
). Thus, there are two provinces (in the sense of government organizations): the Fujian Province administered by the PRC and the Fujian
Fujian
Province of the ROC .

Fujian
Fujian
Province, where most of the overseas Chinese in southeast Asia originated from, is still famously known as the Hokkien
Hokkien
Province, based on the local pronunciation of the two Chinese characters "福建".

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Prehistoric Fujian
Fujian
* 1.2 Minyue

* 1.3 Imperial China
China

* 1.3.1 Han dynasty
Han dynasty
* 1.3.2 First Han Chinese
Han Chinese
migration * 1.3.3 Sui and Tang Dynasties * 1.3.4 Song dynasty
Song dynasty
* 1.3.5 Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
* 1.3.6 Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty

* 1.4 Republican China
China

* 2 Geography

* 3 Transportation

* 3.1 Road * 3.2 Railways * 3.3 Air

* 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Politics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones

* 7 Demographics

* 7.1 Religion

* 8 Culture * 9 Tourism * 10 Notable individuals * 11 Miscellaneous topics

* 12 Education

* 12.1 High schools

* 12.2 Colleges and universities

* 12.2.1 National * 12.2.2 Provincial * 12.2.3 Private

* 13 See also * 14 Notes * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

PREHISTORIC FUJIAN

Recent archaeological discoveries demonstrate that Fujian
Fujian
had entered the Neolithic Age
Neolithic Age
by the middle of the 6th millennium BC. From the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, shells , bones , jades , and ceramics (including wheel-made-ceramics) have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels , a definitive evidence of weaving .

The Tanshishan (昙石山) site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun (黄土崙) site (ca.1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in character.

MINYUE

See also: Minyue

Fujian
Fujian
was also the place for the kingdom of Minyue . The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" (閩/闽; Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
: _bân_), perhaps an ethnic name and associated with the Chinese word for barbarians (蠻/蛮; pinyin: mán; POJ: bân), and "Yuè ", after the State of Yue , a Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
kingdom in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to the north. This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after their kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is probably earlier.

IMPERIAL CHINA

Han Dynasty

See also: Han campaigns against Minyue

Minyue was a _de facto_ kingdom until the emperor of Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished the status. In the aftermath of the fall of the Qin dynasty, however, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
and Liu Bang
Liu Bang
; the Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight side-by-side with Liu Bang
Liu Bang
and his gamble paid off. Liu Bang
Liu Bang
was victorious and founded the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
; in 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom. Thus, Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains , which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian
Fujian
into eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, eastern Jiangxi
Jiangxi
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
.

After the death of Wuzhu, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong
Guangdong
, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
, and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, mostly in the 2nd century BC, only to be stopped by the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
as it expanded southward . The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the potential threat by sending a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue simultaneously from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction; thus the first kingdom in Fujian
Fujian
history came to an abrupt end.

The Han dynasty
Han dynasty
collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
era. Sun Quan
Sun Quan
, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu , spent nearly twenty years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains.

First Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Migration

The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China
China
: Lin (林) , Huang (黄) , Chen (陈) , Zheng (郑) , Zhan (詹) , Qiu (邱) , He (何) , and Hu (胡) . The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian.

Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively undeveloped economy and level of development, despite major population boost from northern China
China
during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian
Fujian
remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong
Guangdong
, Guangxi
Guangxi
, Guizhou
Guizhou
, and Yunnan , Fujian
Fujian
often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties
Southern and Northern Dynasties
era, the Southern Dynasties reigned south of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
, including Fujian.

Sui And Tang Dynasties

See also: Early western influence in Fujian

During Sui and Tang eras a large influx of migrants came and settled in Fujian.

The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China
China
and culturally and economically benefited Fujian
Fujian
greatly, Fujian's capital Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to the modern-day Fujian.

As the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
ended, China
China
was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by General Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon swallowed up by Southern Tang
Southern Tang
, another southern kingdom.

Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom and was the largest seaport in the world. Its population is also greater than Fuzhou
Fuzhou
. Due to the Ispah Rebellion
Ispah Rebellion
, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was severely damaged.

Song Dynasty

The Lý dynasty
Lý dynasty
monarchs of Vietnam were of Chinese ethnicity. Fujian
Fujian
province, Jinjiang village was the origin of Lý Thái Tổ 李公蘊, the ancestor of the Lý dynasty
Lý dynasty
ruling family. China, Fujian
Fujian
was the home of Lý Công Uẩn. The ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn has been accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng .

The founder of the Trần Dynasty
Trần Dynasty
in Vietnam, Emperor Trần Thái Tông was the great grandon of a Chinese who came to Vietnam from Fujian, from the Chinese Chen clan and several members of the family like Prince Trần Quốc Tuấn continued to be able to speak Chinese The name of his great grandfather was Trần Kinh.

People from Song dynasty
Song dynasty
China
China
like Zhao Zhong and Xu Zongdao fled to Tran dynasty ruled Vietnam after the Mongol invasion of the Song. The Tran dynasty originated from the Fujian
Fujian
region of China
China
as did the Daoist cleric Xu Zongdao who recorded the Mongol invasion and referred to them as "Northern bandits".

Fujian
Fujian
was the origin of the ethnic Chinese Tran who migrated to Vietnam along with a large amount of other Chinese during the Ly dynasty where they served as officials. Distinctly Chinese last names are found in the Tran and Ly dynasty Imperial exam records. Ethnic Chinese are recorded in Tran and Ly dynasty records of officials. Clothing, food, and language were all Chinese dominated in Van Don where the Tran had moved to after leaving their home province of Fujian. The Chinese language
Chinese language
could still be spoken by the Tran in Vietnam. The ocean side area of Vietnam was colonized by Chinese migrants from Fujian
Fujian
which included the Tran among them located to the capital's southeastern area. The Red River Delta was subjected to migration from Fujian
Fujian
including the Tran and Van Don port arose as a result of this interaction. Guangdong
Guangdong
and Fujian
Fujian
Chinese moved to the Halong located Van Don coastal port during Ly Anh Tong's rule in order to engage in commerce. The usurpation of the Ly occurred after they married with the fishing Fujianese Tran family.

In 1172 Fujian
Fujian
was attacked by Pi-she-ye pirates.

Ming Dynasty

In the early Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He
Zheng He
's naval expeditions . Further development was severely hampered by the sea trade ban of the Ming dynasty, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, Ningbo and Shanghai
Shanghai
despite the lifting of the ban in 1550. Large-scale piracy by Wokou
Wokou
was eventually wiped out by Chinese military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
.

An account of Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
Fujian
Fujian
was written by No In 鲁认.

The Pisheya appear in Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Ming era records.

Qing Dynasty

Late Ming and early Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor , a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga
Koxinga
in the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
.

The seaban implented by the Qing forced many people to evacuate the coast in order to deprive Koxinga's Ming loyalists of resources, this has led to a myth that it was because Manchus were "afraid of water".

Incoming refugees, however, did not translate into a major labor force owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong . In 1683, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
conquered Taiwan
Taiwan
and annexed it into Fujian
Fujian
province, as Taiwan
Taiwan
Prefecture . Settlement of Taiwan
Taiwan
by Han Chinese followed, and the majority of people in Taiwan
Taiwan
are descendants of Hokkien
Hokkien
people from Southern Fujian. Fujian
Fujian
arrived at its present extent after Taiwan
Taiwan
was developed into an independent province ( Fujian-Taiwan-Province ) starting in 1885. Just ten more years later, the Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan via the Treaty of Shimonoseki after losing the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
in 1895.

REPUBLICAN CHINA

Owing to the mountainous landscape, Fujian
Fujian
was the most secluded province of the PRC in eastern China
China
due to the lack of rail and underdeveloped networks of paved roads before the 1950s. The first railway to the province, the Yingtan-Xiamen Railway
Yingtan-Xiamen Railway
, was completed in 1957. Despite its secluded location, Fujian
Fujian
has had a strong academic tradition since the Southern Song dynasty
Southern Song dynasty
. At the time, north China was occupied by the Jurchen Jin dynasty during the Jin-Song wars , which caused a shift of the cultural center of China
China
to the south, benefiting Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and other southern cities. In the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering , there are more members from Fuzhou
Fuzhou
than from any other city. In addition, it should also be pointed out that the slow development of Fujian
Fujian
in its early days has proven a blessing for the province's ecology; today, the province has the highest forest coverage rate and the most diverse biosphere in China
China
whereas central China
China
suffers from severe overpopulation and displays severe signs of soil erosion accompanied by frequent droughts and floods due to lack of forest coverage.

Since the late 1970s, the economy of Fujian
Fujian
along the coast has greatly benefited from its geographic and cultural proximity to Taiwan. In 2003, Xiamen
Xiamen
ranked number eight GDP per capita among 659 Chinese cities, ahead of Shanghai
Shanghai
and Beijing, while Fuzhou
Fuzhou
ranked no. 21 (number 4 among 30 provincial capitals). The development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from the over-populated areas in the north and west, and much of the farmland and forest as well as cultural heritage sites such as the temples of king Wuzhu have given way to ubiquitous high-rise buildings, and the government faces challenges at all levels to sustain development while, at the same time, preserving the unique and vital natural and cultural heritage of Fujian.

