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Osmosis
Osmosis
Osmosis
(/ɒzˈmoʊ.sɪs/)[1] is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.[2][3][4] It may also be used to describe a physical process in which any solvent moves across a semipermeable membrane (permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of different concentrations.[5][6] Osmosis
Osmosis
can be made to do work.[7] Osmotic pressure
Osmotic pressure
is defined as the external pressure required to be applied so that there is no net movement of solvent across the membrane
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Ozzy Osbourne
John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne[2] (born 3 December 1948)[2] is an English singer, songwriter and actor. He rose to prominence during the 1970s as the lead vocalist of the heavy metal band Black Sabbath. He was fired from Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath
in 1979 and went on to have a successful solo career, releasing 11 studio albums, the first seven of which were all awarded multi-platinum certifications in the US. Osbourne has since reunited with Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath
on several occasions, recording the album 13 in 2013. His longevity and success have earned him the informal title of "Godfather of Heavy Metal".[3] Osbourne's total album sales from his years in Black Sabbath, combined with his solo work, is over 100 million.[4][5] As a member of Black Sabbath, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and he was inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame as a solo artist and as a member of the band
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Lipids
In biology, a lipid is a substance of biological origin that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.[3] It comprises a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. The main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes.[4][5] Lipids have applications in the cosmetic and food industries as well as in nanotechnology.[6] Scientists sometimes broadly define lipids as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, multilamellar/unilamellar liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment
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Food Processing
Food
Food
processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms. Food
Food
processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by the consumer.
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Water Purification
Water purification
Water purification
is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including fulfilling the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications
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Force
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.[1] A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate. Force
Force
can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newton's second law
Newton's second law
states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time
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Chemical Garden
A chemical garden is an experiment in chemistry normally performed by adding metal salts such as copper sulfate or cobalt(II) chloride to an aqueous solution of sodium silicate (otherwise known as waterglass). This results in growth of plant-like forms in minutes to hours.[1] [2] [3] The chemical garden was first observed and described by Johann Rudolf Glauber in 1646.[4] In its original form, the chemical garden involved the introduction of ferrous chloride (FeCl2) crystals into a solution of potassium silicate (K2SiO3).Contents1 Process 2 Common salts used 3 Practical uses 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksProcess[edit] The chemical garden relies on most transition metal silicates being insoluble in water and coloured. A metal salt such as cobalt chloride will start to dissolve in the water. It will then form insoluble cobalt silicate by a double decomposition reaction (anion metathesis). This cobalt silicate is a semipermeable membrane
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Leech
Acanthobdellidea Euhirudinea (but see below)Leeches are segmented worms that belong to the phylum Annelida
Annelida
and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.[1] Like the oligochaetes, such as earthworms, leeches share a clitellum and are hermaphrodites. Nevertheless, they differ from the oligochaetes in significant ways. For example, leeches do not have bristles and the external segmentation of their bodies does not correspond with the internal segmentation of their organs. Their bodies are much more solid as the spaces in their coelom are dense with connective tissues. They also have two suckers, one at each end. The majority of leeches live in freshwater environments, while some species can be found in terrestrial[2] and marine environments
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Marine Aquarium Fish Species
The following list of marine aquarium fish species commonly available in the aquarium trade is not a completely comprehensive list; certain rare specimens may available commercially yet not be listed here
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Freshwater
Fresh water
Fresh water
(or freshwater) is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. The term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water although it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs. Fresh water
Fresh water
is not the same as potable water (or drinking water): Much of the earth's surface fresh water and groundwater is unsuitable for drinking without some form of treatment
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Steady State (biochemistry)
In ionic steady state, cells maintain different internal and external concentrations of various ionic species.[1] Cells are said to be in a steady state, NOT in an equilibrium. This means that there is a differential distribution of ions on either side of the cell membrane - that is, the amount of ions either side is not equal and therefore a charge separation exists. However, ions move across the cell membrane and almost constantly maintain a resting membrane potential; this is known as 'steady state.' References[edit]^ http://www.okcu.edu/biology/BIOL3403/diffusion.pdfThis cell biology article is a stub
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Virial Theorem
In mechanics, the virial theorem provides a general equation that relates the average over time of the total kinetic energy, ⟨ T ⟩ displaystyle leftlangle Trightrangle , of a stable system consisting of N particles, bound by potential forces, with that of the total potential energy, ⟨ V TOT ⟩ displaystyle leftlangle V_ text TOT rightrangle , where angle brackets represent the average over time of the enclosed quantity
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Moritz Traube
Moritz is the German equivalent of the name Maurice
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Copper Sulfate
Copper sulfate may refer to:Cuprous sulfate, Copper(I) sulfate, Cu2SO4 Cupric sulfate, Copper(II) sulfate, CuSO4, used as a fungicide and herbicideThis set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Osmometer
An osmometer is a device for measuring the osmotic strength of a solution, colloid, or compound. There are several different techniques employed in osmometry:Vapor pressure depression osmometers determine the concentration of osmotically active particles that reduce the vapor pressure of a solution. Membrane osmometers measure the osmotic pressure of a solution separated from pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane. Freezing point depression osmometer may also be used to determine the osmotic strength of a solution, as osmotically active compounds depress the freezing point of a solution.Osmometers are useful for determining the total concentration of dissolved salts and sugars in blood or urine samples
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Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
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