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Taiwan
Taiwan
(/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of China
China
(ROC), is a state in East Asia.[15][16][17] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan
Taiwan
was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China
China
(ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty. Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, Republic of China
China
took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
led to the Republic of China's loss of the mainland to the Communists, and the flight of the Republic of China
China
government to Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1949. Although the ROC continued to claim to be the legitimate government of China, its effective jurisdiction had, since the loss of Hainan in 1950, been limited to Taiwan
Taiwan
and its surrounding islands, with the main island making up 99% of its de facto territory. As a founding member of the United Nations, the Republic of China
China
represented China
China
at the UN until 1971, when it lost its seat to the PRC. In the early 1960s, Taiwan
Taiwan
entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system. Taiwan
Taiwan
is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, healthcare,[18] public education, economic freedom, and human development.[e][13][19] The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most highly educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[20][21] The PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan
Taiwan
and asserted the ROC is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China Policy the PRC refuses diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC. Today, 20 countries maintain official ties with the ROC but many other states maintain unofficial ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. Although Taiwan
Taiwan
is fully self-governing, most international organizations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan
Taiwan
or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Internally, the major division in politics is between the aspirations of eventual Chinese unification
Chinese unification
or Taiwanese independence, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal. The People's Republic of China
China
has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan
Taiwan
or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible.[22] The PRC and ROC standoff dates back from the Chinese Civil War, First Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis, Second Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis and Third Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistoric Taiwan 2.2 Opening in the 17th century 2.3 Qing rule 2.4 Japanese rule 2.5 Republic of China

2.5.1 Chinese Nationalist one-party rule 2.5.2 Democratization

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Geology

4 Political and legal status

4.1 Relations with the PRC 4.2 Foreign relations 4.3 Participation in international events and organizations 4.4 Opinions within Taiwan

5 Government and politics

5.1 Major camps 5.2 Current political issues 5.3 National identity

6 Military 7 Administrative divisions 8 Economy and industry 9 Transportation 10 Education, research, and academia 11 Demographics

11.1 Ethnic groups 11.2 Languages 11.3 Religion 11.4 Largest cities and counties

12 Public health 13 Culture

13.1 Sports 13.2 Calendar

14 See also 15 Notes 16 References

16.1 Citations 16.2 Works cited

17 Further reading 18 External links

18.1 Overviews and data 18.2 Government agencies

Etymology See also: Chinese Taipei, Formosa, and Names of China

Taiwan

(top) "Taiwan" in Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters and Kyūjitai Japanese Kanji. (bottom) "Taiwan" in Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters
and Japanese Kanji.

Chinese name

Traditional Chinese 臺灣 or 台灣

Simplified Chinese 台湾

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Táiwān

Bopomofo ㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Tair'uan

Wade–Giles T'ai²-wan¹

Tongyong Pinyin Táiwan

IPA [tʰǎi.wán]

Wu

Romanization The平-uae平

Xiang

IPA dwɛ13 ua44

Hakka

Romanization Thòi-vàn

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Tòiwāan

Jyutping Toi4waan1

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Tâi-oân

Tâi-lô Tâi-uân

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Dài-uăng

Mongolian name

Mongolian Cyrillic

Тайвань

Mongolian script ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠨᠢ

Transcriptions

SASM/GNC Taivan

Japanese name

Kanji 台湾

Kana たいわん

Kyūjitai 臺灣

Transcriptions

Romanization Taiwan

Manchu name

Manchu script ᡨᠠᡳᠸᠠᠨ

Romanization Taiwan

Republic of China

"Republic of China" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters

Chinese name

Traditional Chinese 中華民國

Simplified Chinese 中华民国

Postal Chunghwa Minkuo

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Zhōnghuá Mínguó

Bopomofo ㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jonghwa Min'gwo

Wade–Giles Chung¹-hua² Min²-kuo²

Tongyong Pinyin Jhonghuá Mínguó

MPS2 Jūng-huá Mín-guó

IPA [ʈʂʊ́ŋxwǎ mǐnkwǒ]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing ﺟْﻮ ﺧُﻮَ مٍ ﻗُﻮَع‎

Dungan Тэван

Wu

Romanization tson平 gho平 min平 koh入

Gan

Romanization tung1 fa4 min4 koet7

Hakka

Romanization Chûng-fà Mìn-koet

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Jūngwà màn'gwok

Jyutping Zung1waa4 man4gwok3

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok

Tâi-lô Tiong-hûa Bîn-kok

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Dṳ̆ng-huà Mìng-guók

China

Traditional Chinese 中國

Simplified Chinese 中国

Literal meaning Middle or Central State[23]

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Zhōngguó

Bopomofo ㄓㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jong'gwo

Wade–Giles Chung1-kuo2

Tongyong Pinyin Jhongguó

MPS2 Jūng-guó

IPA [ʈʂʊ́ŋ.kwǒ]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing ﺟْﻮﻗُﻮَع‎

Sichuanese Pinyin Zong1 gwe2

Wu

Romanization Tson平-koh入

Gan

Romanization Tung-koe̍t

Xiang

IPA Tan33-kwɛ24/

Hakka

Romanization Dung24-gued2

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Jūnggwok

Jyutping Zung1gwok3

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Tiong-kok

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Dṳ̆ng-guók

Pu-Xian Min

Hinghwa BUC De̤ng-go̤h

Northern Min

Jian'ou Romanized Dô̤ng-gŏ

Tibetan name

Tibetan ཀྲུང་ཧྭ་དམངས་གཙོའི། ་རྒྱལ་ཁབ

Transcriptions

Wylie krung hwa dmangs gtso'i rgyal khab

Zhuang name

Zhuang Cunghvaz Minzgoz

Mongolian name

Mongolian Cyrillic

Дундад иргэн улс

Mongolian script ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

Transcriptions

SASM/GNC Dumdadu irgen ulus

Uyghur name

Uyghur

جۇڭخۇا مىنگو

Transcriptions

Latin Yëziqi Jungxua Mingo

Yengi Yeziⱪ Junghua Mingo

Siril Yëziqi Җуңхуа Минго

Manchu name

Manchu script

Romanization Dulimbai Gurun

There are various names for the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
in use today, each derived by explorers or rulers during a particular historical period. The former name Formosa
Formosa
(福爾摩沙) dates from 1542,[verification needed] when Portuguese sailors sighted the main island of Taiwan
Taiwan
and named it Ilha Formosa, which means "beautiful island".[24] The name "Formosa" eventually "replaced all others in European literature"[25] and was in common use in English in the early 20th century.[26] In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia (modern-day Anping, Tainan) on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan",[27] after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe, possibly Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Tayowan, Teijoan, etc.[28] This name was also adopted into the Chinese vernacular (in particular, Hokkien, as Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tāi-oân/Tâi-oân) as the name of the sandbar and nearby area (Tainan). The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, which is seen in various forms (大員, 大圓, 大灣, 臺員, 臺圓 and 臺窩灣) in Chinese historical records. The area of modern-day Tainan
Tainan
was the first permanent settlement by Western colonists and Chinese immigrants, grew to be the most important trading centre, and served as the capital of the island until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name (臺灣) was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan
Taiwan
Prefecture. Through its rapid development, the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as "Taiwan".[29][30][31][32] In his Daoyi Zhilüe (1349), Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu.[33] Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; indeed the name Ryūkyū is the Japanese form of Liúqiú. The name also appears in the Book of Sui (636) and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan
Taiwan
or even Luzon.[34] The official name of the state is the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" (Zhōngguó (中國)) to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng ("central" or "middle") and guó ("state, nation-state"),[f] a term which also developed under the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
in reference to its royal demesne,[g] and the name was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou
Eastern Zhou
and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era.[36] During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had fled to Taiwan
Taiwan
upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was commonly referred to as "Nationalist China" (or "Free China") to differentiate it from "Communist China" (or "Red China").[38] It was a member of the United Nations
United Nations
representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China
China
has become commonly known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts, especially ROC government publications, the name is written as "Republic of China
China
(Taiwan)", "Republic of China/Taiwan", or sometimes " Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC)."[39] The Republic of China participates in most international forums and organizations under the name "Chinese Taipei" due to diplomatic pressure from the People's Republic of China. For instance, it is the name under which it has competed at the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
since 1984, and its name as an observer at the World Health Organization.[40] History Main articles: History of Taiwan
History of Taiwan
and History of the Republic of China See the History of China
China
article for historical information in the Chinese Mainland before 1949. Prehistoric Taiwan Main article: Prehistory of Taiwan

A young Tsou man

Taiwan
Taiwan
was joined to the mainland in the Late Pleistocene, until sea levels rose about 10,000 years ago. Fragmentary human remains dated 20,000 to 30,000 years ago have been found on the island, as well as later artefacts of a Paleolithic
Paleolithic
culture.[41][42][43] Around 6,000 years ago, Taiwan
Taiwan
was settled by farmers, most likely from mainland China.[44] They are believed to be the ancestors of today's Taiwanese aborigines, whose languages belong to the Austronesian language family, but show much greater diversity than the rest of the family, which spans a huge area from Maritime Southeast Asia
Asia
west to Madagascar
Madagascar
and east as far as New Zealand, Hawaii
Hawaii
and Easter Island. This has led linguists to propose Taiwan
Taiwan
as the urheimat of the family, from which seafaring peoples dispersed across Southeast Asia
Asia
and the Pacific and Indian Oceans.[45][46] Han Chinese
Han Chinese
fishermen began settling in the Penghu
Penghu
islands in the 13th century.[47] Hostile tribes, and a lack of valuable trade products, meant that few outsiders visited the main island until the 16th century.[47] During the 16th century, visits to the coast by fishermen from Fujian, as well as Chinese and Japanese pirates, became more frequent.[47] Opening in the 17th century Main articles: Dutch Formosa, Spanish Formosa, and Kingdom of Tungning

Fort Zeelandia, the Governor's residence in Dutch Formosa

The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
attempted to establish a trading outpost on the Penghu
Penghu
Islands (Pescadores) in 1622, but were militarily defeated and driven off by the Ming authorities.[48] In 1624, the company established a stronghold called Fort Zeelandia on the coastal islet of Tayouan, which is now part of the main island at Anping, Tainan.[32] David Wright, a Scottish agent of the company who lived on the island in the 1650s, described the lowland areas of the island as being divided among 11 chiefdoms ranging in size from two settlements to 72. Some of these fell under Dutch control, while others remained independent.[32][49] The Company began to import labourers from Fujian
Fujian
and Penghu
Penghu
(Pescadores), many of whom settled.[48] In 1626, the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
landed on and occupied northern Taiwan, at the ports of Keelung
Keelung
and Tamsui, as a base to extend their trading. This colonial period lasted 16 years until 1642, when the last Spanish fortress fell to Dutch forces. Following the fall of the Ming dynasty, Koxinga
Koxinga
(Zheng Chenggong), a self-styled Ming loyalist, arrived on the island and captured Fort Zeelandia in 1662, expelling the Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
and military from the island. Koxinga
Koxinga
established the Kingdom of Tungning
Kingdom of Tungning
(1662–1683), with his capital at Tainan. He and his heirs, Zheng Jing, who ruled from 1662 to 1682, and Zheng Keshuang, who ruled less than a year, continued to launch raids on the southeast coast of mainland China well into the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
era.[48] Qing rule Main article: Taiwan
Taiwan
under Qing rule