GEOGRAPHY

Wuyi Mountains Min River (闽江)in Nanping
Nanping
(南平)

The province is mostly mountainous, and is traditionally described to be "Eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" (八山一水一分田). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the Wuyi Mountains forming the border between Fujian
Fujian
and Jiangxi
Jiangxi
. It is the most forested provincial level administrative region in China, with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009. The highest point of Fujian
Fujian
is Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of 2157 m.

Fujian
Fujian
province faces East China
East China
Sea to the east, South China Sea
South China Sea
to the south, and the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait to the southeast. The coastline is rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy (also known as Kinmen) (controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan Island , and Nanri Island . Meizhou Island occupies a central place in the cult of the goddess Matsu , the patron deity of Chinese sailors.

The Min River (闽江) and its tributaries cut through much of northern and central Fujian. Other rivers include the Jin River and the Jiulong River . Due to its uneven topography, Fujian
Fujian
has many cliffs and rapids.

Fujian
Fujian
is separated from Taiwan
Taiwan
by the 180 kilometres (110 mi)-wide Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait. Some of the small islands in the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait are also part of the province. Small parts of the province, namely the islands of Quemoy and Matsu , are under the administration of the Republic of China.

Fujian
Fujian
has a subtropical climate , with mild winters. In January the coastal regions average around 7–10 °C (45–50 °F) while the hills average 6–8 °C (43–46 °F). In the summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific . Average annual precipitation is 1,400–2,000 millimetres (55–79 in).

TRANSPORTATION

The province has improved its infrastructure considerably by adding 166 kilometres (103 mi) of new roads and 155 kilometres (96 mi) of railways.

ROAD

As of 2012 , there are 54,876 kilometres (34,098 miles) of highways in Fujian, including 3,500 kilometres (2,200 miles) of expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the Sanmingshi-Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). The 12th Five-Year Plan , covering the period from 2011 to 2015, aims to double the length of the province's expressways to 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi).

RAILWAYS

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
train station

Due to Fujian's mountainous terrain and traditional reliance on maritime transportation, railways came to the province comparatively late. The first rail links to neighboring Jiangxi
Jiangxi
, Guangdong
Guangdong
and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province, opened respectively, in 1959, 2000 and 2009. As of October 2013, Fujian
Fujian
has four rail links with Jiangxi
Jiangxi
to the northwest: the Yingtan– Xiamen
Xiamen
Railway (opened 1957), the Hengfeng–Nanping Railway (1998), Ganzhou–Longyan Railway (2005) and the high-speed Xiangtang–Putian Railway (2013). Fujian's lone rail link to Guangdong
Guangdong
to the west, the Zhangping–Longchuan Railway (2000), will be joined with the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway (Xiashen Line) in late 2013. The Xiashen Line forms the southern-most section of China's Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor . The Wenzhou– Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Fuzhou– Xiamen
Xiamen
sections of this corridor entered operation in 2009 and links Fujian
Fujian
with Zhejiang
Zhejiang
with trains running at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph).

Within Fujian, coastal and interior cities are linked by the Nanping– Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(1959), Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo (2007) and Longyan– Xiamen
Xiamen
Railways (2012). To attract Taiwanese investment, the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to 2,500 km (1,553 mi).

AIR

The major airports are Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Changle
Changle
International Airport , Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport , Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Jinjiang International Airport , Nanping Wuyishan Airport and Longyan Guanzhishan Airport . Xiamen
Xiamen
is capable of handling 15.75 million passengers in 2011. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is capable of handling 6.5 million passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons. The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore
Singapore
and Hong Kong.

Major cities:

* Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Foochow) * Xiamen
Xiamen
(Amoy) * Nanping
Nanping
(Nanbeing) * Quanzhou
Quanzhou
(Chinchew) * Longyan
Longyan
* Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
(Changchow) * Putian
Putian

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Fujian and List of township-level divisions of Fujian
Fujian

The People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
controls most of the province and divides it into nine prefecture-level divisions : all prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city ):

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF FUJIAN

№ DIVISION CODE ENGLISH NAME CHINESE PINYIN AREA IN KM2 POPULATION 2010 SEAT DIVISIONS

DISTRICTS COUNTIES CL CITIES

350000 FUJIAN 福建省 Fújiàn Shěng 121400.00 36,894,216 Fuzhou
Fuzhou
28 44 13

1 350100 FUZHOU 福州市 Fúzhōu Shì 12155.46 7,115,370 Gulou District 5 6 2

2 350200 XIAMEN 厦门市 Xiàmén Shì 1699.39 3,531,347 Siming District
Siming District
6

