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Opticks
Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.[1] (A scholarly Latin translation appeared in 1706.) The book analyzes the fundamental nature of light by means of the refraction of light with prisms and lenses, the diffraction of light by closely spaced sheets of glass, and the behaviour of color mixtures with spectral lights or pigment powders. It is considered one of the great works of science in history
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James Black (scientist)
James Black FRSE
FRSE
FGS (1787–1867) was a Scottish physician, geologist and paleontologist who investigated the capillary circulation of the blood (1825), as well as matters of fever and bowels.[1][2][3][4] Life[edit] Born in Scotland in 1787. In 1808 he was granted a Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He was an Assistant Surgeon in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1820 he was awarded a Doctorate in Medicine at Glasgow. He was then a doctor in Newton Stewart
Newton Stewart
in south-west Scotland before being given a post of House Physician at the Union Hospital in Manchester
Manchester
in 1839. At the same time he lectured in Forensic Medicine from 1840
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René Descartes
René Descartes
René Descartes
(/ˈdeɪˌkɑːrt/;[9] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian";[10] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is a response to his writings,[11][12] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
and the Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of the United Provinces
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Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle
(/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384–322 BC)[A] was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school
Peripatetic school
of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy". His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government. Aristotle
Aristotle
provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry
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Theophrastus
Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(/ˌθiːəˈfræstəs/; Greek: Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC),[3] a Greek native of Eresos
Eresos
in Lesbos,[4] was the successor to Aristotle
Aristotle
in the Peripatetic school. He came to Athens
Athens
at a young age and initially studied in Plato's school. After Plato's death, he attached himself to Aristotle
Aristotle
who took to Theophrastus
Theophrastus
his writings. When Aristotle
Aristotle
fled Athens, Theophrastus
Theophrastus
took over as head of the Lyceum.[4] Theophrastus
Theophrastus
presided over the Peripatetic school
Peripatetic school
for thirty-six years, during which time the school flourished greatly. He is often considered the father of botany for his works on plants
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Voltaire
François-Marie Arouet (French: [fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi aʁ.wɛ]; 21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire (/voʊlˈtɛər/;[1] French: [vɔl.tɛːʁ]), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Christianity
Christianity
as a whole and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state. Voltaire
Voltaire
was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets.[2] He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time
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Proposition
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy. It is used to refer to some or all of the following: the primary bearers of truth-value, the objects of belief and other "propositional attitudes" (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the referents of that-clauses, and the meanings of declarative sentences. Propositions are the sharable objects of attitudes and the primary bearers of truth and falsity
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Lemma (mathematics)
In mathematics, a "helping theorem" or lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is a proven proposition which is used as a stepping stone to a larger result rather than as a statement of interest by itself.[1] The word derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
λῆμμα ("anything which is received, such as a gift, profit, or a bribe").Contents1 Comparison with theorem 2 Well-known lemmas 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksComparison with theorem[edit] There is no formal distinction between a lemma and a theorem, only one of intention – see Theorem
Theorem
terminology. However, a lemma can be considered a minor result whose sole purpose is to help prove a theorem  – a step in the direction of proof.[2] Well-known lemmas[edit] A good stepping stone can lead to many others
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First Principle
A first principle is a basic, foundational, self-evident proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other proposition or assumption. In philosophy, first principles are taught by Aristotelians, and nuanced versions of first principles are referred to as postulates by Kantians.[1] In mathematics, first principles are referred to as axioms or postulates. In physics and other sciences, theoretical work is said to be from first principles, or ab initio, if it starts directly at the level of established science and does not make assumptions such as empirical model and parameter fitting.Contents1 In formal logic 2 Philosophy
Philosophy
in general 3 Aristotle's contribution 4 Descartes 5 In physics 6 Notes 7 See also 8 External linksIn formal logic[edit] In a formal logical system, that is, a set of propositions that are consistent with one another, it is probable that some of the statements can be deduced from one another
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Axiom
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek axíōma (ἀξίωμα) 'that which is thought worthy or fit' or 'that which commends itself as evident.'[1][2] The term has subtle differences in definition when used in the context of different fields of study
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Vade Mecum
A handbook is a type of reference work, or other collection of instructions, that is intended to provide ready reference. The term originally applied to a small or portable book containing information useful for its owner, but the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
defines the current sense as "any book...giving information such as facts on a particular subject, guidance in some art or occupation, instructions for operating a machine, or information for tourists."[1] A handbook is sometimes referred to as a vade mecum (Latin, "go with me") or pocket reference. It may also be referred to as an enchiridion. Handbooks may deal with any topic, and are generally compendiums of information in a particular field or about a particular technique. They are designed to be easily consulted and provide quick answers in a certain area
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Absorption (optics)
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom. Thus, the electromagnetic energy is transformed into internal energy of the absorber, for example thermal energy.[1] The reduction in intensity of a light wave propagating through a medium by absorption of a part of its photons is often called attenuation
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Natural Philosophy
Natural philosophy
Natural philosophy
or philosophy of nature (from Latin
Latin
philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural science. From the ancient world, starting with Aristotle, to the 19th century, the term "natural philosophy" was the common term used to describe the practice of studying nature
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Reason
Reason
or simply the Enlightenment)[1][2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy".[3] Some consider Descartes' 1637 statement "I think, therefore I am" to have sparked the period. Others cite the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (1687). French historians traditionally date the Enlightenment from 1715 to 1789, from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV
Louis XV
until the French Revolution. Most end it with the turn of the 19th century. Philosophers and scientists of the period widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffeehouses and in printed books, journals, and pamphlets
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Chemical Affinity
In chemical physics and physical chemistry, chemical affinity is the electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species are capable of forming chemical compounds.[1] Chemical affinity
Chemical affinity
can also refer to the tendency of an atom or compound to combine by chemical reaction with atoms or compounds of unlike composition.Contents1 History1.1 Early theories 1.2 Visual representations2 Modern conceptions 3 Thermodynamics 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Early theories[edit] The idea of affinity is extremely old. Many attempts have been made at identifying its origins.[2] The majority of such attempts, however, except in a general manner, end in futility since "affinities" lie at the basis of all magic, thereby pre-dating science.[3] Physical chemistry, however, was one of the first branches of science to study and formulate a "theory of affinity"
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Chemical Reaction
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.[1] Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei (no change to the elements present), and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur. The substance (or substances) initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants or reagents
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