Hunting deer, painted in 1746

In 1683, following the defeat of Koxinga's grandson by an armada led by Admiral Shi Lang
Shi Lang
of southern Fujian, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
formally annexed Taiwan, placing it under the jurisdiction of Fujian
Fujian
province. The Qing imperial government tried to reduce piracy and vagrancy in the area, issuing a series of edicts to manage immigration and respect aboriginal land rights. Immigrants mostly from southern Fujian continued to enter Taiwan. The border between taxpaying lands and "savage" lands shifted eastward, with some aborigines becoming sinicized while others retreated into the mountains. During this time, there were a number of conflicts between groups of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
from different regions of southern Fujian, particularly between those from Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou, and between southern Fujian
Fujian
Chinese and aborigines. Northern Taiwan
Taiwan
and the Penghu
Penghu
Islands were the scene of subsidiary campaigns in the Sino-French War
Sino-French War
(August 1884 to April 1885). The French occupied Keelung
Keelung
on 1 October 1884, but were repulsed from Tamsui
Tamsui
a few days later. The French won some tactical victories but were unable to exploit them, and the Keelung
Keelung
Campaign ended in stalemate. The Pescadores Campaign, beginning on 31 March 1885, was a French victory, but had no long-term consequences. The French evacuated both Keelung
Keelung
and the Penghu
Penghu
archipelago after the end of the war. In 1887, the Qing upgraded the island's administration from Taiwan Prefecture of Fujian
Fujian
Province to Fujian-Taiwan-Province, the twentieth in the empire, with its capital at Taipei. This was accompanied by a modernization drive that included building China's first railroad.[50] Japanese rule Main articles: Taiwan under Japanese rule
Taiwan under Japanese rule
and Republic of Formosa

Japanese colonial soldiers march Taiwanese captured after the Tapani Incident from the Tainan
Tainan
jail to court, 1915.

As the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), Taiwan, along with Penghu
Penghu
and Liaodong Peninsula, were ceded in full sovereignty to the Empire of Japan
Japan
by the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Inhabitants on Taiwan
Taiwan
and Penghu
Penghu
wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China. Very few Taiwanese saw this as feasible.[51] On 25 May 1895, a group of pro-Qing high officials proclaimed the Republic of Formosa
Formosa
to resist impending Japanese rule. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan
Tainan
and quelled this resistance on 21 October 1895.[52] Guerrilla fighting continued periodically until about 1902 and ultimately took the lives of 14,000 Taiwanese, or 0.5% of the population.[53] Several subsequent rebellions against the Japanese (the Beipu uprising
Beipu uprising
of 1907, the Tapani incident
Tapani incident
of 1915, and the Musha incident of 1930) were all unsuccessful but demonstrated opposition to Japanese colonial rule. Japanese colonial rule was instrumental in the industrialization of the island, extending the railroads and other transportation networks, building an extensive sanitation system, and establishing a formal education system.[54] Japanese rule ended the practice of headhunting.[55] During this period the human and natural resources of Taiwan
Taiwan
were used to aid the development of Japan
Japan
and the production of cash crops such as rice and sugar greatly increased. By 1939, Taiwan was the seventh greatest sugar producer in the world.[56] Still, the Taiwanese and aborigines were classified as second- and third-class citizens. After suppressing Chinese guerrillas in the first decade of their rule, Japanese authorities engaged in a series of bloody campaigns against the mountain aboriginals, culminating in the Musha Incident of 1930.[57] Intellectuals and laborers who participated in left-wing movements within Taiwan
Taiwan
were also arrested and massacred (e.g. Chiang Wei-shui (蔣渭水) and Masanosuke Watanabe (渡辺政之輔)).[58] Around 1935, the Japanese began an island-wide assimilation project to bind the island more firmly to the Japanese Empire and people were taught to see themselves as Japanese under the Kominka Movement, during which time Taiwanese culture and religion were outlawed and the citizens were encouraged to adopt Japanese surnames.[59] The "South Strike Group" was based at the Taihoku Imperial University
Taihoku Imperial University
in Taipei. During World War II, tens of thousands of Taiwanese served in the Japanese military.[60] For example, former ROC President Lee Teng-hui's elder brother served in the Japanese navy and was killed in action in the Philippines
Philippines
in February 1945. The Imperial Japanese Navy operated heavily out of Taiwanese ports. In October 1944, the Formosa Air Battle was fought between American carriers and Japanese forces based in Taiwan. Important Japanese military bases and industrial centres throughout Taiwan, like Kaohsiung, were targets of heavy American bombings.[61] Also during this time, over 2,000 women were forced into sexual slavery for Imperial Japanese troops, now euphemistically called "comfort women."[62] In 1938, there were 309,000 Japanese settlers in Taiwan.[63] After World War II, most of the Japanese were expelled and sent to Japan.[64] Republic of China Main articles: History of Taiwan
History of Taiwan
since 1945, Chinese Civil War, Chinese Communist Revolution, and History of the Republic of China § Republic of China
China
on Taiwan
Taiwan
(1949–present)

General Chen Yi (right) accepting the receipt of General Order No. 1 from Rikichi Andō
Rikichi Andō
(left), the last Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan, in Taipei
Taipei
City Hall

On 25 October 1945, the US Navy
US Navy
ferried ROC troops to Taiwan
Taiwan
in order to accept the formal surrender of Japanese military forces in Taipei on behalf of the Allied Powers, as part of General Order No. 1 for temporary military occupation. General Rikichi Andō, governor-general of Taiwan
Taiwan
and commander-in-chief of all Japanese forces on the island, signed the receipt and handed it over to General Chen Yi of the ROC military to complete the official turnover. Chen Yi proclaimed that day to be " Taiwan
Taiwan
Retrocession Day", but the Allies considered Taiwan and the Penghu
Penghu
Islands to be under military occupation and still under Japanese sovereignty until 1952, when the Treaty of San Francisco
Treaty of San Francisco
took effect.[65][66] Although the 1943 Cairo Declaration
1943 Cairo Declaration
had envisaged returning these territories to China, in the Treaty of San Francisco and Treaty of Taipei
Taipei
Japan
Japan
has renounced all claim to them without specifying to what country they were to be surrendered. This introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan. The ROC administration of Taiwan
Taiwan
under Chen Yi was strained by increasing tensions between Taiwanese-born people and newly arrived mainlanders, which were compounded by economic woes, such as hyperinflation. Furthermore, cultural and linguistic conflicts between the two groups quickly led to the loss of popular support for the new government, while the mass movement led by the working committee of the Communist Party also aimed to bring down the Kuomintang government.[67][68] The shooting of a civilian on 28 February 1947 triggered island-wide unrest, which was suppressed with military force in what is now called the February 28 Incident. Mainstream estimates of the number killed range from 18,000 to 30,000. Those killed were mainly members of the Taiwanese elite.[69][70]

The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing
Nanjing
(Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Canton), then to Chongqing
Chongqing
(Chungking), Chengdu
Chengdu
(Chengtu) and Xichang
Xichang
(Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.

After the end of World War II, the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
resumed between the Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang), led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Communist Party of China, led by Mao Zedong. Throughout the months of 1949, a series of Chinese Communist offensives led to the capture of its capital Nanjing
Nanjing
on 23 April and the subsequent defeat of the Nationalist army on the mainland, and the Communists founded the People's Republic of China
China
on 1 October.[71] On 7 December 1949, after the loss of four capitals, Chiang evacuated his Nationalist government to Taiwan
Taiwan
and made Taipei
Taipei
the temporary capital of the ROC (also called the "wartime capital" by Chiang Kai-shek).[72] Some 2 million people, consisting mainly of soldiers, members of the ruling Kuomintang
Kuomintang
and intellectual and business elites, were evacuated from mainland China
China
to Taiwan
Taiwan
at that time, adding to the earlier population of approximately six million. In addition, the ROC government took to Taipei
Taipei
many national treasures and much of China's gold reserves and foreign currency reserves.[73][74][75] After losing most of the mainland, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
held remaining control of Tibet, the portions of Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Yunnan provinces along with the Hainan Island
Hainan Island
until 1951 before the Communists subsequently captured both territories. From this point onwards, the Kuomintang's territory was reduced to Taiwan, Penghu, the portions of the Fujian
Fujian
province ( Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu Islands), and two major islands of Dongsha Islands
Dongsha Islands
and Nansha Islands. The Kuomintang continued to claim sovereignty over all "China", which it defined to include mainland China, Taiwan, Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolia
and other areas. On mainland China, the victorious Communists claimed they ruled the sole and only China
China
(which they claimed included Taiwan) and that the Republic of China
China
no longer existed.[76]

Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
from 1925 until his death in 1975

Chinese Nationalist one-party rule Martial law, declared on Taiwan
Taiwan
in May 1949,[77] continued to be in effect after the central government relocated to Taiwan. It was not repealed until 1987,[77] and was used as a way to suppress the political opposition in the intervening years.[78] During the White Terror, as the period is known, 140,000 people were imprisoned or executed for being perceived as anti-KMT or pro-Communist.[79] Many citizens were arrested, tortured, imprisoned and executed for their real or perceived link to the Communists. Since these people were mainly from the intellectual and social elite, an entire generation of political and social leaders was decimated. In 1998 law was passed to create the "Compensation Foundation for Improper Verdicts" which oversaw compensation to White Terror victims and families. President Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
made an official apology in 2008, expressing hope that there will never be a tragedy similar to White Terror.[80] Initially, the United States
United States
abandoned the KMT and expected that Taiwan
Taiwan
would fall to the Communists. However, in 1950 the conflict between North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea, which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in 1945, escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, US President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
intervened again and dispatched the US Navy's 7th Fleet into the Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
to prevent hostilities between Taiwan
Taiwan
and mainland China.[81] In the Treaty of San Francisco
Treaty of San Francisco
and the Treaty of Taipei, which came into force respectively on 28 April 1952 and 5 August 1952, Japan
Japan
formally renounced all right, claim and title to Taiwan
Taiwan
and Penghu, and renounced all treaties signed with China
China
before 1942. Neither treaty specified to whom sovereignty over the islands should be transferred, because the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
disagreed on whether the ROC or the PRC was the legitimate government of China.[82] Continuing conflict of the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
through the 1950s, and intervention by the United States
United States
notably resulted in legislation such as the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
and the Formosa
Formosa
Resolution of 1955.

With President Chiang Kai-shek, the US President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to crowds during his visit to Taipei
Taipei
in June 1960.