6 350300 PUTIAN 莆田市 Pútián Shì 4119.02 2,778,508 Chengxiang District
Chengxiang District
4 1

8 350400 SANMING 三明市 Sānmíng Shì 22928.79 2,503,388 Meilie District 2 9 1

7 350500 QUANZHOU 泉州市 Quánzhōu Shì 11245.00 8,128,530 Fengze District 4 5* 3

9 350600 ZHANGZHOU 漳州市 Zhāngzhōu Shì 12873.33 4,809,983 Longwen District 2 8 1

4 350700 NANPING 南平市 Nánpíng Shì 26280.54 2,645,549 Jianyang District
Jianyang District
2 5 3

3 350800 LONGYAN 龙岩市 Lóngyán Shì 19028.26 2,559,545 Xinluo District
Xinluo District
2 4 1

5 350900 NINGDE 宁德市 Níngdé Shì 13452.38 2,821,996 Jiaocheng District
Jiaocheng District
1 6 2

Sub-provincial cities

* - including Jinmen County claimed by the PRC controlled by the ROC (included in the total Counties' count)

All of the prefecture-level cities except Longyan, Sanming, and Nanping
Nanping
are found along the coast.

The nine prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 85 county-level divisions (28 districts , 13 county-level cities , and 44 counties ). Those are in turn divided into 1,107 township-level divisions (605 towns , 328 townships , 18 ethnic townships , and 156 subdistricts ). _Note: these are the official PRC numbers. Thus, Quemoy (Jinmen) is included as one of the 45 counties and Matsu (Mazu) as one of the 334 townships._

Quemoy (Jinmen) County is nominally controlled by Quanzhou Prefecture-Level city, but it is administered in its entirety by the Republic of China. The PRC-administered Lianjiang County
Lianjiang County
, under the jurisdiction of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Prefecture-level City, nominally includes the Matsu Islands
Matsu Islands
(Mazu), but Matsu (Mazu), in reality, is controlled by the Republic of China, which administers Matsu as Lienchiang County (same name romanized differently). The Wuchiu (Wuqiu) islands are nominally administered in the PRC by Xiuyu District of Putian Prefecture, but, in reality, is controlled by the Republic of China, which administers Wuchiu (Wuqiu) as part of Quemoy (Jinmen) County.

POLITICS

Further information: List of provincial leaders of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China

List of the Secretaries of the CPC Fujian
Fujian
Committee

* Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): June 1949-October 1954 * Ye Fei
Ye Fei
(叶飞): October 1954-June 1958 * Jiang Yizhen (江一真): acting 1958–1970 * Han Xianchu
Han Xianchu
(韩先楚): April 1971-December 1973 * Liao Zhigao (廖志高): December 1974-February 1982 * Xiang Nan (项南): February 1982-March 1986 * Chen Guangyi (陈光毅); March 1986-December 1993 * Jia Qinglin
Jia Qinglin
(贾庆林): December 1993-October 1996 * Chen Mingyi (陈明义): October 1996-December 2000  * Song Defu (宋德福): December 2000-February 2004 * Lu Zhangong (卢展工): February 2004-November 2009 * Sun Chunlan
Sun Chunlan
(孙春兰): November 2009-December 2012 * You Quan (尤权): December 2012 – present

List of Governors

* Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): August 1949-October 1954   * Ye Fei
Ye Fei
(叶飞): October 1954-January 1959 * Jiang Yizhen (江一真): October 1959-December 1962 * Wen Jinshui (魏金水): December 1962-August 1968  * Han Xianchu
Han Xianchu
(韩先楚): August 1968-December 1973 * Liao Zhigao (廖志高): November 1974-December 1979 * Ma Xingyuan (马兴元): December 1979-January 1983 * Hu Ping (胡平): January 1983-September 1987 * Wang Zhaoguo (王兆国): September 1987-November 1990 * Jia Qinglin
Jia Qinglin
(贾庆林): November 1990-April 1994 * Chen Mingyi (陈明义): April 1994-October 1996 * He Guoqiang
He Guoqiang
(贺国强): October 1996-August 1999 * Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping
(习近平): August 1999-October 2002 * Lu Zhangong (卢展工): October 2002-December 2004 * Huang Xiaojing (黄小晶): December 2004-April 2011 * Su Shulin (苏树林): April 2011-November 2015 * Yu Weiguo (于伟国): November 2015 – present

ECONOMY

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
, the capital and largest city in Fujian
Fujian
province.

