ARISTOTLE (/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/ ; Greek : Ἀριστοτέλης
Aristotélēs, pronounced ; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek
philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira , Chalkidice ,
on the northern periphery of Classical
Greece . Along with Plato,
Aristotle is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which from
his teachings inherited almost its entire lexicon, including problems
and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost any form of knowledge
known to the modern world.
His father, Nicomachus , died when
Aristotle was a child, whereafter
Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At seventeen or eighteen
years of age, he joined Plato\'s Academy in
Athens and remained there
until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). His writings cover many
subjects – including physics , biology , zoology , metaphysics ,
logic , ethics, aesthetics , poetry , theater, music, rhetoric ,
psychology , linguistics , politics and government – and constitute
the first comprehensive system of
Western philosophy . Shortly after
Athens and, at the request of Philip II of
Macedon , tutored
Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC.
Alexander the Great gave
Aristotle many opportunities and an
abundance of supplies. He established a library in the
aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books, which were
written on papyrus scrolls . The fact that
Aristotle was a pupil of
Plato contributed to his former views of
Platonism , but, following
Aristotle immersed himself in empirical studies and
Platonism to empiricism . He believed all peoples'
concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception
. Aristotle's views on natural sciences represent the groundwork
underlying many of his works.
Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval
scholarship. Their influence extended from
Late Antiquity and the
Early Middle Ages into the
Renaissance , and were not replaced
systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical
mechanics . Some of Aristotle's zoological observations, such as on
the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus , were not confirmed
or refuted until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest
known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th
century into modern formal logic .
Aristotelianism profoundly influenced Jewish and
Islamic philosophical and theological thought during the Middle Ages
and continues to influence
Christian theology , especially the
Neoplatonism of the
Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the
Catholic Church .
Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim
scholars, and has been revered as "The First Teacher" (Arabic :
His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with
the modern advent of virtue ethics . All aspects of Aristotle's
philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today.
Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues – Cicero
described his literary style as "a river of gold" – it is thought
that only around a third of his original output has survived.
* 1 Life
* 2.1.1 History
* 2.1.2 Analytics and the
* 2.2 Aristotle\'s epistemology
* 2.3 Geology
* 2.4.1 Five elements
* 2.4.2 Motion
* 2.4.3 Causality, the four causes
* 2.4.4 Optics
* 2.4.5 Chance and spontaneity
* 2.5.1 Substance, potentiality and actuality
* 2.5.2 Universals and particulars
Biology and medicine
* 2.6.1 Empirical research program
* 2.6.2 Classification of living things
* 2.6.3 Successor:
* 2.6.4 Influence on Hellenistic medicine
* 22.214.171.124 Recollection
* 2.7.2 Dreams
* 126.96.36.199 Sleep
Theory of dreams
* 2.8 Practical philosophy
Rhetoric and poetics
* 2.9 Views on women
* 3 Loss and preservation of his works
* 4 Legacy
* 4.1 Later Greek philosophers
* 4.2 Influence on Byzantine scholars
* 4.3 Influence on Islamic theologians
* 4.4 Influence on Western Christian theologians
* 4.5 Post-Enlightenment thinkers
* 5 List of works
* 6 Eponyms
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes and references
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
Aristotle in Mieza , Macedonia,
Aristotle, whose name means "the best purpose", was born in 384 BC
in Stagira ,
Chalcidice , about 55 km (34 miles) east of modern-day
Thessaloniki . His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to
King Amyntas of
Aristotle was orphaned at a young age.
Although there is little information on Aristotle's childhood, he
probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his
first connections with the Macedonian monarchy .
Francesco Hayez (1791–1882) Portrait bust of Aristotle; an
Imperial Roman (1st or 2nd century AD) copy of a lost bronze sculpture
At the age of seventeen or eighteen,
Aristotle moved to
continue his education at Plato\'s Academy . He remained there for
nearly twenty years before leaving
Athens in 348/47 BC. The
traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed
with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew
Speusippus , although it is possible that he feared anti-Macedonian
sentiments and left before
Aristotle then accompanied
Xenocrates to the court of his friend
Hermias of Atarneus in
Asia Minor . There, he traveled with
Theophrastus to the island of
Lesbos , where together they researched
the botany and zoology of the island.
either Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter,
whom they also named Pythias. Soon after Hermias' death,
Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son
Alexander in 343 BC.
Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of
During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to
two other future kings:
Alexander toward eastern conquest and his attitude towards
unabashedly ethnocentric . In one famous example, he counsels
Alexander to be "a leader to the
Greeks and a despot to the
barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives,
and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants".
By 335 BC,
Aristotle had returned to Athens, establishing his own
school there known as the
Aristotle conducted courses at the
school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias
Aristotle became involved with
Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore
him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus . According to
Suda , he also had an eromenos ,
Palaephatus of Abydus .
This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when
believed to have composed many of his works. He wrote many dialogues
of which only fragments have survived. Those works that have survived
are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for
widespread publication; they are generally thought to be lecture aids
for his students. His most important treatises include
Metaphysics , Nicomachean
De Anima (On the Soul)
and Poetics .
Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time,
but made significant contributions to most of them. In physical
Aristotle studied anatomy, astronomy, embryology , geography,
geology, meteorology, physics and zoology. In philosophy, he wrote on
aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, economics,
psychology, rhetoric and theology. He also studied education, foreign
customs, literature and poetry. His combined works constitute a
virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge.
Near the end of his life, Alexander and
Aristotle became estranged
over Alexander's relationship with
Persia and Persians. A widespread
tradition in antiquity suspected
Aristotle of playing a role in
Alexander's death, but the only evidence of this is an unlikely claim
made some six years after the death.
Following Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in
rekindled. In 322 BC, Demophilus and Eurymedon the Hierophant
Aristotle for impiety, prompting him to flee to
his mother's family estate in Chalcis, on
Euboea , at which occasion
he was said to have stated: "I will not allow the Athenians to sin
twice against philosophy" – a reference to Athens's prior trial
and execution of
Socrates . He died on
Euboea of natural causes later
that same year, having named his student
Antipater as his chief
executor and leaving a will in which he asked to be buried next to his
Charles Walston argues that the tomb of
Aristotle is located on the
sacred way between
Eretria and to have contained two
styluses, a pen, a signet-ring and some terra-cottas as well as what
is supposed to be the earthly remains of
Aristotle in the form of some
In general, the details of the life of
Aristotle are not
well-established. The biographies of
Aristotle written in ancient
times are often speculative and historians only agree on a few salient
Part of a series on the
LOGIC (ORGANON )
* On Interpretation
Prior Analytics *
NATURAL PHILOSOPHY (PHYSICS)
On the Heavens
On Generation and Corruption
On the Universe
On the Soul
Sense and Sensibilia
On Divination in Sleep
On Divination in Sleep
On Length and Shortness of Life
On Length and Shortness of Life
On Youth, Old Age, Life and Death, and Respiration
History of Animals
Parts of Animals
Movement of Animals
Progression of Animals
Generation of Animals
On Things Heard
On Marvellous Things Heard
* Problems *
On Indivisible Lines
The Situations and Names of Winds
On Melissus, Xenophanes, and Gorgias
Magna Moralia *
On Virtues and Vices
* Economics *
Constitution of the Athenians
Rhetoric to Alexander
* Fragments *
: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be
Aristotle as portrayed in the 1493
Nuremberg Chronicle Main
Term logic For more details on this topic, see
Non-Aristotelian logic .
Prior Analytics ,
Aristotle is credited with the earliest
study of formal logic, and his conception of it was the dominant form
of Western logic until
19th century advances in mathematical logic .
Kant stated in the
Critique of Pure Reason (Preface to the Second
Edition, 1787) that with
Aristotle logic reached its completion.
Aristotle "says that 'on the subject of reasoning' he 'had nothing
else on an earlier date to speak of'". However,
Plato reports that
syntax was devised before him, by
Prodicus of Ceos , who was concerned
by the correct use of words.
Logic seems to have emerged from
dialectics ; the earlier philosophers made frequent use of concepts
like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions, but never truly
understood the logical implications. Even
Plato had difficulties with
logic; although he had a reasonable conception of a deductive system ,
he could never actually construct one, thus he relied instead on his
Plato believed that deduction would simply follow from premises ,
hence he focused on maintaining solid premises so that the conclusion
would logically follow. Consequently,
Plato realized that a method for
obtaining conclusions would be most beneficial. He never succeeded in
devising such a method, but his best attempt was published in his book
Sophist , where he introduced his division method.
Analytics And The Organon
What we today call Aristotelian logic,
Aristotle himself would have
labeled "analytics". The term "logic" he reserved to mean dialectics.
Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, because
it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. The logical
Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st
* On Interpretation
* Prior Analytics
* Posterior Analytics
* On Sophistical Refutations
The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are
composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of
Aristotle's writings. It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple
terms in the Categories, the analysis of propositions and their
elementary relations in On Interpretation, to the study of more
complex forms, namely, syllogisms (in the Analytics) and dialectics
(in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations). The first three treatises
form the core of the logical theory stricto sensu: the grammar of the
language of logic and the correct rules of reasoning. There is one
volume of Aristotle's concerning logic not found in the Organon,
namely the fourth book of Metaphysics.
Plato (left) and
Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of
Athens , a fresco by
Aristotle gestures to the earth,
representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and
experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean
Ethics in his
Plato gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in
The Forms , while holding a copy of Timaeus . Ancient Roman
mosaic depicting Aristotle,
Römisch-Germanisches Museum ,
Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal
. Aristotle's ontology , however, finds the universal in particular
things, which he calls the essence of things, while in Plato's
ontology, the universal exists apart from particular things, and is
related to them as their prototype or exemplar. For Aristotle,
therefore, epistemology is based on the study of particular phenomena
and rises to the knowledge of essences, while for
begins with knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) and descends to
knowledge of particular imitations of these. For Aristotle, "form"
still refers to the unconditional basis of phenomena but is
"instantiated" in a particular substance (see Universals and
particulars , below). In a certain sense, Aristotle's method is both
inductive and deductive , while Plato's is essentially deductive from
a priori principles.
In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of
philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes
fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other
natural sciences. In modern times, the scope of philosophy has become
limited to more generic or abstract inquiries, such as ethics and
metaphysics, in which logic plays a major role. Today's philosophy
tends to exclude empirical study of the natural world by means of the
scientific method. In contrast, Aristotle's philosophical endeavors
encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry.
In the larger sense of the word,
Aristotle makes philosophy
coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as "science".
Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different
meaning than that covered by the term "scientific method". For
Aristotle, "all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or
Metaphysics 1025b25). By practical science, he means
ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry
and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics,
mathematics and metaphysics.
If logic (or "analytics") is regarded as a study preliminary to
philosophy, the divisions of Aristotelian philosophy would consist of:
Logic ; (2) Theoretical Philosophy, including Metaphysics, Physics
and Mathematics; (3) Practical Philosophy and (4) Poetical Philosophy.
In the period between his two stays in Athens, between his times at
the Academy and the Lyceum,
Aristotle conducted most of the scientific
thinking and research for which he is renowned today. In fact, most of
Aristotle's life was devoted to the study of the objects of natural
science. Aristotle's metaphysics contains observations on the nature
of numbers but he made no original contributions to mathematics. He
did, however, perform original research in the natural sciences, e.g.,
botany, zoology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, meteorology, and
several other sciences.
Aristotle's writings on science are largely qualitative, as opposed
to quantitative. Beginning in the 16th century, scientists began
applying mathematics to the physical sciences, and Aristotle's work in
this area was deemed hopelessly inadequate. His failings were largely
due to the absence of concepts like mass, velocity, force and
temperature. He had a conception of speed and temperature, but no
quantitative understanding of them, which was partly due to the
absence of basic experimental devices, like clocks and thermometers.
His writings provide an account of many scientific observations, a
mixture of precocious accuracy and curious errors. For example, in his
History of Animals he claimed that human males have more teeth than
females. In a similar vein,
John Philoponus , and later Galileo ,
showed by simple experiments that Aristotle's theory that a heavier
object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect. On the other
Democritus 's claim that the
Milky Way was
made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's
rays," pointing out (correctly, even if such reasoning was bound to be
dismissed for a long time) that, given "current astronomical
demonstrations" that "the size of the sun is greater than that of the
earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater
than that of the sun, then ... the sun shines on all the stars and the
earth screens none of them."
Aristotle also had some scientific blind spots. He posited a
geocentric cosmology that we may discern in selections of the
Metaphysics, which was widely accepted up until the 16th century. From
the 3rd century to the 16th century, the dominant view held that the
Earth was the rotational center of the universe .
Because he was perhaps the philosopher most respected by European
thinkers during and after the Renaissance, these thinkers often took
Aristotle's erroneous positions as given, which held back science in
this epoch. However, Aristotle's scientific shortcomings should not
mislead one into forgetting his great advances in the many scientific
fields. For instance, he founded logic as a formal science and created
foundations to biology that were not superseded for two millennia.
Moreover, he introduced the fundamental notion that nature is composed
of things that change and that studying such changes can provide
useful knowledge of underlying constants.
As quoted from Charles Lyell\'s
Principles of Geology :
He refers to many examples of changes now constantly going on, and
insists emphatically on the great results which they must produce in
the lapse of ages. He instances particular cases of lakes that had
dried up, and deserts that had at length become watered by rivers and
fertilized. He points to the growth of the Nilotic delta since the
time of Homer, to the shallowing of the
Palus Maeotis within sixty
years from his own time ... He alludes ... to the upheaving of one of
the Eolian islands, previous to a volcanic eruption. The changes of
the earth, he says, are so slow in comparison to the duration of our
lives, that they are overlooked; and the migrations of people after
great catastrophes, and their removal to other regions, cause the
event to be forgotten. He says 'the distribution of land and sea in
particular regions does not endure throughout all time, but it becomes
sea in those parts where it was land, and again it becomes land where
it was sea, and there is reason for thinking that these changes take
place according to a certain system, and within a certain period.' The
concluding observation is as follows: 'As time never fails, and the
universe is eternal, neither the Tanais, nor the Nile, can have flowed
for ever. The places where they rise were once dry, and there is a
limit to their operations, but there is none to time. So also of all
other rivers; they spring up and they perish; and the sea also
continually deserts some lands and invades others The same tracts,
therefore, of the earth are not some always sea, and others always
continents, but every thing changes in the course of time.'
Aristotle proposed a fifth element, aether, in addition to the four
proposed earlier by
* Earth , which is cold and dry; this corresponds to the modern idea
of a solid.
* Water , which is cold and wet; this corresponds to the modern idea
of a liquid.
* Air , which is hot and wet; this corresponds to the modern idea of
* Fire , which is hot and dry; this corresponds to the modern ideas
of plasma and heat.
* Aether , which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly
spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets).
Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place. All that is
earthly tends toward the center of the universe, i.e., the center of
the Earth. Water tends toward a sphere surrounding the center. Air
tends toward a sphere surrounding the water sphere. Fire tends toward
the lunar sphere (in which the Moon orbits). When elements are moved
out of their natural place, they naturally move back towards it. This
is "natural motion" – motion requiring no extrinsic cause. So, for
example, in water, earthy bodies sink while air bubbles rise up; in
air, rain falls and flame rises. Outside all the other spheres, the
heavenly, fifth element, manifested in the stars and planets, moves in
the perfection of circles.
Main article: potentiality and actuality
Aristotle defined motion as the actuality of a potentiality as such.
Aquinas suggested that the passage be understood literally; that
motion can indeed be understood as the active fulfillment of a
potential, as a transition toward a potentially possible state.
Because actuality and potentiality are normally opposites in
Aristotle, other commentators either suggest that the wording which
has come down to us is erroneous, or that the addition of the "as
such" to the definition is critical to understanding it.
Causality, The Four Causes
Aristotle suggested that the reason for anything coming about can be
attributed to four different types of simultaneously active factors.
His name aitia is traditionally translated as "cause", but it does not
always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as
"explanation", but the traditional rendering will be employed here.
Material cause describes the material out of which something is
composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood, and the material
cause of a car is rubber and steel. It is not about action. It does
not mean that one domino knocks over another domino.
* The formal cause is its form, i.e., the arrangement of that
matter. It tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by
the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype.
It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles
or general laws, as the whole (i.e., macrostructure) is the cause of
its parts, a relationship known as the whole-part causation. Plainly
put, the formal cause is the idea existing in the first place as
exemplar in the mind of the sculptor, and in the second place as
intrinsic, determining cause, embodied in the matter. Formal cause
could only refer to the essential quality of causation. A simple
example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an
artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing.
* The efficient cause is "the primary source", or that from which
the change under consideration proceeds. It identifies 'what makes of
what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so
suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the
sources of change or movement or rest. Representing the current
understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this
covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency
or particular events or states of affairs. So, take the two dominoes,
this time of equal weighting, the first is knocked over causing the
second also to fall over.
* The final cause (telos) is its purpose, or that for the sake of
which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and
instrumental actions and activities. The final cause is the purpose or
function that something is supposed to serve. This covers modern ideas
of motivating causes, such as volition, need, desire, ethics, or
Additionally, things can be causes of one another, causing each other
reciprocally, as hard work causes fitness and vice versa, although not
in the same way or function, the one is as the beginning of change,
the other as the goal. (Thus
Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or
circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or influence of
cause upon effect.) Moreover,
Aristotle indicated that the same thing
can be the cause of contrary effects; its presence and absence may
result in different outcomes. Simply it is the goal or purpose that
brings about an event. Our two dominoes require someone or something
to intentionally knock over the first domino, because it cannot fall
of its own accord.
Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and
accidental (chance) causation. All causes, both proper and incidental,
can be spoken of as actual or potential, and as generic or particular.
The same language refers to the effects of causes, so that actual
effects are assigned to operating causes, generic effects to generic
causes, and particular effects to particular causes.
Aristotle held more accurate theories on some optical concepts than
other philosophers of his day. The second oldest written evidence of a
camera obscura (after
Mozi c. 400 BC) can be found in Aristotle's
documentation of such a device in 350 BC in Problemata. Aristotle's
apparatus contained a dark chamber that had a single small hole, or
aperture , to allow for sunlight to enter.
Aristotle used the device
to make observations of the sun and noted that no matter what shape
the hole was, the sun would still be correctly displayed as a round
object. In modern cameras, this is analogous to the diaphragm .
Aristotle also made the observation that when the distance between the
aperture and the surface with the image increased, the image was
Chance And Spontaneity
According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some
things, distinguishable from other types of cause. Chance as an
incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things . It is "from
what is spontaneous" (but note that what is spontaneous does not come
from chance). For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of
"chance" it might be better to think of "coincidence": Something takes
place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one
thing take place, but with the result of another thing (not intended)
For example: A person seeks donations. That person may find another
person willing to donate a substantial sum. However, if the person
seeking the donations met the person donating, not for the purpose of
collecting donations, but for some other purpose,
Aristotle would call
the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of
chance. It must be unusual that something happens by chance. In other
words, if something happens all or most of the time, we cannot say
that it is by chance.
There is also more specific kind of chance, which
"luck", that can only apply to human beings, because it is in the
sphere of moral actions. According to Aristotle, luck must involve
choice (and thus deliberation), and only humans are capable of
deliberation and choice. "What is not capable of action cannot do
anything by chance".
Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of immaterial being,"
or of "being in the highest degree of abstraction ." He refers to
metaphysics as "first philosophy", as well as "the theologic science".
Substance, Potentiality And Actuality
Potentiality and actuality (Aristotle)
Aristotle examines the concepts of substance and essence (ousia) in
Metaphysics (Book VII), and he concludes that a particular
substance is a combination of both matter and form. In Book VIII, he
distinguishes the matter of the substance as the substratum , or the
stuff of which it is composed. For example, the matter of a house is
the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the
potential house, while the form of the substance is the actual house,
namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia
(see also predicables ) that let us define something as a house. The
formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and
the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.
With regard to the change (kinesis ) and its causes now, as he
defines in his
On Generation and Corruption 319b–320a,
he distinguishes the coming to be from:
* growth and diminution, which is change in quantity;
* locomotion, which is change in space; and
* alteration, which is change in quality.
The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the
resultant is a property. In that particular change he introduces the
concept of potentiality (dynamis ) and actuality (entelecheia ) in
association with the matter and the form.
Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing,
or being acted upon, if the conditions are right and it is not
prevented by something else. For example, the seed of a plant in the
soil is potentially (dynamei) plant, and if is not prevented by
something, it will become a plant. Potentially beings can either 'act'
(poiein) or 'be acted upon' (paschein), which can be either innate or
learned. For example, the eyes possess the potentiality of sight
(innate – being acted upon), while the capability of playing the
flute can be possessed by learning (exercise – acting).
Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality. Because
the end (telos) is the principle of every change, and for the sake of
the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end. Referring
then to our previous example, we could say that an actuality is when a
plant does one of the activities that plants do.
For that for the sake of which a thing is, is its principle, and the
becoming is for the sake of the end; and the actuality is the end, and
it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired. For
animals do not see in order that they may have sight, but they have
sight that they may see.
In summary, the matter used to make a house has potentiality to be a
house and both the activity of building and the form of the final
house are actualities, which is also a final cause or end. Then
Aristotle proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to
potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality.
With this definition of the particular substance (i.e., matter and
Aristotle tries to solve the problem of the unity of the
beings, for example, "what is it that makes a man one"? Since,
Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is
man a unity? However, according to Aristotle, the potential being
(matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the same thing.
Universals And Particulars
Main article: Aristotle\'s theory of universals
Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a
universal form, which could be either a property or a relation to
other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple,
and we can also analyze a form of an apple. In this distinction, there
is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we
can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the
book and apple as being next to each other.
Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part
of particular things. For example, it is possible that there is no
particular good in existence, but "good" is still a proper universal
Bertrand Russell is a 20th-century philosopher who agreed with
Plato on the existence of "uninstantiated universals".
Aristotle disagreed with
Plato on this point, arguing that all
universals are instantiated.
Aristotle argued that there are no
universals that are unattached to existing things. According to
Aristotle, if a universal exists, either as a particular or a
relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in
the future, something on which the universal can be predicated.
Consequently, according to Aristotle, if it is not the case that some
universal can be predicated to an object that exists at some period of
time, then it does not exist.
Aristotle disagreed with
Plato about the location of
Plato spoke of the world of the forms, a location where
all universal forms subsist,
Aristotle maintained that universals
exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. So,
according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple,
rather than in the world of the forms.
BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
Main article: Aristotle\'s biology
In Aristotelian science, especially in biology, things he saw himself
have stood the test of time better than his retelling of the reports
of others, which contain error and superstition. He dissected animals
but not humans; his ideas on how the human body works have been almost
Empirical Research Program
Octopus swimming Torpedo fuscomaculata Leopard
Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived
in some detail.
Aristotle certainly did research on the natural
Lesbos , and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas.
The works that reflect this research, the
History of Animals ,
Generation of Animals ,
Movement of Animals , and
Parts of Animals ,
contain some observations and interpretations, along with sundry myths
and mistakes. The most striking passages are about the sea-life
visible from observation on
Lesbos and available from the catches of
fishermen. His observations on catfish , electric fish (Torpedo ) and
angler-fish are detailed, as is his writing on cephalopods , namely,
Octopus, Sepia (cuttlefish ) and the paper nautilus (
Argonauta argo ).
His description of the hectocotyl arm , used in sexual reproduction,
was widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the 19th century. He
separated the aquatic mammals from fish, and knew that sharks and rays
were part of the group he called Selachē (Greek for 'sharks').
An example of his methods, including dissection and observation,
comes from the Generation of Animals, where he describes breaking open
fertilized chicken eggs at intervals to discover the sequence in which
visible organs are generated.
Aristotle gave accurate descriptions of the four-chambered
fore-stomachs of ruminants , and of the ovoviviparous embryological
development of the hound shark
Mustelus mustelus .
Classification Of Living Things
Aristotle distinguished about 500 species of birds, mammals and
fishes. What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and
Aristotle called 'animals with blood' and 'animals
without blood'. Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing
(mammals), and egg-bearing (birds and fish). Invertebrates ('animals
without blood') are insects, crustacea (divided into non-shelled –
cephalopods – and shelled) and testacea (molluscs).
Aristotle believed that intellectual purposes, i.e., final causes ,
guided all natural processes. Such a teleological view gave Aristotle
cause to justify his observed data as an expression of formal design.
Noting that "no animal has, at the same time, both tusks and horns,"
and "a single-hooved animal with two horns I have never seen,"
Aristotle suggested that Nature, giving no animal both horns and
tusks, was staving off vanity, and giving creatures faculties only to
such a degree as they are necessary. Noting that ruminants had
multiple stomachs and weak teeth, he supposed the first was to
compensate for the latter, with Nature trying to preserve a type of
He stated in the
History of Animals that creatures were arranged in a
graded scale of perfection rising from minerals to plants and animals,
and on up to man, forming the scala naturae or great chain of being.
His system had eleven grades, arranged according "to the degree to
which they are infected with potentiality", expressed in their form at
birth. The highest animals laid warm and wet creatures alive, the
lowest bore theirs cold, dry, and in thick eggs. For
Charles Singer ,
"Nothing is more remarkable than efforts to the relationships of
living things as a scala naturae".
Aristotle also held that the level of a creature's perfection was
reflected in its form, but not preordained by that form. Ideas like
this, and his ideas about souls, are not regarded as science at all in
He placed emphasis on the type(s) of soul an organism possessed,
asserting that plants possess a vegetative soul, responsible for
reproduction and growth, animals a vegetative and a sensitive soul,
responsible for mobility and sensation, and humans a vegetative, a
sensitive, and a rational soul, capable of thought and reflection.
Aristotle, in contrast to earlier philosophers, but in accordance
with the Egyptians, placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than
the brain. Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought,
which generally went against previous philosophers, with the exception
of Alcmaeon .
Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus)
The frontispiece to a 1644 version of the expanded and illustrated
edition of Historia Plantarum (ca. 1200), which was originally written
around 300 BC.
Aristotle's successor at the
Theophrastus , wrote a series
of books on botany – the History of Plants – which survived as the
most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the
Middle Ages . Many of Theophrastus' names survive into modern times,
such as carpos for fruit, and pericarpion for seed vessel.
Rather than focus on formal causes, as
Aristotle did, Theophrastus
suggested a mechanistic scheme, drawing analogies between natural and
artificial processes, and relying on Aristotle's concept of the
efficient cause .
Theophrastus also recognized the role of sex in the
reproduction of some higher plants, though this last discovery was
lost in later ages.
Influence On Hellenistic Medicine
For more details on this topic, see Medicine in ancient
After Theophrastus, the
Lyceum failed to produce any original work.
Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally
taken unquestioningly. It is not until the age of
the Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found.
The first medical teacher at Alexandria, Herophilus of Chalcedon ,
corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected
the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also
distinguished between veins and arteries , noting that the latter
pulse while the former do not. Though a few ancient atomists such as
Lucretius challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas
about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, natural
theology ) would remain central to biological thought essentially
until the 18th and 19th centuries.
Ernst Mayr claimed that there was
"nothing of any real consequence in biology after
Lucretius and Galen
until the Renaissance." Aristotle's ideas of natural history and
medicine survived, but they were generally taken unquestioningly.
Aristotle's psychology , given in his treatise
On the Soul (peri
psyche, often known by its
Latin title De Anima), posits three kinds
of soul ("psyches"): the vegetative soul, the sensitive soul, and the
rational soul. Humans have a rational soul. This kind of soul is
capable of the same powers as the other kinds: Like the vegetative
soul it can grow and nourish itself; like the sensitive soul it can
experience sensations and move locally. The unique part of the human,
rational soul is its ability to receive forms of other things and
For Aristotle, the soul (psyche) was a simpler concept than it is for
us today. By soul he simply meant the form of a living being. Because
all beings are composites of form and matter, the form of living
beings is that which endows them with what is specific to living
beings, e.g. the ability to initiate movement (or in the case of
plants, growth and chemical transformations, which
types of movement).
According to Aristotle, memory is the ability to hold a perceived
experience in your mind and to have the ability to distinguish between
the internal "appearance" and an occurrence in the past. In other
words, a memory is a mental picture (phantasm) in which Aristotle
defines in De Anima, as an appearance which is imprinted on the part
of the body that forms a memory.
Aristotle believed an "imprint"
becomes impressed on a semi-fluid bodily organ that undergoes several
changes in order to make a memory. A memory occurs when a stimuli is
too complex that the nervous system (semi-fluid bodily organ) cannot
receive all the impressions at once. These changes are the same as
those involved in the operations of sensation , common sense , and
thinking . The mental picture imprinted on the bodily organ is the
final product of the entire process of sense perception. It does not
matter if the experience was seen or heard, every experience ends up
as a mental image in memory
Aristotle uses the word "memory" for two basic abilities. First, the
actual retaining of the experience in the mnemonic "imprint" that can
develop from sensation. Second, the intellectual anxiety that comes
with the "imprint" due to being impressed at a particular time and
processing specific contents. These abilities can be explained as
memory is neither sensation nor thinking because is arises only after
a lapse of time. Therefore, memory is of the past, prediction is of
the future, and sensation is of the present. The retrieval of our
"imprints" cannot be performed suddenly. A transitional channel is
needed and located in our past experiences, both for our previous
experience and present experience.
Aristotle proposed that slow-witted people have good memory because
the fluids in their brain do not wash away their memory organ used to
imprint experiences and so the "imprint" can easily continue. However,
they cannot be too slow or the hardened surface of the organ will not
receive new "imprints". He believed the young and the old do not
properly develop an "imprint". Young people undergo rapid changes as
they develop, while the elderly's organs are beginning to decay, thus
stunting new "imprints". Likewise, people who are too quick-witted are
similar to the young and the image cannot be fixed because of the
rapid changes of their organ. Because intellectual functions are not
involved in memory, memories belong to some animals too, but only
those in which have perception of time.
Aristotle believes people receive all kinds of sense
perceptions and people perceive them as images or "imprints", people
are continually weaving together new "imprints" of things they
experience. In order to search for these "imprints", people search the
memory itself. Within the memory, if one experience is offered
instead of a specific memory, that person will reject this experience
until they find what they are looking for. Recollection occurs when
one experience naturally follows another. If the chain of "images" is
needed, one memory will stimulate the other. If the chain of "images"
is not needed, but expected, then it will only stimulate the other
memory in most instances. When people recall experiences, they
stimulate certain previous experiences until they have stimulated the
one that was needed.
Recollection is the self-directed activity of retrieving the
information stored in a memory "imprint" after some time has passed.
Retrieval of stored information is dependent on the scope of mnemonic
capabilities of a being (human or animal) and the abilities the human
or animal possesses. Only humans will remember "imprints" of
intellectual activity, such as numbers and words. Animals that have
perception of time will be able to retrieve memories of their past
observations. Remembering involves only perception of the things
remembered and of the time passed. Recollection of an "imprint" is
when the present experiences a person remembers are similar with
elements corresponding in character and arrangement of past sensory
experiences. When an "imprint" is recalled, it may bring forth a large
group of related "imprints".
Aristotle believed the chain of thought, which ends in recollection
of certain "imprints", was connected systematically in three sorts of
relationships: similarity, contrast, and contiguity. These three laws
make up his
Laws of Association .
Aristotle believed that past
experiences are hidden within our mind. A force operates to awaken the
hidden material to bring up the actual experience. According to
Aristotle, association is the power innate in a mental state, which
operates upon the unexpressed remains of former experiences, allowing
them to rise and be recalled.
Before understanding Aristotle's views on dreams, first his idea of
sleep must be examined.
Aristotle gives an account of his explanation
of sleep in
On Sleep and Wakefulness. Sleep takes place as a result
of overuse of the senses or of digestion, so it is vital to the
body, including the senses, so it can be revitalized. While a person
is asleep, the critical activities, which include thinking, sensing,
recalling and remembering, do not function as they do during
wakefulness. Since a person cannot sense during sleep they can also
not have a desire, which is the result of a sensation. However, the
senses are able to work during sleep, albeit differently than when a
person is awake because during sleep a person can still have sensory
experiences. Also, not all of the senses are inactive during sleep,
only the ones that are weary.
Theory Of Dreams
See also: Dream § Classical history
Dreams do not involve actually sensing a stimulus because, as
discussed, the senses do not work as they normally do during sleep.
In dreams, sensation is still involved, but in an altered manner than
Aristotle explains the phenomenon that occurs when a
person stares at a moving stimulus such as the waves in a body of
water. When they look away from that stimulus, the next thing they
look at appears to be moving in a wave like motion. When a person
perceives a stimulus and the stimulus is no longer the focus of their
attention, it leaves an impression. When the body is awake and the
senses are functioning properly, a person constantly encounters new
stimuli to sense and so the impressions left from previously perceived
stimuli become irrelevant. However, during sleep the impressions
stimuli made throughout the day become noticed because there are not
new sensory experiences to distract from these impressions that were
made. So, dreams result from these lasting impressions. Since
impressions are all that are left and not the exact stimuli, dreams
will not resemble the actual experience that occurred when awake.
During sleep, a person is in an altered state of mind. Aristotle
compares a sleeping person to a person who is overtaken by strong
feelings toward a stimulus. For example, a person who has a strong
infatuation with someone may begin to think they see that person
everywhere because they are so overtaken by their feelings. When a
person is asleep, their senses are not acting as they do when they are
awake and this results in them thinking like a person who is
influenced by strong feelings. Since a person sleeping is in this
suggestible state, they become easily deceived by what appears in
When asleep, a person is unable to make judgments as they do when
they are awake Due to the senses not functioning normally during
sleep, they are unable to help a person judge what is happening in
their dream. This in turn leads the person to believe the dream is
real. Dreams may be absurd in nature but the senses are not able to
discern whether they are real or not. So, the dreamer is left to
accept the dream because they lack the choice to judge it.
One component of Aristotle's theory of dreams introduces ideas that
are contradictory to previously held beliefs. He claimed that dreams
are not foretelling and that they are not sent by a divine being.
Aristotle reasoned that instances in which dreams do resemble future
events are happenstances not divinations. These ideas were
contradictory to what had been believed about dreams, but at the time
in which he introduced these ideas more thinkers were beginning to
give naturalistic as opposed to supernatural explanations to
Aristotle also includes in his theory of dreams what constitutes a
dream and what does not. He claimed that a dream is first established
by the fact that the person is asleep when they experience it. If a
person had an image appear for a moment after waking up or if they see
something in the dark it is not considered a dream because they were
awake when it occurred. Secondly, any sensory experience that
actually occurs while a person is asleep and is perceived by the
person while asleep does not qualify as part of a dream. For example,
if, while a person is sleeping, a door shuts and in their dream they
hear a door is shut,
Aristotle argues that this sensory experience is
not part of the dream. The actual sensory experience is perceived by
the senses, the fact that it occurred while the person was asleep does
not make it part of the dream. Lastly, the images of dreams must be a
result of lasting impressions of sensory experiences had when awake.
Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical
study, i.e., one aimed at becoming good and doing good rather than
knowing for its own sake. He wrote several treatises on ethics,
including most notably, the Nicomachean
Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function
(ergon) of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can
see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle
reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that
this function must be an activity of the psuchē (normally translated
as soul) in accordance with reason (logos ).
Aristotle identified such
an optimum activity of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate
action, eudaimonia , generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes
"well being". To have the potential of ever being happy in this way
necessarily requires a good character (ēthikē aretē ), often
translated as moral (or ethical) virtue (or excellence).
Aristotle taught that to achieve a virtuous and potentially happy
character requires a first stage of having the fortune to be
habituated not deliberately, but by teachers, and experience, leading
to a later stage in which one consciously chooses to do the best
things. When the best people come to live life this way their
practical wisdom (phronesis ) and their intellect (nous ) can develop
with each other towards the highest possible human virtue, the wisdom
of an accomplished theoretical or speculative thinker, or in other
words, a philosopher.
Politics (Aristotle) Aristotle's classification
In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual,
Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled
Politics . Aristotle
considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered
the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is
prior to the individual, "for the whole must of necessity be prior to
the part". He also famously stated that "man is by nature a political
animal" and also arguing that humanity's defining factor among others
in the animal kingdom is its rationality .
Aristotle conceived of
politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine, and as
a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others.
Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered
one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.
The common modern understanding of a political community as a modern
state is quite different from Aristotle's understanding. Although he
was aware of the existence and potential of larger empires, the
natural community according to
Aristotle was the city (polis ) which
functions as a political "community" or "partnership" (koinōnia). The
aim of the city is not just to avoid injustice or for economic
stability, but rather to allow at least some citizens the possibility
to live a good life, and to perform beautiful acts: "The political
partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of
noble actions, not for the sake of living together." This is
distinguished from modern approaches, beginning with social contract
theory, according to which individuals leave the state of nature
because of "fear of violent death" or its "inconveniences."
Excerpt from a speech by the character 'Aristotle' in the book
Protrepticus (Hutchinson and Johnson, 2015 p. 22) For we all agree
that the most excellent man should rule, i.e., the supreme by nature,
and that the law rules and alone is authoritative; but the law is a
kind of intelligence, i.e. a discourse based on intelligence. And
again, what standard do we have, what criterion of good things, that
is more precise than the intelligent man? For all that this man will
choose, if the choice is based on his knowledge, are good things and
their contraries are bad. And since everybody chooses most of all what
conforms to their own proper dispositions (a just man choosing to live
justly, a man with bravery to live bravely, likewise a self-controlled
man to live with self-control), it is clear that the intelligent man
will choose most of all to be intelligent; for this is the function of
that capacity. Hence it's evident that, according to the most
authoritative judgment, intelligence is supreme among goods.
Rhetoric And Poetics
Rhetoric (Aristotle) and
Aristotle considered epic poetry , tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic
poetry and music to be imitative , each varying in imitation by
medium, object, and manner. For example, music imitates with the
media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone,
and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of
imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse
than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than
average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation –
through narrative or character, through change or no change, and
through drama or no drama.
Aristotle believed that imitation is
natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over
While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics comprised two books –
one on comedy and one on tragedy – only the portion that focuses on
tragedy has survived.
Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six
elements: plot-structure, character, style, thought, spectacle, and
lyric poetry. The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of
driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief
focus of tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and
fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions.
Aristotle concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is
superior: epic or tragic mimesis . He suggests that because tragedy
possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional
attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves
the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior
Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and
proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of
the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of
VIEWS ON WOMEN
Main article: Aristotle\'s views on women
Aristotle's analysis of procreation describes an active, ensouling
masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive female element.
On this ground, feminist metaphysics have accused
misogyny and sexism . However,
Aristotle gave equal weight to
women's happiness as he did to men's, and commented in his Rhetoric
that the things that lead to happiness need to be in women as well as
LOSS AND PRESERVATION OF HIS WORKS
Corpus Aristotelicum and
Recovery of Aristotle First
page of a 1566 edition of the Nicomachean
Ethics in Greek and
Aristotle wrote his works on papyrus scrolls, or rolls, which was the
common writing medium of that era. Modern scholarship reveals that
Aristotle's "lost" works stray considerably in characterization from
the surviving Aristotelian corpus. Whereas the lost works appear to
have been originally written with an intent for subsequent
publication, the surviving works do not appear to have been so.
Rather the surviving works mostly resemble lecture notes unintended
for publication. The authenticity of a portion of the surviving works
as originally Aristotelian is also today held suspect, with some books
duplicating or summarizing each other, the authorship of one book
questioned and another book considered to be unlikely Aristotle's at
Some of the individual works within the corpus, including the
Athens , are regarded by most scholars as products of
Aristotle's "school," perhaps compiled under his direction or
supervision. Others, such as
On Colors , may have been produced by
Aristotle's successors at the Lyceum, e.g.,
Theophrastus and Straton .
Still others acquired Aristotle's name through similarities in
doctrine or content, such as the De Plantis, possibly by Nicolaus of
Damascus . Other works in the corpus include medieval palmistries and
astrological and magical texts whose connections to
purely fanciful and self-promotional.
According to a distinction that originates with
his writings are divisible into two groups: the "exoteric " and the
"esoteric ". Most scholars have understood this as a distinction
Aristotle intended for the public (exoteric), and the
more technical works intended for use within the
Lyceum course /
school (esoteric). Modern scholars commonly assume these latter to be
Aristotle's own (unpolished) lecture notes (or in some cases possible
notes by his students). However, one classic scholar offers an
alternative interpretation. The 5th century neoplatonist Ammonius
Hermiae writes that Aristotle's writing style is deliberately
obscurantist so that "good people may for that reason stretch their
mind even more, whereas empty minds that are lost through carelessness
will be put to flight by the obscurity when they encounter sentences
Another common assumption is that none of the exoteric works is
extant – that all of Aristotle's extant writings are of the esoteric
kind. Current knowledge of what exactly the exoteric writings were
like is scant and dubious, though many of them may have been in
dialogue form. (Fragments of some of Aristotle's dialogues have
survived.) Perhaps it is to these that
Cicero refers when he
characterized Aristotle's writing style as "a river of gold"; it is
hard for many modern readers to accept that one could seriously so
admire the style of those works currently available to us. However,
some modern scholars have warned that we cannot know for certain that
Cicero's praise was reserved specifically for the exoteric works; a
few modern scholars have actually admired the concise writing style
found in Aristotle's extant works.
One major question in the history of Aristotle's works, then, is how
were the exoteric writings all lost, and how did the ones we now
possess come to us. The story of the original manuscripts of the
esoteric treatises is described by
Strabo in his Geography and
Plutarch in his
Parallel Lives . The manuscripts were left from
Aristotle to his successor Theophrastus, who in turn willed them to
Neleus of Scepsis . Neleus supposedly took the writings from
Scepsis , where his heirs let them languish in a cellar until the 1st
century BC, when
Apellicon of Teos discovered and purchased the
manuscripts, bringing them back to Athens. According to the story,
Apellicon tried to repair some of the damage that was done during the
manuscripts' stay in the basement, introducing a number of errors into
the text. When
Lucius Cornelius Sulla occupied
Athens in 86 BC, he
carried off the library of Apellicon to Rome, where they were first
published in 60 BC by the grammarian
Tyrannion of Amisus and then by
Andronicus of Rhodes .
Carnes Lord attributes the popular belief in this story to the fact
that it provides "the most plausible explanation for the rapid eclipse
Peripatetic school after the middle of the third century, and
for the absence of widespread knowledge of the specialized treatises
Aristotle throughout the Hellenistic period, as well as for the
sudden reappearance of a flourishing
Aristotelianism during the first
century B.C." Lord voices a number of reservations concerning this
story, however. First, the condition of the texts is far too good for
them to have suffered considerable damage followed by Apellicon's
inexpert attempt at repair.
Second, there is "incontrovertible evidence," Lord says, that the
treatises were in circulation during the time in which
Plutarch suggest they were confined within the cellar in Scepsis.
Third, the definitive edition of Aristotle's texts seems to have been
Athens some fifty years before Andronicus supposedly compiled
his. And fourth, ancient library catalogues predating Andronicus'
intervention list an Aristotelian corpus quite similar to the one we
currently possess. Lord sees a number of post-Aristotelian
interpolations in the
Politics , for example, but is generally
confident that the work has come down to us relatively intact.