As the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
continued without truce, the government built up military fortifications throughout Taiwan. Within this effort, KMT veterans built the now famous Central Cross-Island Highway
Central Cross-Island Highway
through the Taroko Gorge
Taroko Gorge
in the 1950s. The two sides would continue to engage in sporadic military clashes with seldom publicized details well into the 1960s on the China
China
coastal islands with an unknown number of night raids. During the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
in September 1958, Taiwan's landscape saw Nike-Hercules missile
Nike-Hercules missile
batteries added, with the formation of the 1st Missile Battalion Chinese Army that would not be deactivated until 1997. Newer generations of missile batteries have since replaced the Nike Hercules systems throughout the island. During the 1960s and 1970s, the ROC maintained an authoritarian, single-party government while its economy became industrialized and technology oriented. This rapid economic growth, known as the Taiwan Miracle, was the result of a fiscal regime independent from mainland China
China
and backed up, among others, by the support of US funds and demand for Taiwanese products.[83][84] In the 1970s, Taiwan
Taiwan
was economically the second fastest growing state in Asia
Asia
after Japan.[85] Taiwan, along with Hong Kong, South Korea
South Korea
and Singapore, became known as one of the Four Asian Tigers. Because of the Cold War, most Western nations and the United Nations
United Nations
regarded the ROC as the sole legitimate government of China
China
until the 1970s. Later, especially after the termination of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, most nations switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC (see United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly Resolution 2758). Up until the 1970s, the government was regarded by Western critics as undemocratic for upholding martial law, for severely repressing any political opposition and for controlling media. The KMT did not allow the creation of new parties and those that existed did not seriously compete with the KMT. Thus, competitive democratic elections did not exist.[86][87][88][89][90] From the late 1970s to the 1990s, however, Taiwan
Taiwan
went through reforms and social changes that transformed it from an authoritarian state to a democracy. In 1979, a pro-democracy protest known as the Kaohsiung Incident
Kaohsiung Incident
took place in Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
to celebrate Human Rights Day. Although the protest was rapidly crushed by the authorities, it is today considered as the main event that united Taiwan's opposition.[91] Democratization Main articles: Democratic reforms of Taiwan
Taiwan
and Elections in Taiwan Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek's son and successor as the president, began to liberalize the political system in the mid-1980s. In 1984, the younger Chiang selected Lee Teng-hui, a Taiwanese-born, US-educated technocrat, to be his vice-president. In 1986, the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
(DPP) was formed and inaugurated as the first opposition party in the ROC to counter the KMT. A year later, Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
lifted martial law on the main island of Taiwan (martial law was lifted on Penghu
Penghu
in 1979, Matsu island in 1992 and Kinmen
Kinmen
island in 1993). With the advent of democratization, the issue of the political status of Taiwan
Taiwan
gradually resurfaced as a controversial issue where, previously, the discussion of anything other than unification under the ROC was taboo. After the death of Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
in January 1988, Lee Teng-hui succeeded him as president. Lee continued to democratize the government and decrease the concentration of government authority in the hands of mainland Chinese. Under Lee, Taiwan
Taiwan
underwent a process of localization in which Taiwanese culture and history were promoted over a pan- China
China
viewpoint in contrast to earlier KMT policies which had promoted a Chinese identity. Lee's reforms included printing banknotes from the Central Bank rather than the Provincial Bank of Taiwan, and streamlining the Taiwan Provincial Government
Taiwan Provincial Government
with most of its functions transferred to the Executive Yuan. Under Lee, the original members of the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
and National Assembly (a former supreme legislative body defunct in 2005),[92] elected in 1947 to represent mainland Chinese constituencies and having held the seats without re-election for more than four decades, were forced to resign in 1991. The previously nominal representation in the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
was brought to an end, reflecting the reality that the ROC had no jurisdiction over mainland China, and vice versa. Restrictions on the use of Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
in the broadcast media and in schools were also lifted.[citation needed]

US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
and Taiwan's special envoy to the APEC summit, Lien Chan, November 2011

Democratic reforms continued in the 1990s, with Lee Teng-hui re-elected in 1996, in the first direct presidential election in the history of the ROC.[93] During the later years of Lee's administration, he was involved in corruption controversies relating to government release of land and weapons purchase, although no legal proceedings commenced. In 1997,"To meet the requisites of the nation prior to national unification",[94] the Additional Articles of the Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic of China
China
was passed and then the former "constitution of five powers" turns to be more tripartite. In 2000, Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
of the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
was elected as the first non- Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) President and was re-elected to serve his second and last term since 2004. Polarized politics has emerged in Taiwan
Taiwan
with the formation of the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties led by the KMT, favouring eventual Chinese reunification, and the Pan-Green Coalition of parties led by the DPP, favouring an eventual and official declaration of Taiwanese independence.[95][clarification needed] In early 2006, President Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
remarked: “The National Unification Council will cease to function. No budget will be ear-marked for it and its personnel must return to their original posts...The National Unification Guidelines will cease to apply."[96]

The ruling DPP has traditionally leaned in favour of Taiwan independence and rejects the "One- China
China
policy".

On 30 September 2007, the ruling DPP approved a resolution asserting a separate identity from China
China
and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country". It also called for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China.[97] The Chen administration also pushed for referendums on national defence and UN entry in the 2004 and 2008 elections, which failed due to voter turnout below the required legal threshold of 50% of all registered voters.[98] The Chen administration was dogged by public concerns over reduced economic growth, legislative gridlock due to a pan-blue, opposition-controlled Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
and corruption involving the First Family as well as government officials.[99][100] The KMT increased its majority in the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
in the January 2008 legislative elections, while its nominee Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
went on to win the presidency in March of the same year, campaigning on a platform of increased economic growth and better ties with the PRC under a policy of "mutual nondenial".[98] Ma took office on 20 May 2008, the same day that President Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
stepped down and was notified by prosecutors of possible corruption charges. Part of the rationale for campaigning for closer economic ties with the PRC stems from the strong economic growth China
China
attained since joining the World Trade Organization. However, some analysts say that despite the election of Ma Ying-jeou, the diplomatic and military tensions with the PRC have not been reduced.[101] On 24 May 2017, the Constitutional Court ruled that current marriage laws have been violating the Constitution
Constitution
by denying Taiwanese same-sex couples the right to marry. The Court ruled that if the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
does not pass adequate amendments to Taiwanese marriage laws within two years, same-sex marriages will automatically become legitimate in Taiwan.[102] Geography Main article: Geography of Taiwan

Taiwan
Taiwan
is mostly mountainous in the east, with gently sloping plains in the west. The Penghu
Penghu
Islands are west of the main island.

The total area of the current jurisdiction of the Republic of China
China
is 36,193 km2 (13,974 sq mi),[8] making it the world's 137th-largest country/dependency, smaller than Switzerland
Switzerland
and larger than Belgium. The island of Taiwan
Taiwan
has an area of 35,883 km2 (13,855 sq mi), and lies some 180 kilometres (110 mi) from the southeastern coast of mainland China
China
across the Taiwan Strait.[8] The East China
China
Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
to the east, the Bashi Channel
Bashi Channel
of the Luzon
Luzon
Strait directly to the south, and the South China
China
Sea to the southwest. Its shape is similar to a sweet potato, giving rise to the name sweet potato used by Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
speakers for people of Taiwanese descent.[103] The island is characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting mostly of rugged mountains running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island, and the flat to gently rolling Chianan Plains in the west that are also home to most of Taiwan's population. Taiwan's highest point is Yu Shan (Jade Mountain) at 3,952 metres (12,966 ft),[104] making Taiwan the world's fourth-highest island. The Penghu
Penghu
Islands, 50 km (31.1 mi) west of the main island, have an area of 126.9 km2 (49.0 sq mi). More distant islands controlled by the Republic of China
China
are the Kinmen, Wuchiu
Wuchiu
and Matsu Islands
Matsu Islands
off the coast of Fujian, with a total area of 180.5 km2 (69.7 sq mi), and the Pratas Islands
Pratas Islands
and Taiping Island
Taiping Island
in the South China
China
Sea, with a total area of 2.9 km2 (1.1 sq mi) and no permanent inhabitants.[8] The ROC government also claims the Senkaku Islands
Senkaku Islands
to the northeast, which are controlled by Japan. Climate Taiwan
Taiwan
lies on the Tropic of Cancer, and its general climate is marine tropical.[7] The northern and central regions are subtropical, whereas the south is tropical and the mountainous regions are temperate.[105] The average rainfall is 2,600 millimetres (100 inches) per year for the island proper; the rainy season is concurrent with the onset of the summer East Asian Monsoon in May and June.[106] The entire island experiences hot, humid weather from June through September. Typhoons are most common in July, August and September.[106] During the winter (November to March), the northeast experiences steady rain, while the central and southern parts of the island are mostly sunny. Geology Main article: Geology of Taiwan

Dabajian Mountain

The island of Taiwan
Taiwan
lies in a complex tectonic area between the Yangtze Plate
Yangtze Plate
to the west and north, the Okinawa
Okinawa
Plate on the north-east, and the Philippine Mobile Belt
Philippine Mobile Belt
on the east and south. The upper part of the crust on the island is primarily made up of a series of terranes, mostly old island arcs which have been forced together by the collision of the forerunners of the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
and the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
Plate. These have been further uplifted as a result of the detachment of a portion of the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
as it was subducted beneath remnants of the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
Plate, a process which left the crust under Taiwan
Taiwan
more buoyant.[107] The east and south of Taiwan
Taiwan
are a complex system of belts formed by, and part of the zone of, active collision between the North Luzon Trough portion of the Luzon
Luzon
Volcanic Arc and South China, where accreted portions of the Luzon
Luzon
Arc and Luzon
Luzon
forearc form the eastern Coastal Range and parallel inland Longitudinal Valley of Taiwan respectively.[108] The major seismic faults in Taiwan
Taiwan
correspond to the various suture zones between the various terranes. These have produced major quakes throughout the history of the island. On 21 September 1999, a 7.3 quake known as the "921 earthquake" killed more than 2,400 people. The seismic hazard map for Taiwan
Taiwan
by the USGS shows 9/10 of the island as the highest rating (most hazardous).[109] Political and legal status Main article: Political status of Taiwan See also: List of states with limited recognition
List of states with limited recognition
and Foreign relations of China
China
§ International territorial disputes

 Taiwan

↓Siege of Zeelandia

↓Battle of Penghu

↓Treaty of Shimonoseki

↓Surrender of Japan

Dutch & Spanish    

Tungning

Qing

Empire of Japan

Republic of China

 China

↓Qing conquest of the Ming

↓Xinhai Revolution

↓Communist Revolution

Ming

Qing

Republic of China    

People's Republic of China

│ 1624

│ 1649

│ 1674

│ 1699

│ 1724

│ 1749

│ 1774

│ 1799

│ 1824

│ 1849

│ 1874

│ 1899

│ 1924

│ 1949

│ 1974

│ 1999

The political and legal statuses of Taiwan
Taiwan
are contentious issues. The People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) claims that the Republic of China government is illegitimate, referring to it as the " Taiwan
Taiwan
Authority" even though current ROC territories have never been controlled by the PRC.[110][111] The ROC has its own constitution, independently elected president and armed forces. It has not formally renounced its claim to the mainland, but ROC government publications have increasingly downplayed it.[112] Internationally, there is controversy on whether the ROC still exists as a state or a defunct state per international law due to the lack of wide diplomatic recognition. In a poll of Taiwanese aged 20 and older taken by TVBS
TVBS
in March 2009, a majority of 64% opted for the "status quo", while 19% favoured "independence" and 5% favoured "unification".[113] Relations with the PRC See also: Cross-Strait relations

2015 Ma–Xi meeting

The political environment is complicated by the potential for military conflict should Taiwan
Taiwan
declare de jure independence; it is the official PRC policy to use force to ensure unification if peaceful unification is no longer possible, as stated in its anti-secession law, and for this reason there are substantial military installations on the Fujian
Fujian
coast.[114][115][116][117][118] On 29 April 2005, Kuomintang
Kuomintang
Chairman Lien Chan
Lien Chan
travelled to Beijing and met with Communist Party of China
China
(CPC) Secretary-General Hu Jintao,[119] the first meeting between the leaders of the two parties since the end of the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
in 1949. On 11 February 2014, Mainland Affairs Council
Mainland Affairs Council
Head Wang Yu-chi
Wang Yu-chi
travelled to Nanjing
Nanjing
and met with Taiwan
Taiwan
Affairs Office Head Zhang Zhijun, the first meeting between high-ranking officials from either side.[120] Zhang paid a reciprocal visit to Taiwan
Taiwan
and met Wang on 25 June 2014, making Zhang the first minister-level PRC official to ever visit Taiwan.[121] On 7 November 2015, Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
(in his capacity as Leader of Taiwan) and Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping
(in his capacity as Leader of Mainland China) travelled to Singapore
Singapore
and met up,[122] marking the highest-level exchange between the two sides since 1949. The PRC supports a version of the One- China
China
policy, which states that Taiwan
Taiwan
and mainland China
China
are both part of China, and that the PRC is the only legitimate government of China. It uses this policy to prevent the international recognition of the ROC as an independent sovereign state, meaning that Taiwan
Taiwan
participates in international forums under the name "Chinese Taipei". With the emergence of the Taiwanese independence
Taiwanese independence
movement, the name "Taiwan" has been employed increasingly often on the island.[123] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Taiwan

Countries maintaining relations with the ROC   diplomatic relations and embassy in Taipei   unofficial relations (see text)

ROC embassy in Swaziland.