Fujian
Fujian
is one of the more affluent provinces with many industries spanning tea production, clothing and sports manufacturers such as Anta , 361 Degrees , Xtep , Peak Sport Products and Septwolves . Many foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell, GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK and Panasonic.

In terms of agricultural land, Fujian
Fujian
is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice
Rice
is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley . Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed . Fujian
Fujian
leads the provinces of China
China
in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea . Seafood
Seafood
is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent.

Because of the geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian
Fujian
has been considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between mainland China
China
and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China
China
before 1978. Since 1978, when China
China
opened to the world, Fujian
Fujian
has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although Fujian
Fujian
is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita is only about the average of China's coastal administrative divisions.

See also List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP
List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP
per capita

Minnan Golden Triangle which includes Xiamen
Xiamen
, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou accounts for 40 percent of the GDP of Fujian
Fujian
province.

Fujian
Fujian
province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of direct transport with Taiwan
Taiwan
which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan
Taiwan
to major Fujian
Fujian
cities such as Xiamen
Xiamen
and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan.

Fujian
Fujian
is the host of China
China
International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen
Xiamen
to promote foreign investment for all of China.

In 2011, Fujian's nominal GDP was 1.74 trillion yuan (US$276.3 billion), a rise of 13 percent from the previous year. Its GDP per capita was 46,802 yuan (US$7,246 (9th)).

By 2015 Fujian
Fujian
expects to have at least 50 enterprises that have over 10 billion RMB in annual revenues. The government also expects 55 percent of GDP growth to come from the industrial sector.

ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES

Mud clams, oysters and shrimp are raised in Anhai Bay
Anhai Bay
off Shuitou

* Dongshan Economic and Technology Development Zone * Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Economic & Technical Development Zone * Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Free Trade Zone * Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Hi-Tech Park * Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Taiwan
Taiwan
Merchant Investment Area * Jimei
Jimei
Taiwan
Taiwan
Merchant Investment Area * Meizhou Island National Tourist Holiday Resort * Wuyi Mountain
Wuyi Mountain
National Tourist Holiday Resort * Xiamen
Xiamen
Export Processing Zone * Xiamen
Xiamen
Free Trade Zone * Xiamen
Xiamen
Haicang Economic and Technological Development Zone * Xiamen
Xiamen
Torch New "> She ethnic townships in Fujian
Fujian

As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated "population of fourteen millions."

Han Chinese
Han Chinese
make up 98% of the population. Various Fujianese peoples (Min-speaking groups) make up the largest subgroups of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
in Fujian. This includes the Hoklo people
Hoklo people
, Fuzhounese
Fuzhounese
people , Teochew people and Putian
Putian
people .

Hakka , a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
people with its own distinct identity, live in the southwestern parts of the province bordering Guangdong
Guangdong
. Hui\'an , also a Han branch with their distinct culture and fashion, populate Fujian's southeast coastline near Chongwu in Hui\'an County . The She , scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the province.

Many ethnic Chinese around the world, especially in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, trace their ancestries to Fujian. Descendants of Fujianese emigrants make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan , Singapore
Singapore
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Philippines
Philippines
. Fujian, especially Fuzhou
Fuzhou
City, is also the major source of Chinese immigrants in the United States, especially since the 1990s.

RELIGION

Religion in Fujian
Fujian
Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
(31.31%) Christianity
Christianity
(3.5%) Other religions or not religious people (65.19%)

The predominant religions in Fujian
Fujian
are Chinese folk religions , Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism
Chinese Buddhism
. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.31% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
, while 3.5% of the population identifies as Christian. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 65.19% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
, Buddhism, Confucianism
Confucianism
, Taoism, folk religious sects , and small minorities of Muslims .

*

Temple of Tianhou (the Queen of Heaven) in Quanzhou
Quanzhou
. *

A roadside Buddhist temple in Siming , Xiamen
Xiamen
. *

A small folk temple in Shuitou . *

A folk temple in Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
. *

One of the oldest mosques in China
China
is located in Quanzhou
Quanzhou
. *

Rare Rose Hill Catholic parish in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
.