On the one hand, the surviving texts of
Aristotle do not derive from
finished literary texts, but rather from working drafts used within
Aristotle's school, as opposed, on the other hand, to the dialogues
and other "exoteric" texts which
Aristotle published more widely
during his lifetime. The consensus is that Andronicus of Rhodes
collected the esoteric works of Aristotle's school which existed in
the form of smaller, separate works, distinguished them from those of
Theophrastus and other Peripatetics, edited them, and finally compiled
them into the more cohesive, larger works as they are known today.
Jusepe de Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera "
Aristotle with a bust
Homer " by
Rembrandt A thirteenth-century Islamic portrayal
Aristotle Statue by Cipri Adolf Bermann (1915) at the
University of Freiburg
More than 2300 years after his death,
Aristotle remains one of the
most influential people who ever lived. He contributed to almost every
field of human knowledge then in existence, and he was the founder of
many new fields. According to the philosopher
Bryan Magee , "it is
doubtful whether any human being has ever known as much as he did".
Among countless other achievements,
Aristotle was the founder of
formal logic , pioneered the study of zoology , and left every
future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions
to the scientific method.
Despite these achievements, the influence of Aristotle's errors is
considered by some to have held back science considerably. Bertrand
Russell notes that "almost every serious intellectual advance has had
to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrine". Russell also
refers to Aristotle's ethics as "repulsive", and calls his logic "as
definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy". Russell notes that
these errors make it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle,
until one remembers how large of an advance he made upon all of his
LATER GREEK PHILOSOPHERS
The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum
grew into the
Peripatetic school . Aristotle's notable students
Demetrius of Phalerum , Eudemos
Mnason of Phocis , Nicomachus ,
Theophrastus . Aristotle's influence over
Alexander the Great is
seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of
zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great
deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Although
his respect for
Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear
that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old
philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained
"Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in
what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been
trained are to be all men's common property?"
INFLUENCE ON BYZANTINE SCHOLARS
Commentaries on Aristotle and Byzantine
Greek Christian scribes played a crucial role in the preservation of
Aristotle by copying all the extant
Greek language manuscripts of the
corpus. The first Greek Christians to comment extensively on Aristotle
John Philoponus , Elias, and David in the sixth century, and
Alexandria in the early seventh century. John Philoponus
stands out for having attempted a fundamental critique of Aristotle's
views on the eternity of the world, movement, and other elements of
Aristotelian thought. After a hiatus of several centuries, formal
commentary by Eustratius and
Michael of Ephesus reappears in the late
eleventh and early twelfth centuries, apparently sponsored by Anna
INFLUENCE ON ISLAMIC THEOLOGIANS
Aristotle was one of the most revered Western thinkers in early
Islamic theology . Most of the still extant works of Aristotle, as
well as a number of the original Greek commentaries, were translated
into Arabic and studied by
Muslim philosophers, scientists and
Alpharabius , who wrote on Aristotle
in great depth, also influenced
Thomas Aquinas and other Western
Christian scholastic philosophers.
the outstanding and unique representative of philosophy and Averroes
Aristotle as the "exemplar" for all future philosophers.
Muslim scholars regularly described
Aristotle as the "First
Teacher". The title "teacher" was first given to
Aristotle by Muslim
scholars, and was later used by Western philosophers (as in the famous
poem of Dante ) who were influenced by the tradition of Islamic
In accordance with the Greek theorists, the Muslims considered
Aristotle to be a dogmatic philosopher, the author of a closed system,
and believed that
Aristotle shared with
Plato essential tenets of
thought. Some went so far as to credit
Aristotle himself with
neo-Platonic metaphysical ideas.
INFLUENCE ON WESTERN CHRISTIAN THEOLOGIANS
With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval
Aristotle was practically unknown there from c. AD 600 to
c. 1100 except through the
Latin translation of the
Organon made by
Boethius . In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, interest in
Aristotle revived and
Latin Christians had translations made, both
from Arabic translations, such as those by
Gerard of Cremona , and
from the original Greek, such as those by
James of Venice and William
of Moerbeke .
Thomas Aquinas wrote his theology, working from Moerbeke's
translations, the demand for Aristotle's writings grew and the Greek
manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of
Aristotelianism in Europe that continued into the
Aristotle is referred to as "The Philosopher" by Scholastic thinkers
Thomas Aquinas (see
Summa Theologica , Part I, Question 3,
etc.). These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with
Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient
Greece into the Middle
Ages. It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for
the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of
modern scientific laws and empirical methods. The medieval English
poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having
at his beddes heed
Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed,
Of aristotle and his philosophie,
The Italian poet Dante says of
Aristotle in the first circles of hell
vidi 'l maestro di color che sanno
seder tra filosofica famiglia.
Tutti lo miran, tutti onor li fanno:
quivi vid'ïo Socrate e Platone
che 'nnanzi a li altri più presso li stanno;
I saw the Master there of those who know,
Amid the philosophic family,
By all admired, and by all reverenced;
Plato too I saw, and Socrates,
Who stood beside him closer than the rest.
—Dante, L'Inferno (Hell), Canto IV. Lines 131–135
The German philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have
taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle. However
debatable this is,
Aristotle rigidly separated action from production,
and argued for the deserved subservience of some people ("natural
slaves "), and the natural superiority (virtue, arete) of others. It
Martin Heidegger , not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new
interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of
scholastic and philosophical tradition.
Ayn Rand accredited Aristotle
as "the greatest philosopher in history" and cited him as a major
influence on her thinking. More recently,
Alasdair MacIntyre has
attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way
that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both
liberals and Nietzscheans.
LIST OF WORKS
The works of
Aristotle that have survived from antiquity through
medieval manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus
Aristotelicum. These texts, as opposed to Aristotle's lost works, are
technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school.
Reference to them is made according to the organization of Immanuel
Bekker 's Royal Prussian Academy edition (Aristotelis Opera edidit
Academia Regia Borussica, Berlin, 1831–1870), which in turn is based
on ancient classifications of these works.
"ARISTOTLE" near the ceiling of the Great Hall in the Library of
Aristotle Mountains in
Antarctica are named after Aristotle. He
was the first person known to conjecture, in his book Meteorology ,
the existence of a landmass in the southern high-latitude region and
call it "Antarctica".
Aristoteles is a crater on the Moon bearing the classical form of
* Aristotle\'s Masterpiece
* Aristotle\'s wheel paradox
List of writers influenced by Aristotle
The Theology of Aristotle
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ Kantor, J. R. (1963). The Scientific
Evolution of Psychology,
Volume I. Chicago: Principia Press, p. 116.
Aristotle (350 B.C.). On the soul. Translated by J. A. Smith
* ^ "Aristotle" entry in
Collins English Dictionary
Collins English Dictionary .
* ^ That these undisputed dates (the first half of the Olympiad
year 384/383 BC, and in 322 shortly before the death of Demosthenes)
are correct was shown already by
August Boeckh (Kleine Schriften VI
195); for further discussion, see
Felix Jacoby on
FGrHist 244 F 38.
Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition,
Göteborg, 1957, p. 253.
* ^ "Biography of Aristotle". Biography.com. Retrieved 12 March
* ^ Georgios Anagnostopoulos (ed.), A Companion to Aristotle,
Wiley-Blackwell, 2013: "First Athenian Period".
* ^ A B C D Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy,
Simon & Schuster, 1972.
* ^ A B "When libraries were on a roll". Telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph
Media Group Limited. 19 May 2001. Retrieved 29 June 2017. When the
Roman dictator Sulla invaded
Athens in 86 BC, he brought back to Rome
a fantastic prize - Aristotle's library. Books then were papyrus
rolls, from 10 to 20 feet long, and since Aristotle's death in 322 BC,
worms and damp had done their worst. The rolls needed repairing, and
the texts clarifying and copying on to new papyrus (imported from
Egypt - Moses' bulrushes). The man in Rome who put Aristotle's library
in order was a Greek scholar, Tyrannio.
* ^ Barnes, Jonathan (1995). "Life and Work". The Cambridge
Companion to Aristotle. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN
* ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius (1874) . "Book II, chapter XXXVIII,
§119". In Reid, James S. The Academica of Cirero. London: Macmillian
and company. "veniet flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles",
(Google translation: "
Aristotle will come pouring forth a golden
stream of eloquence")
* ^ Barnes 1995 , p. 9.
* ^ Campbell, Michael. "Behind the Name: Meaning, Origin and
History of the Name "Aristotle"". Behind the Name: The Etymology and
History of First Names. www.behindthename.com. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
* ^ McLeisch, Kenneth Cole (1999). Aristotle: The Great
Philosophers. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 0-415-92392-1 .