Before 1928, the foreign policy of Republican China
China
was complicated by a lack of internal unity—competing centres of power all claimed legitimacy. This situation changed after the defeat of the Peiyang Government by the Kuomintang, which led to widespread diplomatic recognition of the Republic of China.[124] After the KMT's retreat to Taiwan, most countries, notably the countries in the Western Bloc, continued to maintain relations with the ROC. Due to diplomatic pressure, recognition gradually eroded and many countries switched recognition to the PRC in the 1970s. UN Resolution 2758 (25 October 1971) recognized the People's Republic of China
China
as China's sole representative in the United Nations.[125] The PRC refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that recognizes the ROC, and requires all nations with which it has diplomatic relations to make a statement recognizing its claims to Taiwan.[126] As a result, only 19 UN member states and the Holy See maintain official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China. The ROC maintains unofficial relations with most countries via de facto embassies and consulates called Taipei
Taipei
Economic and Cultural Representative Offices (TECRO), with branch offices called "Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices" (TECO). Both TECRO and TECO are "unofficial commercial entities" of the ROC in charge of maintaining diplomatic relations, providing consular services (i.e. visa applications), and serving the national interests of the ROC in other countries.[127] The United States
United States
remains one of the main allies of the country and, through the Taiwan
Taiwan
Relations Act passed in 1979, has continued selling arms and providing military training to the Armed Forces.[128] This situation continues to be an issue for the People's Republic of China which considers US involvement disruptive to the stability of the region. In January 2010, the Obama administration announced its intention to sell $6.4 billion worth of military hardware to Taiwan. As a consequence, the PRC threatened the US with economic sanctions and warned that their co-operation on international and regional issues could suffer.[129] The official position of the United States
United States
is that the PRC is expected to "use no force or threat[en] to use force against Taiwan" and the ROC is to "exercise prudence in managing all aspects of Cross-Strait relations." Both are to refrain from performing actions or espousing statements "that would unilaterally alter Taiwan's status."[130] On 16 December 2015, the Obama administration announced a deal to sell $1.83 billion worth of arms to the armed forces of the ROC.[131][132] China's foreign ministry had expressed its disapproval for the sales and issued the US a "stern warning", saying it would hurt China–US relations.[133] Participation in international events and organizations See also: Foreign relations of Taiwan
Foreign relations of Taiwan
§ Relation with International organizations The ROC was a founding member of the United Nations, and held the seat of China
China
on the Security Council and other UN bodies until 1971, when it was expelled by Resolution 2758 and replaced in all UN organs with the PRC. Each year since 1992, the ROC has petitioned the UN for entry, but its applications have not made it past committee.[134]

The flag used by Taiwan
Taiwan
at the Olympic Games, where it competes as "Chinese Taipei" (中華台北).

Due to its limited international recognition, the Republic of China
China
is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, represented by a government-funded organization, the Taiwan
Taiwan
Foundation for Democracy (TFD) under the name "Taiwan".[135][136] Also due to its One China
China
policy, the PRC only participates in international organizations where the ROC is not recognized as a sovereign country. Most member states, including the United States, do not wish to discuss the issue of the ROC's political status for fear of souring diplomatic ties with the PRC.[137] However, both the US and Japan
Japan
publicly support the ROC's bid for membership in the World Health Organization as an observer.[138] However, though the ROC sought to participate in the WHO since 1997,[139][140] their efforts were blocked by the PRC until 2010, when they were invited as observers to attend the World Health Assembly, under the name "Chinese Taipei".[141] Due to PRC pressure, the ROC is forced to use the name "Chinese Taipei" in international events, such as the Olympic Games, where the PRC is also a party.[142] The ROC is typically barred from using its national anthem and national flag in international events due to PRC pressure; ROC spectators attending events such as the Olympics are often barred from bringing ROC flags into venues.[143] Taiwan
Taiwan
also participates in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
forum (since 1991) and the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(since 2002) under the name "Chinese Taipei". The ROC is able to participate as "China" in organizations that the PRC does not participate in, such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Opinions within Taiwan See also: Taiwan independence
Taiwan independence
and Chinese Unification Within Taiwan, opinions are polarized between those supporting unification, represented by the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties, and those supporting independence, represented by the Pan-Green Coalition. The KMT, the largest Pan-Blue party, supports the status quo for the indefinite future with a stated ultimate goal of unification. However, it does not support unification in the short term with the PRC as such a prospect would be unacceptable to most of its members and the public.[144] Ma Ying-jeou, chairman of the KMT and former president of the ROC, has set out democracy, economic development to a level near that of Taiwan, and equitable wealth distribution as the conditions that the PRC must fulfill for reunification to occur.[145] The Democratic Progressive Party, the largest Pan-Green party, officially seeks independence, but in practice also supports the status quo because its members and the public would not accept the risk of provoking the PRC.[146][147] On 2 September 2008, Mexican newspaper El Sol de México asked President Ma about his views on the subject of "two Chinas" and if there was a solution for the sovereignty issues between the two. The president replied that the relations are neither between two Chinas nor two states. It is a special relationship. Further, he stated that the sovereignty issues between the two cannot be resolved at present, but he quoted the "1992 Consensus", currently accepted by both the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
and the Communist Party of China, as a temporary measure until a solution becomes available.[148] On 27 September 2017, Taiwanese premier William Lai
William Lai
said that he was a “political worker who advocates Taiwan
Taiwan
independence”, but that as Taiwan
Taiwan
was an independent country called the Republic of China, it had no need to declare independence.[149] The relationship with the PRC and the related issues of Taiwanese independence
Taiwanese independence
and Chinese unification continue to dominate politics.[150] Government and politics Main articles: Government of the Republic of China
China
and Politics of the Republic of China See also: Elections in Taiwan
Elections in Taiwan
and Human rights in Taiwan

Tsai Ing-wen President William Lai Premier

The Presidential Building in Taipei
Taipei
has housed the Office of the President of the Republic of China
China
since 1950.

The government of the Republic of China
China
was founded on the Constitution
Constitution
of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People, which states that the ROC "shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people."[151] The government is divided into five branches (Yuan): the Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
(cabinet), the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
(Congress or Parliament), the Judicial Yuan, the Control Yuan
Control Yuan
(audit agency), and the Examination Yuan
Examination Yuan
(civil service examination agency). The constitution was drafted before the fall of mainland China
China
to the Communist Party of China. It was created by the KMT for the purpose of all of its claimed territory, including Taiwan, even though the Communist Party boycotted the drafting of the constitution. The constitution went into effect on 25 December 1947.[152] The ROC remained under martial law from 1948 until 1987 and much of the constitution was not in effect. Political reforms beginning in the late 1970s and continuing through the early 1990s liberalized the country and transformed into a multiparty democracy. Since the lifting of martial law, the Republic of China
China
has democratized and reformed, suspending constitutional components that were originally meant for the whole of China. This process of amendment continues. In 2000, the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
(DPP) won the presidency, ending KMT's continuous control of the government. In May 2005, a new National Assembly was elected to reduce the number of parliamentary seats and implement several constitutional reforms. These reforms have been passed; the National Assembly has essentially voted to abolish itself and transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot.[153] The head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the president, who is elected by popular vote for a maximum of 2 four-year terms on the same ticket as the vice-president. The president has authority over the Yuan. The president appoints the members of the Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
as his cabinet, including a premier, who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.[151] The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
with 113 seats. Seventy-three are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties in a separate party list ballot; and six are elected from two three-member aboriginal constituencies. Members serve four-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly, as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college, held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in 2005 with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
and all eligible voters of the Republic via referendums.[151] The premier is selected by the president without the need for approval from the legislature, but the legislature can pass laws without regard for the president, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power.[151] Thus, there is little incentive for the president and the legislature to negotiate on legislation if they are of opposing parties. After the election of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
as President in 2000, legislation repeatedly stalled because of deadlock with the Legislative Yuan, which was controlled by a pan-Blue majority.[154] Historically, the ROC has been dominated by strongman single party politics. This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the president rather than the premier, even though the constitution does not explicitly state the extent of the president's executive power.[155] The Judicial Yuan
Judicial Yuan
is the highest judicial organ. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries. The president and vice-president of the Judicial Yuan
Judicial Yuan
and additional thirteen justices form the Council of Grand Justices.[156] They are nominated and appointed by the president, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The highest court, the Supreme Court, consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding judge and four associate judges, all appointed for life. In 1993, a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process. There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.[151]

Tangwai
Tangwai
(Independent) Taiwanese-born politician Wu San-lien (2L) celebrated his landslide victory (65.5%) in Taipei
Taipei
City's first mayoral election in January 1951 with supporters.

Capital punishment
Capital punishment
is still used in Taiwan, although efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions. Nevertheless, according to a survey in 2006, about 80% of Taiwanese still wanted to keep the death penalty.[157] The Control Yuan
Control Yuan
is a watchdog agency that monitors (controls) the actions of the executive. It can be considered a standing commission for administrative inquiry and can be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union
European Union
or the Government Accountability Office of the United States.[151] The Examination Yuan
Examination Yuan
is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. It is based on the old imperial examination system used in dynastic China. It can be compared to the European Personnel Selection Office of the European Union
European Union
or the Office of Personnel Management of the United States.[151] Major camps

Emblem of the Kuomintang, the main Pan-Blue Coalition party.