CULTURE

See also: Music of Fujian , Hakka architecture
Hakka architecture
, and Dog Kung Fu

Because of its mountainous nature and the numerous waves of migration from central China
China
in the course of history, Fujian
Fujian
is one of the most linguistically diverse places in all Han Chinese
Han Chinese
areas of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi). This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does". Most varieties spoken in Fujian
Fujian
are assigned to a broad Min category. Early classifications, such as those of Li Fang-Kuei in 1937 and Yuan Jiahua in 1960, divided Min into Northern and Southern subgroups. More recent classifications subdivide Min into

* Southern Min
Southern Min
, including the Amoy dialect
Amoy dialect
, * Pu-Xian , spoken in central coastal areas, * Eastern Min
Eastern Min
(the former Northern group), including the Fuzhou dialect , * Northern Min , spoken in inland northern areas, * Central Min , spoken in the west of the province, and * Shao-Jiang , spoken in the northwest.

(The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen , is not spoken in Fujian.) Hakka , another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan
Longyan
by the Hakka people
Hakka people
who live there.

As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian
Fujian
is Mandarin , which is used for communication between people of different localities, although native Fujian
Fujian
peoples still converse in their native languages and dialects respectively.

Several regions of Fujian
Fujian
have their own form of Chinese opera
Chinese opera
. Min opera is popular around Fuzhou
Fuzhou
; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou ; Xiangju around Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
; Fujian
Fujian
Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian
Putian
and Xianyou County
Xianyou County
. Kompyang (房村光饼) sold on the streets of Fujian
Fujian
cities.

Fujian cuisine
Fujian cuisine
, with an emphasis on seafood , is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine
Chinese cuisine
. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou
Fuzhou
cuisine and Min Nan
Min Nan
cuisine . The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall "), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin , sea cucumber , abalone and Shaoxing wine
Shaoxing wine
(a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage ).

Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong , Wuyi Yancha , Lapsang souchong
Lapsang souchong
and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
jasmine tea . Indeed, the tea processing techniques for three major classes tea, namely, oolong, white tea and black tea were all developed in the province. Fujian
Fujian
tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact, the English word "tea" is borrowed from Hokkien
Hokkien
of the Min Nan languages. (Mandarin and Cantonese
Cantonese
pronounce the word _chá_.)

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
bodiless lacquer ware , a noted type of lacquer ware , is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed. Fuzhou
Fuzhou
is also known for Shoushan stone carvings .

TOURISM

Hekeng village, in Shuyang Town, is one of the many tulou villages of Fujian's Nanjing County
Nanjing County

Places of interest include:

* Fujian Tulou , listed by the UNESCO
UNESCO
as one of the World Heritage Site (2008) * Guanghua Temple (Putian) , mainland Putian
Putian
* Gulangyu Island
Gulangyu Island
, Xiamen
Xiamen
* Kaiyuan Temple , Quanzhou
Quanzhou
* Mount Taimu , Fuding * Nanshan Temple , Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
* The Matsu pilgrimage centers around Meizhou Island (Putian Municipality), because she was born there and died on the Matsu Islands . * Wuyi Mountains , listed by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1999. * Yongquan Temple , Fuzhou
Fuzhou
.

NOTABLE INDIVIDUALS

The province and its diaspora abroad also has a tradition of educational achievement, and has produced many important scholars, statesmen and other notable persons since the time of the Song dynasty , such as:

* Huang Qiaoshan (871–953), Vice-Minister of Works, Tang dynasty. * Zheng Qiao (1108–1166), historian. * Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi
(1130–1200), Confucian philosopher. * Huang Senping (14th-15th century), Royal son-in-law of Sultan Muhammad Shah of Brunei . * Hong Chengchou (1593–1665), Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
official. * Shi Lang (1621–1696), Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
admiral. * Koxinga
Koxinga
(1624–1662), a Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
general who expelled the Dutch from Taiwan. * Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu
(1785–1850), scholar and official. * Wong Nai Siong
Wong Nai Siong
(1849–1924), scholar, revolutionary, discovered the town of Sibu
Sibu
in Sarawak
Sarawak
, east Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1901. * Lin Shu (1852–1924), translator. * Yan Fu (1854–1921), scholar and translator. * Lin Yutang (1894–1976), writer. * Zheng Zhenduo
Zheng Zhenduo
(1898–1958), literary historian. * Ong Schan Tchow (Chinese : 翁占秋) (1900 – 1945), artist well known for the painting of the “Book of Chrysanthemums” * José Rizal
José Rizal
(1861-1896), National Hero of the Philippines
Philippines
whose lineage is from Fujian * Tsai Chi-Kun (1912 - 2004), Father of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Symphony * Go Seigen
Go Seigen
(1914–2014), pseudonym of Go champion Wú Qīngyuán. * Zhang Jingchu (born 1980), actress * Raymond Lam
Raymond Lam
(born 1979), Hong Kong
Hong Kong
actor * Lin Dan (born 1983), Professional Badminton Player

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

Corporations with headquarters in Fujian
Fujian
include:

* China
China
Clean Energy

Professional sports teams in Fujian
Fujian
include:

* Chinese Basketball Association
Chinese Basketball Association

* Fujian Xunxing

* Chinese Football Association Jia League
Chinese Football Association Jia League

* Xiamen
Xiamen
Lanshi F.C.

