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Onygenales
Ajellomycetaceae Arachnomycetaceae Arthrodermataceae Ascosphaeraceae Gymnoascaceae Onygenaceae The ONYGENALES are an order of Ascomycetes
Ascomycetes
, within the eurotiomycetes Ascomycetes
Ascomycetes
. Onygenales
Onygenales
can consume and break down keratin , the main component of the outer layer of skin. They are primarily found on animals, droppings, and areas frequented by animals. One species, Trichophyton rubrum , is the primary cause of athlete\'s foot . The Onygenales
Onygenales
are important as emerging human pathogens because of the rising rates of immunosuppression due to live-organ transplant, HIV/AIDS, and autoimmune disorders such as lupus erythematosus . REFERENCES * ^ "Onygenales". New Brunswick Museum . Retrieved 2012-07-28. * ^ Alexopolous, C.J. W. Mims, Charles. Blackwell, M
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Coccidioides Immitis
COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS is a pathogenic fungus that resides in the soil in certain parts of the southwestern United States
United States
, northern Mexico
Mexico
, and a few other areas in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
. CONTENTS * 1 Epidemiology * 2 Clinical manifestation * 3 Treatment * 3.1 Azoles * 3.2 Amphotericin * 3.3 Duration of therapy and costs * 4 HHS select agents listing * 5 References * 6 External links EPIDEMIOLOGYC. immitis, along with its relative C. posadasii , is most commonly seen in the desert regions of the southwestern United States, including certain areas of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, and Utah; and in Central and South America in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Venezuela. C
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Fungus
Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota ) Ascomycota Pezizomycotina Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Subphyla _incertae sedis _ Entomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina A FUNGUS (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/ ; plural : FUNGI or FUNGUSES ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms . These organisms are classified as a kingdom , FUNGI, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals
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Ascomycota
ASCOMYCOTA is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota , form the subkingdom Dikarya . Its members are commonly known as the SAC FUNGI or ASCOMYCETES. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species . The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus " (from Greek : ἀσκός (_askos_), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores , called ascospores , are formed. However, some species of the Ascomycota are asexual , meaning that they do not have a sexual cycle and thus do not form asci or ascospores. Previously placed in the Deuteromycota along with asexual species from other fungal taxa, asexual (or anamorphic ) ascomycetes are now identified and classified based on morphological or physiological similarities to ascus-bearing taxa , and by phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences
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Eurotiomycetes
The EUROTIOMYCETES are a class of ascomycetes within the subphylum Pezizomycotina
Pezizomycotina
. Some members of the Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
were previously grouped in the class Plectomycetes . CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Morphology * 3 References * 4 External links NOMENCLATUREThe scientific classification for this particular class is particularly tricky, with one particular species having both the anamorph , and teleomorph names used in reference to them. * e.g. anamorph form = Penicillium
Penicillium
; teleomorph form = Talaromyces or Eupenicillium . MORPHOLOGYMany members (Eurotiales, Onygenales) produce an enclosed structure cleistothecium within which they produce their spores. REFERENCES * ^ N. Gunde-Cimerman; A. Oren; A. Plemenitaš, eds. (2006). Adaptation to Life at High Salt Concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
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Ajellomycetaceae
Ajellomyces Blastomyces Emmonsia Histoplasma
Histoplasma
Paracoccidioides Polytolypa The AJELLOMYCETACEAE are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota
Ascomycota
, class Eurotiomycetes . The family contains seven genera and 14 species. REFERENCES * ^ Untereiner WA, Scott JA, Naveau FA, Sigler L, Bachewich J, Angus A (2004). "The Ajellomycetaceae, a new family of vertebrate-associated Onygenales". Mycologia. 96 (4): 812–21. JSTOR 3762114 . PMID 21148901 . doi :10.2307/3762114 . Retrieved 2010-01-04. * ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 17. ISBN 0-85199-826-7
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Arthrodermataceae
Epidermophyton Microsporum
Microsporum
Trichophyton The ARTHRODERMATACEAE are a family of fungi containing three dermatophytes -- genera Epidermophyton , Microsporum
Microsporum
and Trichophyton . REFERENCES * ^ Textbook of medical mycology, Jagdish Ghanaer, 2nd ed. (Mehta Publishers, New Delhi) 2002.428 pages
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Ascosphaeraceae
Arrhenosphaera Ascosphaera
Ascosphaera
Bettsia The ASCOSPHAERACEAE are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota
Ascomycota
, class Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
. REFERENCES * ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota
Ascomycota
– 2007". Myconet. Chicago, USA: The Field Museum, Department of Botany. 13: 1–58
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Gymnoascaceae
Acitheca Arachniotus Gymnascella Gymnoascoideus Gymnoascus Kraurogymnocarpa Mallochia Narasimhella Orromyces The GYMNOASCACEAE are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota
Ascomycota
, class Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
. REFERENCES * ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota
Ascomycota
– 2007". Myconet. Chicago, USA: The Field Museum, Department of Botany. 13: 1–58. This Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Gymnoascaceae additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Onygenaceae
The ONYGENACEAE are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota
Ascomycota
, class Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes

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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Ascomycetes
ASCOMYCOTA is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi
Fungi
that, together with the Basidiomycota , form the subkingdom Dikarya . Its members are commonly known as the SAC FUNGI or ASCOMYCETES. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species . The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus " (from Greek : ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores , called ascospores , are formed
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Keratin
KERATIN (/ˈkɛrətɪn/ ) is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins . Keratin
Keratin
is the protein that protects epithelial cells from damage or stress. Keratin
Keratin
is extremely insoluble in water and organic solvents. It is the key structural material making up the outer layer of human skin . Keratin
Keratin
monomers assemble into bundles to form intermediate filaments , which are tough and form strong unmineralized epidermal appendages found in reptiles , birds , amphibians , and mammals . The only other biological matter known to approximate the toughness of keratinized tissue is chitin
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Trichophyton Rubrum
TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM is a dermatophytic fungus in the phylum Ascomycota
Ascomycota
, class Euascomycetes . It is an exclusively clonal, anthropophilic saprotroph that colonizes the upper layers of dead skin, and is the most common cause of athlete\'s foot , fungal infection of nail, jock itch , and ringworm worldwide. Trichophyton rubrum was first described by Malmsten in 1845 and is currently considered to be a complex of species that comprises multiple, geographically patterned morphotypes, several of which have been formally described as distinct taxa, including T. raubitschekii, T. gourvilii, T. megninii and T. soudanense
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Athlete's Foot
ATHLETE\'S FOOT, known medically as TINEA PEDIS, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus. Signs and symptoms often include itching, scaling, and redness. In severe cases the skin may blister . Athlete's foot
Athlete's foot
fungus may infect any part of the foot, but most often grows between the toes. The next most common area is the bottom of the foot. The same fungus may also affect the nails or the hands . It is a member of the group of diseases known as tinea .