The tension between China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
colours most of the political life, and any government move towards " Taiwan
Taiwan
independence" is met by threat of military attack from the PRC.[158] The PRC's official policy is to reunify Taiwan
Taiwan
and mainland China
China
under the formula of "one country, two systems" and refuses to renounce the use of military force, especially should Taiwan
Taiwan
seek a declaration of independence.[159] The political scene is generally divided into two major camps in terms of views on how Taiwan
Taiwan
should relate to China
China
or the PRC, referred to as cross-Strait relations. It is the main political difference between two camps: the Pan-Blue Coalition, composed of the pro-unification Kuomintang, People First Party (PFP), and New Party, who believe that the ROC is the sole legitimate government of "China" (including Taiwan) and supports eventual Chinese reunification. The opposition Pan-Green Coalition is composed of the pro-independence DPP and Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU). It regards Taiwan
Taiwan
as an independent, sovereign state synonymous with the ROC, opposes the definition that Taiwan
Taiwan
is part of "China", and seeks wide diplomatic recognition and an eventual declaration of formal Taiwan
Taiwan
independence.[160] The Pan-Green camp tends to favour emphasizing the Republic of China
China
as being a distinct country from the People's Republic of China. Thus, in September 2007, the then ruling Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
approved a resolution asserting separate identity from China
China
and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country". It called also for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the "Republic of China".[161] Some members of the coalition, such as former President Chen Shui-bian, argue that it is unnecessary to proclaim independence because " Taiwan
Taiwan
is already an independent, sovereign country" and the Republic of China
China
is the same as Taiwan.[162] Despite being a member of KMT prior to and during his presidency, Lee Teng-hui
Lee Teng-hui
also held a similar view and was a supporter of the Taiwanization
Taiwanization
movement.[163] Pan-Blue members generally support the concept of the One-China policy, which states that there is only one China
China
and that its only government is the ROC. They favour eventual re-unification of China.[164] The more mainstream Pan-Blue position is to lift investment restrictions and pursue negotiations with the PRC to immediately open direct transportation links. Regarding independence, the mainstream Pan-Blue position is to maintain the status quo, while refusing immediate reunification.[144] President Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
stated that there will be no unification nor declaration of independence during his presidency.[165][166] As of 2009[update], Pan-Blue members usually seek to improve relationships with mainland China, with a current focus on improving economic ties.[167] Current political issues The dominant political issue in Taiwan
Taiwan
is its relationship with the PRC. For almost 60 years, there were no direct transportation links, including direct flights, between Taiwan
Taiwan
and mainland China. This was a problem for many Taiwanese businesses that had opened factories or branches in mainland China. The former DPP administration feared that such links would lead to tighter economic and political integration with mainland China, and in the 2006 Lunar New Year Speech, President Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
called for managed opening of links. Direct weekend charter flights between Taiwan
Taiwan
and mainland China
China
began in July 2008 under the current KMT government, and the first direct daily charter flights took off in December 2008.[168] Other major political issues include the passage of an arms procurement bill that the United States
United States
authorized in 2001.[169] In 2008, however, the United States
United States
was reluctant to send over more arms to Taiwan
Taiwan
out of fear that it would hinder the recent improvement of ties between the PRC and the ROC.[170] Another major political issue is the establishment of a National Communications Commission
National Communications Commission
to take over from the Government Information Office, whose advertising budget exercised great control over the media.[171] The politicians and their parties have themselves become major political issues. Corruption among some DPP administration officials has been exposed. In early 2006, President Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
was linked to possible corruption. The political effect on President Chen Shui-bian was great, causing a divide in the DPP leadership and supporters alike. It eventually led to the creation of a political camp led by ex-DPP leader Shih Ming-teh
Shih Ming-teh
which believes the president should resign. The KMT assets continue to be another major issue, as it was once the richest political party in the world.[172] Nearing the end of 2006, KMT's chairman Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
was also hit by corruption controversies, although he has since then been cleared of any wrongdoings by the courts.[173] After completing his second term as President, Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
was charged with corruption and money laundering.[174] Following his conviction, he is serving a 17-year sentence in Taipei
Taipei
Prison.[175] National identity Main articles: Taiwanese identity
Taiwanese identity
and Chinese nationalism Roughly 84% of Taiwan's population descends from Han Chinese
Han Chinese
who migrated from Qing China
China
between 1661 and 1895. Another significant fraction descends from Han Chinese
Han Chinese
who immigrated from mainland China in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The shared cultural origin combined with several hundred years of geographical separation, some hundred years of political separation and foreign influences, as well as hostility between the rival ROC and PRC have resulted in national identity being a contentious issue with political overtones. Since democratization and the lifting of martial law, a distinct Taiwanese identity (as opposed to Taiwanese identity
Taiwanese identity
as a subset of a Chinese identity) is often at the heart of political debates. Its acceptance makes the island distinct from mainland China, and therefore may be seen as a step towards forming a consensus for de jure Taiwan independence.[176] The pan-green camp supports a distinct Taiwanese identity, while the pan-blue camp supports a Chinese identity only.[164] The KMT has downplayed this stance in the recent years and now supports a Taiwanese identity
Taiwanese identity
as part of a Chinese identity.[177][178] According to a survey conducted in March 2009, 49% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese only, and 44% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese and Chinese. 3% consider themselves as only Chinese.[113] Another survey, conducted in Taiwan
Taiwan
in July 2009, showed that 82.8% of respondents consider the ROC and the PRC as two separate countries with each developing on its own.[179] A survey conducted in December 2009 showed that 62% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese only, and 22% of the respondents consider themselves as both Taiwanese and Chinese. 8% consider themselves as only Chinese. The survey also shows that among 18- to 29-year-old respondents, 75% consider themselves as Taiwanese only.[180] In the latest survey conducted by National Chengchi University
National Chengchi University
in 2014 and published in early 2015, 60.6% of respondents identified themselves exclusively as Taiwanese, 32.5% identified themselves as both Taiwanese and Chinese and 3.5% identified themselves as Chinese.

Percentage of Taiwanese residents who consider themselves Taiwanese, Chinese, or Taiwanese and Chinese according to various surveys.

Survey Taiwanese Chinese Taiwanese and Chinese

National Chengchi University
National Chengchi University
(January 2015)[181] 60.6% 3.5% 32.5%

TVBS
TVBS
Poll Center (October 2012)[182] 75% 15% (not an option for this question)

TVBS
TVBS
Poll Center (October 2012)[183] 55% 3% 37%

Common Wealth Magazine (December 2009)[180] 62% 8% 22%

Research, Development, and Evaluation Commission, Executive Yuan (April 2008) 67.1% 13.6% 15.2%

Military Main article: Republic of China
China
Armed Forces See also: Republic of China
China
Military Academy

Republic of China
China
Air Force Indigenous Defense Fighter

Republic of China
China
Navy Kidd-class destroyers

Republic of China
China
Army Thunderbolt-2000

The Republic of China
China
Army takes its roots in the National Revolutionary Army, which was established by Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
in 1925 in Guangdong
Guangdong
with a goal of reunifying China
China
under the Kuomintang. When the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
won the Chinese Civil War, much of the National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
retreated to Taiwan
Taiwan
along with the government. It was later reformed into the Republic of China
China
Army. Units which surrendered and remained in mainland China
China
were either disbanded or incorporated into the People's Liberation Army. Today, Taiwan
Taiwan
maintains a large and technologically advanced military, mainly as defence against the constant threat of invasion by the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
under the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China. This law gives green light to the use of military force when certain Chinese Red Lines formulated in the Anti-Secession Law are crossed like endangering citizens of the People's Republic of China.[115] From 1949 to the 1970s, the primary mission of the military was to "retake mainland China" through Project National Glory. As this mission has shifted to defence because the strength of People's Republic of China
China
has massively increased, the ROC military has begun to shift emphasis from the traditionally dominant Army to the air force and navy. Control of the armed forces has also passed into the hands of the civilian government.[184][185] As the ROC military shares historical roots with the KMT, the older generation of high-ranking officers tends to have Pan-Blue sympathies. However, many have retired and there are many more non-mainlanders enlisting in the armed forces in the younger generations, so the political leanings of the military have moved closer to the public norm in Taiwan.[186] The ROC began a force reduction program, Jingshi An (translated to streamlining program), to scale down its military from a level of 450,000 in 1997 to 380,000 in 2001.[187] As of 2009[update], the armed forces of the ROC number approximately 300,000,[188] with nominal reserves totalling 3.6 million as of 2015[update].[189] Even with that it's concluded that ROC army can only hold the People's Liberation Army back for a few weeks as it has much more funding, equipment and R&D research to her disposal. Conscription remains universal for qualified males reaching age eighteen, but as a part of the reduction effort many are given the opportunity to fulfill their draft requirement through alternative service and are redirected to government agencies or defence related industries.[190] Current plans call for a transition to a predominantly professional army over the next decade.[191][192] Conscription periods are planned to decrease from 14 months to 12.[193] In the last months of the Bush administration, Taipei
Taipei
took the decision to reverse the trend of declining defence spending, at a time when most Asian countries kept on reducing their military expenditures. It also decided to modernize both defensive and offensive capabilities. Taipei
Taipei
still keeps a large military apparatus relative to the island's population: defence expenditures for 2008 were NTD 334 billion (approximately US $10.5 billion), which accounted for 2.94% of GDP.

Republic of China
China
Marine Corps Amphibious Reconnaissance and Patrol Unit

Republic of China
China
Military Police is a separate branch in the armed forces. In the picture, a military policeman stands guard in Hsinchu Air Base.

The armed forces' primary concern at this time, according to the National Defense Report, is the possibility of an invasion by the PRC, consisting of a naval blockade, airborne assault, and/or missile bombardment.[184] Four upgraded Kidd-class destroyers were purchased from the United States, and commissioned into the Republic of China Navy in 2005–2006, significantly upgrading Taiwan's air defence and submarine hunting abilities.[194] The Ministry of National Defense planned to purchase diesel-powered submarines and Patriot anti-missile batteries from the United States, but its budget has been stalled repeatedly by the opposition- Pan-Blue Coalition controlled legislature. The defence package was stalled from 2001 to 2007 where it was finally passed through the legislature and the US responded on 3 October 2008, with a $6.5 billion arms package including PAC III Anti-Air defence systems, AH-64D Apache Attack helicopters and other arms and parts.[195] A significant amount of military hardware has been bought from the United States, and, as of 2009[update], continues to be legally guaranteed by the Taiwan
Taiwan
Relations Act.[128] In the past, France
France
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
have also sold military weapons and hardware to the ROC, but they almost entirely stopped in the 1990s under pressure of the PRC.[196][197] The first line of defence against invasion by the PRC is the ROC's own armed forces. Current ROC military doctrine is to hold out against an invasion or blockade until the US military responds.[198] There is, however, no guarantee in the Taiwan
Taiwan
Relations Act or any other treaty that the United States
United States
will defend Taiwan, even in the event of invasion.[199] The joint declaration on security between the US and Japan
Japan
signed in 1996 may imply that Japan
Japan
would be involved in any response. However, Japan
Japan
has refused to stipulate whether the "area surrounding Japan" mentioned in the pact includes Taiwan, and the precise purpose of the pact is unclear.[200] The Australia, New Zealand, United States
United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS Treaty) may mean that other US allies, such as Australia, could theoretically be involved.[201] In practice, the risk of losing economic ties with China
China
may prevent Australia
Australia
from taking action.[202] The United States, United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Canada, Chile, and Peru
Peru
conduct maritime exercises in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
every two years called RIMPAC. They are conducted to promote stability and to be able to respond in case of an armed conflict in the region, including an invasion of Taiwan
Taiwan
by the PRC.[203] Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of Taiwan See also: History of the administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
(1912–49)