EDUCATION

HIGH SCHOOLS

* Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Gezhi High School * Fuzhou
Fuzhou
No.1 Middle School * Fuzhou
Fuzhou
No.3 Middle School * Quanzhou
Quanzhou
No.5 Middle School * Xiamen
Xiamen
Foreign Language School

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

See also: List of universities and colleges in Fujian

National

* Xiamen
Xiamen
University (founded 1921, also known as University of Amoy ) (Xiamen) * Huaqiao University
Huaqiao University
(Quanzhou)

Provincial

* Fuzhou
Fuzhou
University (founded 1958, one of "211 project" key Universities)(Fuzhou) * Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
(Fuzhou) * Fujian College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Fuzhou) * Fujian Medical University
Fujian Medical University
(Fuzhou) * Fujian Normal University (founded 1907) (Fuzhou) * Fujian University of Technology (Fuzhou) * Jimei
Jimei
University (Xiamen) * Xiamen
Xiamen
University of Technology (Xiamen) * Longyan
Longyan
University (Longyan) * Minnan Normal University (Zhangzhou) * Minjiang University (Fuzhou) * Putian
Putian
University (Putian) * Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Normal College (Quanzhou) * Wuyi University (Wuyishan)

Private

* Yang-en University (Quanzhou)

SEE ALSO

* Major national historical and cultural sites in Fujian
Fujian

NOTES

* ^ 《夢溪筆談·卷二十五·雜誌二》:「桓死,安南大亂,久無酋長。其後國人共立閩人李公蘊為主。」 * ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines ). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China
China
(deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.

* ^ This may include:

* Buddhists ; * Confucians ; * Deity worshippers ; * Taoists ; * Members of folk religious sects ; * Chinese Muslims ; * And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or diffuse religion.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ These are the official PRC numbers from 2009 Fujian Statistic Bureau. Quemoy is included as a county and Matsu as a township. * ^ "Doing Business in China
China
- Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013. * ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013. * ^ "福建省2015年国民经济和社会发展统计公报". 中国统计信息网. Retrieved April 6, 2016 * ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (IN CHINESE). UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME CHINA. 2013. RETRIEVED 2014-01-05. * ^ "深空(R) Web 应用防火墙 拦截提示 SkyDeep Web Application Firewall Blocking Tips". 1.cn. Retrieved May 7, 2012. * ^ Fuijan. Britannica.com. * ^ {

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to FUJIAN _.

_ Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica_ article _FU-KIEN _.

* _ Fujian
Fujian
travel guide from Wikivoyage * (in Chinese) Fujian
Fujian
Government Website (PRC) * (in Chinese) Fujian
Fujian
Provincial Government (ROC) * (in English) (in Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850

‹ The template below (Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

_ Jiangxi
Jiangxi

Zhejiang
Zhejiang

FUJIAN

Guangdong
Guangdong

Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait _ / Changhua County
Changhua County
, Chiayi County
Chiayi County
, Hsinchu
Hsinchu
, Hsinchu
Hsinchu
County , Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
, Kinmen
Kinmen
, Lienchiang County , Miaoli County , Penghu County , Pingtung County
Pingtung County
, New Taipei , Taichung
Taichung
, Tainan
Tainan
, Taoyuan and Yunlin County
Yunlin County
, Taiwan
Taiwan

* v * t * e

Fujian
Fujian
topics

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(capital )

GENERAL

* History * Politics * Economy

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Jiulong River * Min River * Wuyi Mountains * East China
East China
Sea * South China Sea
South China Sea
* Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait * Haitan Island * Jin River

EDUCATION

* Huaqiao University
Huaqiao University
* Xiamen
Xiamen
University * Jimei
Jimei
University * Xiamen
Xiamen
University of Technology * Longyan
Longyan
University * Putian
Putian
University

CULTURE

* Music * Hakka people
Hakka people
* Hakka architecture
Hakka architecture
* Dog Kung Fu * Gongfu tea ceremony
Gongfu tea ceremony
* Min Chinese
Min Chinese
* Turtle-back tombs