* ^ Anagnostopoulos, G., "Aristotle's Life" in A Companion to
Aristotle (Blackwell Publishing, 2009), p. 4.
* ^ Blits, Kathleen C. (1999-04-15). 3.0.CO;2-I/abstract
"Aristotle: Form, function, and comparative anatomy". The Anatomical
Record. 257 (2): 58–63. doi
:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(19990415)257:23.0.CO;2-I . ISSN 1097-0185 .
* ^ Carnes Lord. Introduction to The
Politics by Aristotle
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).
* ^ A B Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, University of California
Press Ltd. (Oxford, England) 1991, pp. 58–59
* ^ William George Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography
and Mythology, vol. 3, p. 88 Archived 28 June 2008 at the Wayback
* ^ Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, University of California
Press Ltd. (Oxford, England), 1991, p. 460.
* ^ Filonik, Jakub (2013). "Athenian impiety trials: a
reappraisal". Dike (16): 72–73. doi :10.13130/1128-8221/4290 .
* ^ Jones, W. T. (1980). The Classical Mind: A History of Western
Philosophy. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 216. ISBN 0-15-538312-4 .
* ^ Vita Marciana 41, cf. Aelian Varia historica 3.36, Ingemar
Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition, Göteborg,
* ^ Aristotle\'s Will, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt
by Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase.
* ^ See The
Aristotle translated by Ernest Barker,
Oxford: Clarendom Press, 1946, p. xxiii, note 2, who refers to Corpus
Inscriptionum Graecarum, vol. xii, fasc. ix, s.v. Eretria.
* ^ See Shields, C., "Aristotle's Philosophical Life and Writings"
in The Oxford Handbook of
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press , 2012),
pp. 3–16. Düring, I.,
Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical
Tradition (Göteborg, 1957) is a collection of ancient biographies of
* ^ Degnan, Michael, 1994. Recent Work in Aristotle's Logic.
Philosophical Books 35.2 (April 1994): 81–89.
* ^ Corcoran, John (2009). "Aristotle's Demonstrative Logic".
History and Philosophy of Logic, 30: 1–20.
* ^ Bocheński, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam:
* ^ A B Bocheński, 1951.
* ^ Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield:
Charles C Thomas Publisher.
* ^ Jori, Alberto (2003). Aristotele. Milano: Bruno Mondadori
* ^ A B "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy". Plato.stanford.edu.
Retrieved 26 April 2009.
* ^ Aristotle, History of Animals, 2.3.
* ^ Aristotle, Meteorology 1.8, trans. E.W. Webster, rev. J.
* ^ Burnet, John . 1928. Platonism, Berkeley: University of
California Press, pp. 61, 103–04.
* ^ Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, 1832, p. 17
Physics 201a10–11, 201a27–29, 201b4–5
* ^ Sachs, Joe. "Aristotle: Motion and its Place in Nature".
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Archived from the original on 11
* ^ Lahanas, Michael. "Optics and ancient Greeks". Mlahanas.de.
Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
* ^ Aristotle,
* ^ Aristotle,
Metaphysics VIII 1043a 10–30
* ^ Aristotle,
Metaphysics IX 1050a 5–10
* ^ Aristotle,
Metaphysics VIII 1045a–b
* ^ A B Singer, Charles. A short history of biology. Oxford 1931.
* ^ Leroi, Armand Marie (Presenter) (3 May 2011). "Aristotle\'s
Lagoon: Embryo Inside a Chicken\'s Egg". BBC. Retrieved 17 November
* ^ Leroi, Armand Marie (2014). The Lagoon: How
Science . Viking. ISBN 978-0670026746 .
* ^ Emily Kearns, "Animals, knowledge about," in Oxford Classical
Dictionary , 3rd ed., 1996, p. 92.
* ^ Carl T. Bergstrom; Lee Alan Dugatkin (2012). Evolution. Norton.
p. 35. ISBN 978-0-393-92592-0 .
* ^ Rhodes, Frank Harold Trevor (1 January 1974). Evolution. Golden
Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-307-64360-5 .
* ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp. 43–44
* ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp. 201–02; see also:
Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being
Aristotle is not responsible for the later use made of this
idea by clerics.
* ^ Aristotle,
De Anima II 3
* ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp. 45
* ^ Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. 1 p. 348
* ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp. 90–91; Mason, A
History of the Sciences, p. 46
* ^ A B Annas, "Classical Greek Philosophy", 2001, p. 252
* ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences p. 56
* ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp. 90–94; quotation
from p. 91
* ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, article "Psychology".
* ^ Bloch, David (2007).
Memory and Recollection. p.
12. ISBN 90-04-16046-9 .
* ^ Bloch 2007 , p. 61.
* ^ Carruthers, Mary (2007). The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory
in Medieval Culture. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-42973-3 .
* ^ Bloch 2007 , p. 25.
* ^ Warren, Howard (1921). A History of the Association Psychology.
* ^ Warren 1921 , p. 25.
* ^ Carruthers 2007 , p. 19.
* ^ Warren 1921 , p. 296.
* ^ Warren 1921 , p. 259.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Holowchak, Mark (1996).
Aristotle on Dreaming: What Goes on in Sleep when the \'Big Fire\'
goes out". Ancient Philosophy. 16 (2): 405–23. doi
:10.5840/ancientphil199616244 . Retrieved 7 November 2014.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I Shute, Clarence (1941). The
Aristotle: An Analysis of the Living Being. Morningsdie Heights: New
York: Columbia University Press. pp. 115–18.
* ^ A B C D E F G Modrak, Deborah (2009). "Dreams and Method in
Aristotle". Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary
Research. 20: 169–81.
* ^ A B C D Webb, Wilse (1990). Dreamtime and dreamwork: Decoding
the language of the night. New consciousness reader series. Los
Angeles, CA, England: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc. pp. 174–84. ISBN
* ^ Nicomachean
Ethics Book I. See for example chapter 7 1098a.
* ^ Nicomachean
Ethics Book VI.
Aristotle (2009). Politics. Translated by Ernest Barker and
revised with introduction and notes by R. F. Stalley (1st ed. 1995
ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 320–21. ISBN
* ^ Ebenstein, Alan ; William Ebenstein (2002). Introduction to
Political Thinkers. Wadsworth Group. p. 59.
* ^ For a different reading of social and economic processes in the
Politics see Polanyi, K. (1957) "Aristotle
Discovers the Economy" in Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies:
Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78–115
* ^ D. S. Hutchinson & Monte Ransome Johnson (25 January 2015).
"New Reconstruction, includes Greek text".
* ^ Aristotle, Poetics I 1447a
* ^ Aristotle, Poetics III
* ^ Aristotle, Poetics IV
* ^ Aristotle, Poetics VI
* ^ Aristotle, Poetics XXVI
* ^ Temple, Olivia, and Temple, Robert (translators), The Complete
Aesop Penguin Classics, 1998. ISBN 0-14-044649-4 Cf.
Introduction, pp. xi–xii.
* ^ Freeland, Cynthia A. (1998). Feminist Interpretations of
Aristotle. Penn State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01730-9 .
* ^ Morsink, Johannes (Spring 1979). "Was Aristotle's Biology
Sexist?". Journal of the History of Biology. 12 (1): 83–112. doi
JSTOR 10.2307/4330727 .
* ^ Roberts, Aristotle;. "Book I, Chapter 5". In Honeycutt, Lee.
Rhetoric. Translated by Rhys, W. Archived from the original on 13
February 2015. Where, as among the Lacedaemonians, the state of women
is bad, almost half of human life is spoilt.
* ^ A B C D
Terence Irwin and
Gail Fine ,
Cornell University ,
Aristotle: Introductory Readings. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett
Publishing Company, Inc. (1996), Introduction, pp. xi–xii.
* ^ "The
Athens / Medieval manuscripts blog".
blogs.bl.uk. The British Library Board. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 29
June 2017. Of all the Greek papyri now in the British Library, perhaps
the most treasured, and certainly the most visually striking, is the
Constitution of Athens, which describes the development
of the Athenian
Constitution down to 403 BC, and the operation of the
government at the time of writing in the 330s or 320s BC. The work is
one of some 158 constitutions of Greek city-states known in antiquity
to have been produced by the school of
Aristotle (or perhaps by
* ^ Thorndike, Lynn (1965). "Chiromancy in Medieval Latin
Manuscripts". Speculum. 40: 674–706. doi :10.2307/2851404 . ; Pack,
Roger A. (1972). "Pseudo-Arisoteles: Chiromantia". Archives d'histoire
doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Âge. 39: 289–320. ; Pack (1969).
"A Pseudo-Aristotelian Chiromancy". Archives d'histoire doctrinale et
littéraire du Moyen Âge. 36: 189–241.