Administrative divisions since 2014

Taipei New Taipei Keelung Taoyuan Hsinchu
Hsinchu
County Hsinchu Miaoli Taichung Changhua Penghu Nantou Yunlin Chiayi
Chiayi
County Chiayi Tainan Kaohsiung Pingtung Yilan Hualien Taitung Taiwan
Taiwan
Province Kinmen Lienchiang (Matsu) Fukien Province

According to the 1947 constitution, the territory of the ROC is according to its "existing national boundaries".[204] According to the Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
in 2012, Mongolia
Mongolia
was re-recognized by Republic of China
China
as an independent country when the constitution was announced in 1946.[205] When the ROC retreated to Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1949, its claimed territory consisted of 35 provinces, 12 special municipalities, 1 special administrative region and 2 autonomous regions. However, since its retreat, the ROC has controlled only Taiwan
Taiwan
Province and some islands of Fujian
Fujian
Province. The ROC also controls the Pratas Islands
Pratas Islands
and Taiping Island
Taiping Island
in the Spratly Islands, which are part of the disputed South China
China
Sea Islands. They were placed under Kaohsiung administration after the retreat to Taiwan.[206] Since 1949, the government has made some changes in the area under its control. Taipei
Taipei
became a special municipality in 1967 and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
in 1979. The two provincial governments were "streamlined", with their functions transferred to the central government ( Fujian
Fujian
in 1956 and Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1998).[207] In 2010, New Taipei, Taichung
Taichung
and Tainan
Tainan
were upgraded to special municipalities. And in 2014, Taoyuan County was also upgraded to Taoyuan special municipality. This brought the top-level divisions to their current state:[208]

Level 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th

Division type Special
Special
municipality (直轄市 zhíxiáshì) (6) Mountain Indigenous District (原住民區 yuánzhùmín qū) (6) Urban Village (里 lǐ) Neighborhood (鄰 lín)

District (區 qū) (164)

Province (省 shěng) (2) (Streamlined) City (市 shì) (3)

County (縣 xiàn) (13) County-controlled city (縣轄市 xiànxiáshì) (14)

Urban Township (鎮 zhèn) (38)

Rural Township (鄉 xiāng) (122) Rural Village (村 cūn)

Mountain Indigenous Township (山地鄉 shāndì xiāng) (24)

Total 22 368 7,851 147,785

According to Article 4 of the Local Government Act, laws pertaining to special municipalities also apply to counties with a population exceeding 2 million. This provision does not currently apply to any county, although it previously applied to Taipei
Taipei
County (now New Taipei
Taipei
City) and Taoyuan County (now Taoyuan City). Economy and industry Main articles: Economy of Taiwan
Taiwan
and Economic history of Taiwan See also: North-south divide in Taiwan

Taipei
Taipei
101 held the world record for skyscraper height from 2004 to 2010.

The quick industrialization and rapid growth of Taiwan
Taiwan
during the latter half of the 20th century has been called the " Taiwan
Taiwan
Miracle". Taiwan
Taiwan
is one of the "Four Asian Tigers" alongside Hong Kong, South Korea
Korea
and Singapore. Japanese rule prior to and during World War II brought changes in the public and private sectors, most notably in the area of public works, which enabled rapid communications and facilitated transport throughout much of the island. The Japanese also improved public education and made it compulsory for all residents of Taiwan. By 1945, hyperinflation was in progress in mainland China
China
and Taiwan as a result of the war with Japan. To isolate Taiwan
Taiwan
from it, the Nationalist government created a new currency area for the island, and began a price stabilization program. These efforts significantly slowed inflation. When the KMT government fled to Taiwan
Taiwan
it brought millions of taels (where 1 tael = 37.5 g or ~1.2 ozt) of gold and the foreign currency reserve of mainland China, which, according to the KMT, stabilized prices and reduced hyperinflation.[209] Perhaps more importantly, as part of its retreat to Taiwan, the KMT brought the intellectual and business elites from Mainland China.[210] The KMT government instituted many laws and land reforms that it had never effectively enacted on mainland China. The government also implemented a policy of import-substitution, attempting to produce imported goods domestically. In 1950, with the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States
United States
began an aid program which resulted in fully stabilized prices by 1952.[211] Economic development was encouraged by American economic aid and programs such as the Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction, which turned the agricultural sector into the basis for later growth. Under the combined stimulus of the land reform and the agricultural development programs, agricultural production increased at an average annual rate of 4 per cent from 1952 to 1959, which was greater than the population growth, 3.6%.[212] In 1962, Taiwan
Taiwan
had a (nominal) per-capita gross national product (GNP) of $170, placing its economy on a par with those of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. On a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, its GDP per capita in the early 1960s was $1,353 (in 1990 prices). By 2011 per-capita GNP, adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP), had risen to $37,000, contributing to a Human Development Index (HDI) equivalent to that of other developed countries. Taiwan's HDI in 2012 is 0.890, (23rd, very high), according to the UN's new "Inequality-adjusted HDI" calculation method. In 1974, Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
implemented the Ten Major Construction Projects, the beginning foundations that helped Taiwan
Taiwan
transform into its current export driven economy. Since the 1990s, a number of Taiwan-based technology firms have expanded their reach around the world. Well-known international technology companies headquartered in Taiwan
Taiwan
include personal computer manufacturers Acer Inc.
Acer Inc.
and Asus, mobile phone maker HTC, as well as electronics manufacturing giant Foxconn, which makes products for Apple, Amazon, and Microsoft. Computex Taipei
Taipei
is a major computer expo, held since 1981.

Taiwan
Taiwan
High Speed Rail, with trains running at speeds near 300 km/h (186 mph), links Taipei
Taipei
and the southern port city of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
in just 96 minutes.

Today Taiwan
Taiwan
has a dynamic, capitalist, export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment and foreign trade. In keeping with this trend, some large government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized.[213] Real growth in GDP has averaged about 8% during the past three decades. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. The trade surplus is substantial, and foreign reserves are the world's fifth largest.[214] The currency of Taiwan
Taiwan
is the New Taiwan
Taiwan
dollar. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the economic ties between Taiwan
Taiwan
and the People's Republic of China
China
have been very prolific. As of 2008[update], more than US$150 billion[215] have been invested in the PRC by Taiwanese companies, and about 10% of the Taiwanese labour force works in the PRC, often to run their own businesses.[216] Although the economy of Taiwan
Taiwan
benefits from this situation, some have expressed the view that the island has become increasingly dependent on the Mainland Chinese
Mainland Chinese
economy. A 2008 white paper by the Department of Industrial Technology states that " Taiwan
Taiwan
should seek to maintain stable relation with China
China
while continuing to protect national security, and avoiding excessive 'Sinicization' of Taiwanese economy."[217] Others argue that close economic ties between Taiwan and Mainland China
China
would make any military intervention by the PLA against Taiwan
Taiwan
very costly, and therefore less probable.[218] Taiwan's total trade in 2010 reached an all-time high of US$526.04 billion, according to Taiwan's Ministry of Finance. Both exports and imports for the year reached record levels, totalling US$274.64 billion and US$251.4 billion, respectively.[219]

Rice paddy fields in Yilan County

In 2001, agriculture constituted only 2% of GDP, down from 35% in 1952.[220] Traditional labour-intensive industries are steadily being moved offshore and with more capital and technology-intensive industries replacing them. High-technology industrial parks have sprung up in every region in Taiwan. The ROC has become a major foreign investor in the PRC, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. It is estimated that some 50,000 Taiwanese businesses and 1,000,000 businesspeople and their dependents are established in the PRC.[221] Because of its conservative financial approach and its entrepreneurial strengths, Taiwan
Taiwan
suffered little compared with many of its neighbours from the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Unlike its neighbours, South Korea
Korea
and Japan, the Taiwanese economy is dominated by small and medium-sized businesses, rather than the large business groups. The global economic downturn, however, combined with poor policy co-ordination by the new administration and increasing bad debts in the banking system, pushed Taiwan
Taiwan
into recession in 2001, the first whole year of negative growth since 1947. Due to the relocation of many manufacturing and labour-intensive industries to the PRC, unemployment also reached a level not seen since the 1970s oil crisis. This became a major issue in the 2004 presidential election. Growth averaged more than 4% in the 2002–2006 period and the unemployment rate fell below 4%.[222] The ROC often joins international organizations (especially ones that also include the People's Republic of China) under a politically neutral name. The ROC has been a member of governmental trade organizations such as the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
under the name Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu (Chinese Taipei) since 2002.[223] Transportation Main article: Transportation in Taiwan The Ministry of Transportation and Communications of the Republic of China
China
is the cabinet-level governing body of the transportation network in Taiwan. Taiwan
Taiwan
has an extensive highway network, classified into five levels: national highways, provincial highways, county routes, township routes, and special routes, with the first four being common. Taiwan
Taiwan
also has an extensive bus network, most of which are run by private bus companies. Inter-city rail services are provided by Taiwan
Taiwan
Railway Administration (TRA) and Taiwan
Taiwan
High Speed Rail (THSR). Rapid transit systems include the Taipei
Taipei
Metro, Taoyuan Metro
Taoyuan Metro
(incl. the Airport MRT) and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
MRT, while Taichung
Taichung
Metro is under construction. Major airports include Taiwan
Taiwan
Taoyuan, Kaohsiung, Taipei Songshan and Taichung. There are currently seven airlines in Taiwan, the largest ones being China
China
Airlines and EVA Air. There are four international seaports: Keelung, Kaohsiung, Taichung, and Hualien. Education, research, and academia Main articles: Education in Taiwan, Academia Sinica, and History of education in Taiwan See also: Scholarships in Taiwan The higher education system was established in Taiwan
Taiwan
by Japan
Japan
during the colonial period. However, after the Republic of China
China
took over Taiwan
Taiwan
from Japan
Japan
in 1945, the system was promptly replaced by the same system as in mainland China
China
which mixed with features of the Chinese and American educational systems.[224] Taiwan
Taiwan
is well known for adhering to the Confucian paradigm of valuing education as a means to improve one's socioeconomic position in Taiwanese society.[225] Heavy investment and a cultural value for education has catapulted the resource poor nation consistently atop the global education rankings. Taiwan
Taiwan
is one of the top-performing countries in reading literacy, maths and sciences. In 2015, Taiwanese students achieved one of the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance.[226] The strong scholastic and educational performance of Taiwanese students has prompted the nation to build a highly educated labour force that possesses a strong background in mathematics and science to cope with the current labor market demands of the 21st century.[227] The Taiwanese education system has been praised for various reasons including its comparatively high test results and its major role in ushering Taiwan's economic development while creating one of the world’s most highly educated workforces.[228][229] The country has also been praised for its high university entrance rate where the university acceptance rate has increased from around 20 percent before the 1970s to 49 percent in 1996 and over 90 percent since 2006, among the highest in Asia.[230] The nation's high university entrance rate has created a highly skilled workforce making Taiwan
Taiwan
one of the most highly educated countries in the world with 68.5% of Taiwanese high school students going on to attend university. Taiwan
Taiwan
has a high percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree where 45 percent of Taiwanese aged 25–64 hold a bachelors degree or higher compared with the average of 33 percent among member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).[20][21] On the other hand, the system has been criticized for placing excessive pressure on students and eschewing creativity in favor of rote memorization. In addition, the system has been criticized for producing an excess supply of over-educated university graduates and a higher unemployment rate. With a large supply of university graduates seeking a limited demand of prestigious white collar jobs in an environment that is increasingly losing its competitive edge has led many degree holders ending up with lower end jobs with salaries far beneath than their expectations.[231][225] Taiwan’s universities have also been under criticism for not being able to fully meet the requirements and demands of Taiwan’s 21st century fast-moving job market citing a skills mismatch among a large number of self-assessed overeducated university graduates that don't fit the demands of the modern Taiwanese labor market.[232] The Taiwanese government has also been criticized for undermining the economy as it has been unable to produce enough jobs to meet the demands of numerous underemployed university graduates.[230][233] As the Taiwanese economy is largely science and technology based, the labor market demands people who have achieved some form of higher education, particularly related to science and engineering in order to gain a competitive edge when searching for employment. Although current Taiwanese law mandates only nine years of schooling, 95% of junior high graduates go on to attend a senior vocational high school, university, junior college, trade school, or other higher education institution.[citation needed] Many Taiwanese students attend cram schools, or bushiban, to improve skills and knowledge on problem solving against exams of subjects like mathematics, nature science, history and many others. Courses are available for most popular subjects. Lessons are organized in lectures, reviews, private tutorial sessions, and recitations.[234][235] As of 2013[update], the literacy rate in Taiwan
Taiwan
is 97.15%.[6] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Taiwan Taiwan's population is about 23.4 million,[6] most of whom are on the island proper. The remainder live on Penghu
Penghu
(101,758), Kinmen (127,723), and Matsu (12,506).[8] Ethnic groups Main articles: Taiwanese people, Han Taiwanese, and Taiwanese aborigines