CUISINE

* Fuzhou
Fuzhou
cuisine * Buddha jumps over the wall

VISITOR ATTRACTIONS

* Anping Bridge
Anping Bridge
* Fujian Tulou * Guanghua Temple * Nanshan Temple * Matsu pilgrimage * Kaiyuan Temple * South Putuo Temple

* CATEGORY * COMMONS

* v * t * e

County-level divisions of Fujian
Fujian
Province

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(capital )

SUB-PROVINCIAL CITY

XIAMEN

* Siming District
Siming District

* Haicang District

* Fujian Free-Trade Zone

* Huli District
Huli District

* Fujian Free-Trade Zone

* Jimei
Jimei
District * Tong\'an District * Xiang\'an District

Prefecture-level cities

FUZHOU

* Gulou District * Taijiang District * Cangshan District

* Mawei District

* Fujian Free-Trade Zone

* Jin\'an District * Fuqing
Fuqing
City * Changle
Changle
City * Minhou County
Minhou County
* Lianjiang County
Lianjiang County
* Luoyuan County * Minqing County
Minqing County
* Yongtai County
Yongtai County

* Pingtan County
Pingtan County

* Fujian Free-Trade Zone

PUTIAN

* Chengxiang District
Chengxiang District
* Hanjiang District * Licheng District * Xiuyu District * Xianyou County
Xianyou County

SANMING

* Meilie District * Sanyuan District
Sanyuan District
* Yong\'an City * Mingxi County
Mingxi County
* Qingliu County
Qingliu County
* Ninghua County * Datian County * Youxi County
Youxi County
* Sha County
Sha County
* Jiangle County
Jiangle County
* Taining County
Taining County
* Jianning County

QUANZHOU

* Licheng District * Fengze District * Luojiang District * Quangang District
Quangang District
* Shishi City * Jinjiang City * Nan\'an City * Hui\'an County * Anxi County
Anxi County
* Yongchun County * Dehua County
Dehua County
* Jinmen County ¹

ZHANGZHOU

* Xiangcheng District * Longwen District * Longhai City * Yunxiao County
Yunxiao County
* Zhangpu County * Zhao\'an County * Changtai County
Changtai County
* Dongshan County
Dongshan County
* Nanjing County
Nanjing County
* Pinghe County * Hua\'an County

NANPING

* Jianyang District
Jianyang District
* Yanping District
Yanping District
* Shaowu
Shaowu
City * Wuyishan City * Jian\'ou City * Shunchang County
Shunchang County
* Pucheng County * Guangze County * Songxi County * Zhenghe County
Zhenghe County

LONGYAN

* Xinluo District
Xinluo District
* Yongding District * Zhangping
Zhangping
City * Changting County * Shanghang County
Shanghang County
* Wuping County
Wuping County
* Liancheng County
Liancheng County

NINGDE

* Jiaocheng District
Jiaocheng District
* Fu\'an City * Fuding City * Shouning County
Shouning County
* Xiapu County * Zherong County
Zherong County
* Pingnan County * Gutian County
Gutian County
* Zhouning County

¹ — Jinmen (Kinmen/Quemoy) is administered as a county by the Republic of China, but claimed by the PRC.

* v * t * e

_ Provincial-level divisions of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China

PROVINCES

* Anhui
Anhui
* Fujian * Gansu
Gansu
* Guangdong
Guangdong
* Guizhou
Guizhou
* Hainan
Hainan
* Hebei
Hebei
* Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
* Henan
Henan
* Hubei
Hubei
* Hunan
Hunan
* Jiangsu
Jiangsu
* Jiangxi
Jiangxi
* Jilin
Jilin
* Liaoning
Liaoning
* Qinghai
Qinghai
* Shaanxi
Shaanxi
* Shandong
Shandong
* Shanxi
Shanxi
* Sichuan
Sichuan
* Yunnan
Yunnan
* Zhejiang
Zhejiang

AUTONOMOUS REGIONS

* Guangxi
Guangxi
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Ningxia
Ningxia
* Tibet * Xinjiang
Xinjiang

MUNICIPALITIES

* Beijing
Beijing
* Chongqing
Chongqing
* Shanghai
Shanghai
* Tianjin
Tianjin

SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS

* Hong Kong
Hong Kong
¹ * Macau
Macau
¹

OTHER

* Taiwan
Taiwan
¹_

NOTE: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
but administered by the Republic of China
Republic of China
(see Political status of Taiwan ). Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
are claimed as provincial-level divisions, but as listed on the constitutional documents and joint declarations their statuses are better to be interpreted as first-level divisions instead.

AUTHORITY CONTROL

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