* ^ Barnes 1995 , p. 12;
Aristotle himself: Nicomachean Ethics
Aristotle himself never uses the term "esoteric" or
"acroamatic". For other passages where
Aristotle speaks of exōterikoi
W. D. Ross , Aristotle's
Metaphysics (1953), vol. 2, pp.
408–10. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the
phrase, at least in Aristotle's own works, usually refers generally to
"discussions not peculiar to the
Peripatetic school ", rather than to
specific works of Aristotle's own.
* ^ House, Humphry (1956). Aristotles Poetics. p. 35.
* ^ A B Barnes 1995 , p. 12.
* ^ Ammonius (1991). On Aristotle's Categories. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-8014-2688-X .
Cicero 1874 , § 119.
* ^ Barnes, Jonathan (2001). "Roman Aristotle". In Nagy, Gregory .
Greek Literature. 8. Routledge. p. 174. – Originally published in
Barnes, J. (1997). Barnes, J.; Griffin, M., eds. Roman Aristotle.
Philosophia Togata. II. Oxford. pp. 1–69.
* ^ .The definitive, English study of these questions is Barnes, J.
(1997). Barnes, J.; Griffin, M., eds. Roman Aristotle. Philosophia
Togata. II. Oxford. pp. 1–69.
* ^ "Sulla."
* ^ Ancient Rome: from the early Republic to the assassination of
Julius Caesar – p. 513, Matthew Dillon, Lynda Garland
* ^ The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 22 – p. 131, Grolier
Incorporated – Juvenile Nonfiction
* ^ Lord, Carnes (1984). Introduction to the Politics, by
Chicago University Press . p. 11.
* ^ Anagnostopoulos, G., "Aristotle's Works and Thoughts", A
Aristotle (Blackwell Publishing, 2009), p. 16. See also,
Barnes 1995 , pp. 10–15.
* ^ Magee, Bryan (2010). The Story of Philosophy. Dorling
Kindersley. p. 34.
* ^ W. K. C. Guthrie (1990). "A history of Greek philosophy:
Aristotle : an encounter".
Cambridge University Press . p. 156. ISBN
* ^ Case, Thomas (1911). "Aristotle". In Chisholm, Hugh.
Encyclopædia Britannica . 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* ^ "
Aristotle (Greek philosopher) – Britannica Online
Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 22 April
2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
* ^ Durant, Will (2006) .
The Story of Philosophy . United States:
Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-671-73916-4 .
* ^ Plutarch, Life of Alexander
* ^ Richard Sorabji, ed.
Aristotle Transformed London, 1990, pp.
20, 28, 35–36.
* ^ Richard Sorabji, ed.
Aristotle Transformed (London, 1990) pp.
* ^ Richard Sorabji, ed.
Aristotle Transformed (London, 1990) pp.
20–21; 28–29, 393–406; 407–08.
* ^ A B Encyclopedia of Islam, Aristutalis
* ^ Rasa'il I, 103, 17, Abu Rida
* ^ Comm. Magnum in Aristotle, De Anima, III, 2, 43 Crawford
* ^ al-mua'llim al-thani, Aristutalis
* ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1996). The Islamic Intellectual Tradition
in Persia. Curzon Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 0-7007-0314-4 .
* ^ Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Influence of Arabic and Islamic
Philosophy on the
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
* ^ Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "
Aristotelianism in the Renaissance".
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
* ^ Geoffrey Chaucer,
The Canterbury Tales , Prologue, lines
* ^ Durant, p. 86
* ^ Kelvin Knight, Aristotelian Philosophy, Polity Press, 2007,
Aristotle Mountains. SCAR
Composite Antarctic Gazetteer .
The secondary literature on
Aristotle is vast. The following
references are only a small selection.
* Ackrill J. L. (1997). Essays on
Plato and Aristotle, Oxford
University Press, US.
* Ackrill, J. L. (1981).
Aristotle the Philosopher. Oxford and New
York: Oxford University Press.
* Adler, Mortimer J. (1978).
Aristotle for Everybody . New York:
Macmillan. A popular exposition for the general reader.
* Ammonius (1991). Cohen, S. Marc; Matthews, Gareth B, eds. On
Aristotle's Categories. Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press. ISBN
Aristotle (1908–1952). The Works of
Aristotle Translated into
English Under the Editorship of W. D. Ross, 12 vols. Oxford: Clarendon
Press . These translations are available in several places online;
see External links.
* Bakalis Nikolaos. (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From
Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN
* Bocheński, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam:
North-Holland Publishing Company.
* Bolotin, David (1998). An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With
Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing. Albany:
SUNY Press. A contribution to our understanding of how to read
Aristotle's scientific works.
* Burnyeat, M. F. et al. (1979). Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's
Metaphysics. Oxford: Sub-faculty of Philosophy.
* Cantor, Norman F.; Klein, Peter L., eds. (1969). Ancient Thought:
Plato and Aristotle. Monuments of Western Thought. 1. Waltham, Mass:
Blaisdell Publishing Co.
* Chappell, V (1973). "Aristotle's Conception of Matter". Journal of
Philosophy. 70: 679–96. doi :10.2307/2025076 .
* Code, Alan. (1995). Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and
Metaphysics, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76.
* Ferguson, John (1972). Aristotle. New York: Twayne Publishers.
* De Groot, Jean (2014). Aristotle's Empiricism:
Mechanics in the 4th Century BC,
Parmenides Publishing, ISBN
* Frede, Michael. (1987). Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press.
* Fuller, B.A.G. (1923). Aristotle. History of Greek Philosophy. 3.
* Gendlin, Eugene T. (2012). Line by Line Commentary on Aristotle's
De Anima, Volume 1: Books I Volume 2: Book III. Spring Valley, New
York: The Focusing Institute. Available online in PDF.
* Gill, Mary Louise. (1989).
Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of
Unity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
* Guthrie, W. K. C. (1981). A History of Greek Philosophy. 6.
Cambridge University Press .
* Halper, Edward C. (2009). One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics,
Volume 1: Books Alpha – Delta,
Parmenides Publishing, ISBN
* Halper, Edward C. (2005). One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics,
Volume 2: The Central Books,
Parmenides Publishing, ISBN
* Irwin, T. H. (1988). Aristotle\'s First Principles. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-824290-5 .
* Jaeger, Werner (1948). Robinson, Richard, ed. Aristotle:
Fundamentals of the History of His Development (2nd ed.). Oxford:
* Jori, Alberto . (2003). Aristotele, Milano: Bruno Mondadori
Editore (Prize 2003 of the "International Academy of the History of
Science ") ISBN 88-424-9737-1 .
* Kiernan, Thomas P., ed. (1962).
Aristotle Dictionary. New York:
* Knight, Kelvin. (2007). Aristotelian Philosophy:
Aristotle to MacIntyre, Polity Press.
* Lewis, Frank A. (1991). Substance and Predication in Aristotle.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
* Lloyd, G. E. R. (1968). Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his
Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., ISBN 0-521-09456-9 .
* Lord, Carnes. (1984). Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle.
Chicago: Chicago University Press.
* Loux, Michael J. (1991). Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's
Metaphysics Ζ and Η. Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press.
* Maso, Stefano (Ed.), Natali, Carlo (Ed.), Seel, Gerhard (Ed.).
(2012) Reading Aristotle:
Physics VII.3: What is Alteration?
Proceedings of the International ESAP-HYELE Conference, Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-73-5
* McKeon, Richard (1973). Introduction to
Aristotle (2d ed.).
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
* Owen, G. E. L. (1965c). "The
Platonism of Aristotle". Proceedings
of the British Academy. 50: 125–150.
* Pangle, Lorraine Smith (2003).
Aristotle and the Philosophy of
Friendship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aristotle's
conception of the deepest human relationship viewed in the light of
the history of philosophic thought on friendship.
Plato (1979). Allen, Harold Joseph; Wilbur, James B, eds. The
Plato and Aristotle. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
* Reeve, C. D. C. (2000). Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's
Metaphysics. Indianapolis: Hackett.
* Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield:
Charles C Thomas Publisher.
* Ross, Sir David (1995).
Aristotle (6th ed.). London: Routledge. A
classic overview by one of Aristotle's most prominent English
translators, in print since 1923.
* Scaltsas, T. (1994). Substances and Universals in Aristotle's
Cornell University Press.
* Strauss, Leo (1964). "On Aristotle's Politics", in The City and
Man, Chicago; Rand McNally.
* Swanson, Judith (1992). The Public and the Private in Aristotle's
Political Philosophy. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press.
* Taylor, Henry Osborn (1922). "Chapter 3: Aristotle's Biology".
Biology and Medicine. Archived from the original on 27 March
2006. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
* Veatch, Henry B. (1974). Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation.
Bloomington: Indiana U. Press. For the general reader.
* Woods, M. J. (1991b). "Universals and
Particular Forms in
Aristotle and the Later Tradition. Oxford
Studies in Ancient Philosophy . Suppl. pp. 41–56.
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