Bunun dancer in traditional aboriginal dress

The ROC government reports that over 95% of the population is Han Chinese, of which the majority includes descendants of early Han Chinese immigrants who arrived in Taiwan
Taiwan
in large numbers starting in the 18th century. Alternatively, the ethnic groups of Taiwan
Taiwan
may be roughly divided among the Hoklo (70%), the Hakka (14%), the Waishengren
Waishengren
(14%), and indigenous peoples (2%).[7] The Hoklo people
Hoklo people
are the largest Han subgroup (70% of the total population), whose ancestors migrated from the coastal southern Fujian region across the Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
starting in the 17th century. The Hakka comprise about 15% of the total population, and descend from Han migrants to Guangdong, its surrounding areas and Taiwan. Additional people of Han origin include and descend from the 2 million Nationalists who fled to Taiwan
Taiwan
following the communist victory on the mainland in 1949.[7] The indigenous Taiwanese aborigines
Taiwanese aborigines
number about 533,600 and are divided into 16 recognized groups.[236] The Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Kanakanavu, Kavalan, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiyat, Saaroa, Sakizaya, Sediq, Thao, Truku and Tsou live mostly in the eastern half of the island, while the Yami inhabit Orchid Island.[237][238] Languages Main article: Languages of Taiwan Mandarin is the official national language and is spoken by the vast majority of the population of Taiwan. It has been the primary language of instruction in schools since the end of Japanese rule. As in Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
is used as the writing system in Taiwan.[239] The 70% of the population belonging to the Hoklo ethnic group speak Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
(a variant of the Min Nan
Min Nan
speech of Fujian
Fujian
province) as their mother tongue, in addition to Mandarin, and many others have some degree of understanding. The Hakka ethnic group (15% of the population) use Hakka Chinese. Most waishengren[c] speak primarily Mandarin. Although Mandarin is the language of instruction in schools and dominates television and radio, non- Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
varieties have undergone a revival in public life in Taiwan, particularly since restrictions on their use were lifted in the 1990s.[239] Taiwan's indigenous languages, the Formosan languages, do not belong to the Chinese or Sino-Tibetan language family, but rather to the Austronesian language family. Their use among Taiwan's aboriginal minority groups has been in decline as usage of Mandarin has risen.[239] Of the 14 extant languages, five are considered moribund.[240] Religion Main article: Religion in Taiwan

Religion in Taiwan
Taiwan
(2005 census)[241]    Buddhism
Buddhism
(35.1%)    Taoism
Taoism
(33.0%)   Non-religious (18.7%)    Christianity
Christianity
(3.9%)    Yiguandao
Yiguandao
(XTD) (3.5%)    Tiandism
Tiandism
(XTD) (2.2%)    Miledadao (XTD) (1.1%)    Zailiism
Zailiism
(0.8%)    Xuanyuanism
Xuanyuanism
(0.7%)   Other or undeclared (1%)

The Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic of China
China
protects people's freedom of religion and the practices of belief.[242] There are approximately 18,718,600 religious followers in Taiwan
Taiwan
as of 2005[update] (81.3% of total population) and 14–18% are non-religious. According to the 2005 census, of the 26 religions recognized by the ROC government, the five largest are: Buddhism
Buddhism
(8,086,000 or 35.1%), Taoism
Taoism
(7,600,000 or 33%), Yiguandao
Yiguandao
(810,000 or 3.5%), Protestantism (605,000 or 2.6%), and Roman Catholicism (298,000 or 1.3%).[243] The CIA
CIA
World Factbook reports that over 93% of Taiwanese are adherents of a combination of the polytheistic Chinese popular religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism; 4.5% are adherents of Christianity, which includes Protestants, Catholics, and other, non-denominational, Christian groups; and less than 2.5% are adherents of other religions.[7][244] Taiwanese aborigines
Taiwanese aborigines
comprise a notable subgroup among professing Christians: "...over 64% identify as Christian... Church buildings are the most obvious markers of Aboriginal villages, distinguishing them from Taiwanese or Hakka villages."[245] Confucianism
Confucianism
is a philosophy that deals with secular moral ethics, and serves as the foundation of both Chinese and Taiwanese culture. The majority of Taiwanese people
Taiwanese people
usually combine the secular moral teachings of Confucianism
Confucianism
with whatever religions they are affiliated with. As of 2009[update], there were 14,993 temples in Taiwan, approximately one place of worship per 1,500 residents. 9,202 of those temples were dedicated to Taoism. In 2008, Taiwan
Taiwan
had 3,262 Churches, an increase of 145.[246] Largest cities and counties Main article: List of cities in Taiwan The figures below are the 2011 estimates for the twenty most populous administrative divisions; a different ranking exists when considering the total metropolitan area populations (in such rankings the Taipei- Keelung
Keelung
metro area is by far the largest agglomeration).

 

v t e

Largest administrative divisions in Taiwan source

Rank Name Division Pop.

New Taipei

Taichung 1 New Taipei New Taipei
Taipei
City 3,979,208

Kaohsiung

Taipei

2 Taichung Taichung
Taichung
City 2,778,182

3 Kaohsiung Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City 2,777,873

4 Taipei Taipei
Taipei
City 2,687,629

5 Taoyuan Taoyuan City 2,171,127

6 Tainan Tainan
Tainan
City 1,886,267

7 Hsinchu Hsinchu
Hsinchu
City 439,435

8 Keelung Keelung
Keelung
City 371,853

9 Chiayi Chiayi
Chiayi
City 269,608

10 Changhua Changhua
Changhua
County 234,053

Public health

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2013)

Main article: Healthcare in Taiwan

National Taiwan
Taiwan
University Hospital

Health care
Health care
in Taiwan
Taiwan
is managed by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI).[247] The current program was implemented in 1995, and is considered to be a form of social insurance. The government health insurance program maintains compulsory insurance for citizens who are employed, impoverished, unemployed, or victims of natural disasters with fees that correlate to the individual and/or family income; it also maintains protection for non-citizens working in Taiwan. A standardized method of calculation applies to all persons and can optionally be paid by an employer or by individual contributions.[248] BNHI insurance coverage requires co-payment at the time of service for most services unless it is a preventative health service, for low-income families, veterans, children under three years old, or in the case of catastrophic diseases. Low income households maintain 100% premium coverage by the BNHI and co-pays are reduced for disabled or certain elderly people.[citation needed] According to a recently published survey, out of 3,360 patients surveyed at a randomly chosen hospital, 75.1% of the patients said they are "very satisfied" with the hospital service; 20.5% said they are "okay" with the service. Only 4.4% of the patients said they are either "not satisfied" or "very not satisfied" with the service or care provided.[249] Taiwan
Taiwan
has its own Center for Disease Control, and during the SARS outbreak in March 2003 there were 347 confirmed cases. During the outbreak the Centers for Disease Control and local governments set up monitored stations throughout public transportation, recreational sites and other public areas. With full containment in July 2003, there has not been a case of SARS since.[250] As of 2006[update], the BNHI Facility Contract Distribution facilities total 17,259, including:[251]

Number Subject

16,174 outpatient-only facilities

5,701 dental clinics

2,422 Chinese medicine clinics

1,085 inpatient/outpatient facilities

437 local community hospitals

35 Chinese medicine hospitals

123 academic medical centers

Basic coverage areas of the insurance include:

In-patient care Ambulatory care Laboratory tests Prescription and over-the-counter drugs Dental services

Mental Illness Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
medicine Home care Preventative services (check-ups, prenatal care, pap smears)

In 2004, the infant mortality rate was 5.3 with 15 physicians and 63 hospital beds per 10,000 people. The life expectancy for males was 73.5 years and 79.7 years for females according to the World Health Report. In July 2013, the Department of Health was restructured as the Ministry of Health and Welfare.[252] Culture Main articles: Culture of Taiwan
Taiwan
and Cultural history of Taiwan See also: Taiwanese Wave

Apo Hsu
Apo Hsu
and the NTNU Symphony Orchestra on stage in the National Concert Hall

The cultures of Taiwan
Taiwan
are a hybrid blend of various sources, incorporating elements of traditional Chinese culture, attributable to the historical and ancestry origin of the majority of its current residents, Japanese culture, traditional Confucianist beliefs, and increasingly Western values. After their move to Taiwan, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
imposed an official interpretation of traditional Chinese culture over Taiwan. The government launched a program promoting Chinese calligraphy, traditional Chinese painting, folk art, and Chinese opera.[citation needed] The status of Taiwanese culture is debated.[253] It is disputed whether Taiwanese culture is a regional form of Chinese culture or a distinct culture. Reflecting the continuing controversy surrounding the political status of Taiwan, politics continues to play a role in the conception and development of a Taiwanese cultural identity, especially in the prior dominant frame of a Taiwanese and Chinese dualism. In recent years, the concept of Taiwanese multiculturalism has been proposed as a relatively apolitical alternative view, which has allowed for the inclusion of mainlanders and other minority groups into the continuing re-definition of Taiwanese culture as collectively held systems of meaning and customary patterns of thought and behaviour shared by the people of Taiwan.[254] Identity politics, along with the over one hundred years of political separation from mainland China, has led to distinct traditions in many areas, including cuisine and music.

Wang Tuoh, a Taiwanese writer, literary critic and politician

One of Taiwan's greatest attractions is the National Palace Museum, which houses more than 650,000 pieces of Chinese bronze, jade, calligraphy, painting, and porcelain and is considered one of the greatest collections of Chinese art and objects in the world.[255] The KMT moved this collection from the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
in Beijing
Beijing
in 1933 and part of the collection was eventually transported to Taiwan
Taiwan
during the Chinese Civil War. The collection, estimated to be one-tenth of China's cultural treasures, is so extensive that only 1% is on display at any time. The PRC had said that the collection was stolen and has called for its return, but the ROC has long defended its control of the collection as a necessary act to protect the pieces from destruction, especially during the Cultural Revolution. Relations regarding this treasure have warmed recently; Beijing
Beijing
Palace Museum Curator Zheng Xinmiao said that artefacts in both Chinese and Taiwanese museums are "China's cultural heritage jointly owned by people across the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait."[256] The classical music culture in Taiwan
Taiwan
is highly developed and features artists such as violinist Cho-Liang Lin, pianist Ching-Yun Hu, and the Lincoln Center Chamber Music Society Artist Director Wu Han. Karaoke, drawn from contemporary Japanese culture, is extremely popular in Taiwan, where it is known as KTV. KTV businesses operate in a hotel-like style, renting out small rooms and ballrooms varying on the number of guests in a group. Many KTV establishments partner with restaurants and buffets to form all-encompassing elaborate evening affairs for families, friends, or businessmen. Tour buses that travel around Taiwan
Taiwan
have several TV's, equipped not for watching movies, but primarily for singing Karaoke. The entertainment counterpart of a KTV is an MTV, being found much less frequently out of the city. There, movies out on DVD can be selected and played in a private theatre room. However, MTV, more so than KTV, has a growing reputation for being a place that young couples will go to be alone and intimate. Taiwan
Taiwan
has a high density of 24-hour convenience stores, which, in addition to the usual services, provide services on behalf of financial institutions or government agencies such as collection of parking fees, utility bills, traffic violation fines, and credit card payments.[257] They also provide a service for mailing packages. Taiwanese culture has also influenced other cultures. Bubble tea
Bubble tea
and milk tea are available in Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Taiwan
Taiwan
television shows are popular in Singapore, Malaysia, and other Asian countries. Taiwanese films have won various international awards at film festivals around the world. Ang Lee, a Taiwanese director, has directed critically acclaimed films such as: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; Eat Drink Man Woman; Sense and Sensibility; Brokeback Mountain; Life of Pi; and Lust, Caution. Other famous Taiwanese directors include Tsai Ming-Liang, Edward Yang, and Hou Hsiao-hsien. Sports Main article: Sports in Taiwan

Yani Tseng
Yani Tseng
with the 2011 Women's British Open trophy

Baseball
Baseball
is Taiwan's national sport and it is a popular spectator sport. Two of the most famous Taiwanese baseball pitchers are Chien-Ming Wang
Chien-Ming Wang
and Wei-Yin Chen; both are pitchers in Major League Baseball. Other notable players playing in the United States
United States
include Chin-hui Tsao who played for the Colorado Rockies
Colorado Rockies
(2003–2005) and the Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers
(2007, 2015–2016), Hong-Chih Kuo, Fu-Te Ni, and Chin-lung Hu. The Chinese Professional Baseball
Baseball
League in Taiwan was established in 1989,[258] and eventually absorbed the competing Taiwan
Taiwan
Major League in 2003. As of 2015[update], the CPBL has four teams with average attendance over 5,000 per game.[259] Besides baseball, basketball is Taiwan's major sport.[260] Taekwondo has also become a mature and successful sport in recent years. In the 2004 Olympics, Chen Shih-hsin
Chen Shih-hsin
and Chu Mu-yen
Chu Mu-yen
won the first two gold medals in women's flyweight event and men's flyweight event, respectively. Subsequent taekwondo competitors such as Yang Shu-chun have strengthened Taiwan's taekwondo culture. Taiwan
Taiwan
participates in international sporting organizations and events under the name of "Chinese Taipei" due to its political status. In 2009, Taiwan
Taiwan
hosted two international sporting events on the island. The World Games 2009
World Games 2009
were held in Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
between 16 and 26 July 2009. Taipei
Taipei
hosted the 21st Summer Deaflympics
21st Summer Deaflympics
in September of the same year. Furthermore, Taipei
Taipei
will host the Summer Universiade
Universiade
in 2017.[261] Taiwan
Taiwan
is also a major Asian country for Korfball. In 2008, Taiwan hosted the World Youth Korfball
Korfball
Championship and took the silver medal.[262] In 2009, Taiwan's korfball team won a bronze medal at the World Game.[263] Yani Tseng
Yani Tseng
is the most famous Taiwanese professional golfer currently playing on the US-based LPGA Tour. She is the youngest player ever, male or female, to win five major championships and had been ranked number 1 in the Women's World Golf Rankings for 109 consecutive weeks from 2011 to 2013.[264][265][266] Calendar Main article: Minguo calendar See also: Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
and Public holidays in Taiwan

A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
as the provisional President

Taiwan
Taiwan
uses two official calendars: the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and the Minguo calendar. The latter numbers years starting from 1911, the year of the founding of the Republic of China. For example, 2007 was the "96th year of the Republic" (民國96年),[267] while its months and days were numbered according to the Gregorian calendar. Usually, year numbering may use the Gregorian system as well as the ROC era system. For example, 3 May 2004, may be written 2004-05-03 or 93-05-03. The use of two different calendar systems in Taiwan
Taiwan
may be confusing, in particular for foreigners. For instance, products for export marked using the Minguo calendar
Minguo calendar
can be misunderstood as having an expiration date 11 years earlier than intended.[268] Taiwan
Taiwan
also uses the lunar calendar for traditional festivals such as the Chinese New Year, the Lantern Festival, and the Dragon Boat Festival.[269] See also

Index of Taiwan-related articles Outline of Taiwan List of tourist attractions in Taiwan List of wars involving the Republic of China

Geography portal Asia
Asia
portal Taiwan
Taiwan
portal Islands portal

Notes

^ See Names of the Republic of China. ^ See [1] ^ a b This does not include citizens of the People's Republic of China who more recently moved to Taiwan. Some Waishengren
Waishengren
are also Hakka or Hokkien, and small minority are not Han but Manchu, Mongol etc. ^ Taiwanese aborigines
Taiwanese aborigines
are officially categorised into 16 separate ethnic groups by the Republic of China. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 49 ^ a b The UN has not calculated an HDI for the ROC, which is not a member nation. The ROC government calculated its HDI for 2015 to be 0.885, which would rank it 27th among countries.[13] ^ Although this is the present meaning of guó, in Old Chinese
Old Chinese
(when its pronunciation was something like /*qʷˤək/)[35] it meant the walled city of the Chinese and the areas they could control from them.[36] ^ Its use is attested from the 6th-century Classic of History, which states "Huangtian bestowed the lands and the peoples of the central state to the ancestors" (皇天既付中國民越厥疆土于先王).[37]

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and Oceania" (PDF). Quaternary International. 118–119: 145–163. doi:10.1016/s1040-6182(03)00135-6. Retrieved 31 March 2007.  Chang, Maukuei (2005). "Chapter 7 : The Movement to Indigenize to Social Sciences in Taiwan: Origin and Predicaments". In Makeham, John; Hsiau, A-chin. Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua (1 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7020-6.  Davidson, James W. (1903). The Island of Formosa, Past and Present : history, people, resources, and commercial prospects : tea, camphor, sugar, gold, coal, sulphur, economical plants, and other productions. London and New York: Macmillan. OL 6931635M.  Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (2014). The Republic of China
China
Yearbook 2014 (PDF). ISBN 9789860423020. Retrieved 11 June 2016.  Fenby, Jonathan (2009). The Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850–2009. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-7139-9832-6.  Fung, Edmund S. K. (2000). In search of Chinese democracy: civil opposition in Nationalist China, 1929–1949. Cambridge
Cambridge
modern China series. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77124-5.  Hsiau, A-Chin (2005). "Chapter 4 : The Indigenization of Taiwanese Literature: Historical Narrative, Strategic Essentialism, and State Violence". In Makeham, John; Hsiau, A-chin. Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua (1 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7020-6.  Jiao, Tianlong (2007). The Neolithic of southeast China: cultural transformation and regional interaction on the coast. Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-934043-16-5.  Makinen, Gail E.; Woodward, G. Thomas (1989). "The Taiwanese hyperinflation and stabilization of 1945–1952". Journal of Money, Credit and Banking. 21 (1): 90–105. doi:10.2307/1992580. JSTOR 1992580.  Makeham, John (2005). "Chapter 6 : Indigenization Discourse in Taiwanese Confucian Revivalism". In Makeham, John; Hsiau, A-chin. Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua (1 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7020-6.  Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru; Macaulay, Vincent; Clarke, Dougie; Blumbach, Petya B.; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu; Forster, Peter; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin (January 2007). "A Mitochondrial Stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (1): 29–43. doi:10.1086/510412. PMC 1876738 . PMID 17160892.  Thompson, Lawrence G. (1964). "The earliest eyewitness accounts of the Formosan aborigines". Monumenta Serica. 23: 163–204. JSTOR 40726116.  Valentijn, François (1903) [First published 1724 in Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indiën]. "History of the Dutch Trade". In Campbell, William. Formosa
Formosa
under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. pp. 25–75. OCLC 644323041.  Winckler, Edwin (1994). Harrell, Stevan; Huang, Chun-chieh, eds. Cultural Policy in Postwar Taiwan. Cultural Change in Postwar Taiwan
Taiwan
( 10–14 April 1991; Seattle). Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-8632-4.  Yip, June (2004). Envisioning Taiwan: Fiction, Cinema and the Nation in the Cultural Imaginary. Durham, N.C. and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3357-9. 

Further reading

" Taiwan
Taiwan
Flashpoint". BBC News. 2005.  Bush, R.; O'Hanlon, M. (2007). A War Like No Other: The Truth About China's Challenge to America. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-98677-1.  Bush, R. (2006). Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-1290-1.  Carpenter, T. (2006). America's Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6841-1.  Clark, Cal; Tan, Alexander C. (2012). Taiwan's Political Economy: Meeting Challenges, Pursuing Progress. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 1-58826-806-3.  Cole, B. (2006). Taiwan's Security: History and Prospects. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36581-3.  Copper, J. (2006). Playing with Fire: The Looming War with China
China
over Taiwan. Praeger Security International General Interest. ISBN 0-275-98888-0.  Copper, John F. ed. Historical dictionary of Taiwan
Taiwan
(1993) online Federation of American Scientists; et al. (2006). "Chinese Nuclear Forces and US Nuclear War Planning" (PDF).  Feuerwerker, Albert (1968). The Chinese Economy, 1912–1949. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.  Fravel, M. Taylor (2002) "Towards Civilian Supremacy: Civil-military Relations in Taiwan's Democratization", Armed Forces & Society 29, no. 1: 57–84 Gill, B. (2007). Rising Star: China's New Security Diplomacy. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-3146-9.  Shirk, S. (2007). China: Fragile Superpower: How China's Internal Politics Could Derail Its Peaceful Rise. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530609-0.  Tsang, S. (2006). If China
China
Attacks Taiwan: Military Strategy, Politics and Economics. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40785-0.  Tucker, N.B. (2005). Dangerous Strait: the US-Taiwan- China
China
Crisis. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13564-5. 

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