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C. esteriformis C. histosporocellularis C. immitis C. posadasii C. rosea

Coccidioides
Coccidioides
is a genus of dimorphic ascomycetes in the family Onygenaceae. Member species are the cause of coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, an infectious fungal disease largely confined to the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
and endemic in the Southwestern United States.[2] The host acquires the disease by respiratory inhalation of spores disseminated in their natural habitat. The causative agents of coccidioidomycosis are Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides
Coccidioides
posadasii. Both C. immitis and C. posadasii are indistinguishable during laboratory testing and commonly referred in literature as Coccidioides.[3]

Contents

1 Clinical presentation 2 Epidemiology 3 Etymology 4 References 5 External links

Clinical presentation[edit]

Both Coccidioides
Coccidioides
species share the same asexual life cycle, switching between saprobic (on left) and parasitic (on right) life stages.

Coccidioidomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
is amazingly diverse in terms of its scope of clinical presentation, as well as clinical severity. About 60% of Coccidioides
Coccidioides
infections as determined by serologic conversion are asymptomatic. The most common clinical syndrome in the other 40% of infected patients is an acute respiratory illness characterized by fever, cough, and pleuritic pain. Skin manifestations, such as erythema nodosum, are also common with Coccidioides
Coccidioides
infection. Coccidioides
Coccidioides
infection can cause a severe and difficult-to-treat meningitis in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients, and occasionally in immunocompetent hosts. Infection can sometimes cause acute respiratory distress syndrome and fatal multilobar pneumonia. The risk of symptomatic infection increases with age. Epidemiology[edit] The primary coccidioidomycosis-endemic areas are located in Southern California and southern Arizona, and northern Mexico, in Sonora, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Baja California, where it resides in soil.[4] Both C. immitis and C. posadasii were viewed as desert saprophytes, but recent genomic research revealed Coccidioides
Coccidioides
species to have evolved interacting with their animal hosts.[5] Etymology[edit] The soil fungus Coccidioides
Coccidioides
was discovered in 1892 by Alejandro Posadas, a medical student, in an Argentinian
Argentinian
soldier with widespread disease. Biopsy specimens revealed organisms that resembled the protozoan Coccidia
Coccidia
(from the Greek kokkis, "little berry"). In 1896, Gilchrist and Rixford named the organism Coccidioides
Coccidioides
("resembling Coccidia") immitis (Latin for “harsh,” describing the clinical course). Ophüls and Moffitt proved that C. immitis was a fungus rather than a protozoan in 1900. In 2002, C. immitis was divided into a second species, C. posadasii, after Alejandro Posadas. .[6] References[edit] This article cites public domain text from the CDC, as shown.

^ Rixford E, Gilchrist TC (1896). "Two cases of protozoan (coccidioidal) infection of the skin and other organs". Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. 1: 209–268 (see p. 243).  ^ " Coccidioidomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
(Valley Fever)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ Fauci, Anthony S. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2008. ^ Baptista-Rosas, Riquelme M., Hinojosa A. Ecological niche modeling of Coccidioides
Coccidioides
spp. in Western North American deserts. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2007, Vol. 1111, pp. 35–46. ^ Sharpton, T. J.; Stajich, J. E.; Rounsley, S. D.; et al. (October 2009). "Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Human Fungal Pathogens Coccidioides
Coccidioides
and Their Relatives". Genome Research. 19 (10): 1722–31. doi:10.1101/gr.087551.108. PMC 2765278 . PMID 19717792.  ^ Anonymous (June 2015). "Etymologia: Coccidioides". Emerg Infect Dis. 21 (6). doi:10.3201/eid2106.ET2106. 

External links[edit]

Coccidioides
Coccidioides
in Index Fungorum Coccidioides
Coccidioides
sp. National Center for Biotechnology Information: Coccidioides

v t e

Fungal infection and mesomycetozoea (B35–B49, 110–118)

Superficial and cutaneous (dermatomycosis): Tinea
Tinea
= skin; Piedra (exothrix/ endothrix) = hair

Ascomycota

Dermatophyte (Dermatophytosis)

By location

Tinea
Tinea
barbae/tinea capitis

Kerion

Tinea
Tinea
corporis

Ringworm Dermatophytids

Tinea
Tinea
cruris Tinea
Tinea
manuum Tinea
Tinea
pedis (athlete's foot) Tinea
Tinea
unguium/onychomycosis

White superficial onychomycosis Distal subungual onychomycosis Proximal subungual onychomycosis

Tinea
Tinea
corporis gladiatorum Tinea
Tinea
faciei Tinea
Tinea
imbricata Tinea
Tinea
incognito Favus

By organism

Epidermophyton floccosum Microsporum canis Microsporum audouinii Trichophyton
Trichophyton
interdigitale/mentagrophytes Trichophyton
Trichophyton
tonsurans Trichophyton
Trichophyton
schoenleini Trichophyton
Trichophyton
rubrum Trichophyton
Trichophyton
verrucosum

Other

Hortaea werneckii

Tinea
Tinea
nigra

Piedraia hortae

Black piedra

Basidiomycota

Malassezia
Malassezia
furfur

Tinea
Tinea
versicolor Pityrosporum folliculitis

Trichosporon

White piedra

Subcutaneous, systemic, and opportunistic

Ascomycota

Dimorphic (yeast+mold)

Onygenales

Coccidioides
Coccidioides
immitis/ Coccidioides
Coccidioides
posadasii

Coccidioidomycosis Disseminated coccidioidomycosis Primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis. Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis

Histoplasma capsulatum

Histoplasmosis Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis Primary pulmonary histoplasmosis Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis

Histoplasma duboisii

African histoplasmosis

Lacazia loboi

Lobomycosis

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Paracoccidioidomycosis

Other

Blastomyces
Blastomyces
dermatitidis

Blastomycosis North American blastomycosis South American blastomycosis

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

Penicillium marneffei

Penicilliosis

Yeast-like

Candida albicans

Candidiasis Oral Esophageal Vulvovaginal Chronic mucocutaneous Antibiotic candidiasis Candidal intertrigo Candidal onychomycosis Candidal paronychia Candidid Diaper candidiasis Congenital cutaneous candidiasis Perianal candidiasis Systemic candidiasis Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica

C. glabrata C. tropicalis C. lusitaniae Pneumocystis jirovecii

Pneumocystosis Pneumocystis pneumonia

Mold-like

Aspergillus

Aspergillosis Aspergilloma Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Primary cutaneous aspergillosis

Exophiala jeanselmei

Eumycetoma

Fonsecaea pedrosoi/Fonsecaea compacta/Phialophora verrucosa

Chromoblastomycosis

Geotrichum candidum

Geotrichosis

Pseudallescheria boydii

Allescheriasis

Basidiomycota

Cryptococcus neoformans

Cryptococcosis Trichosporon spp Trichosporonosis

Zygomycota (Zygomycosis)

Mucorales (Mucormycosis)

Rhizopus oryzae Mucor indicus Lichtheimia corymbifera Syncephalastrum racemosum Apophysomyces variabilis

Entomophthorales (Entomophthoramycosis)

Basidiobolus ranarum

Basidiobolomycosis

Conidiobolus coronatus/Conidiobolus incongruus

Conidiobolomycosis

Microsporidia (Microsporidiosis)

Enterocytozoon bieneusi/Encephalitozoon intestinalis

Mesomycetozoea

Rhinosporidium seeberi

Rhinosporidiosis

Ungrouped

Alternariosis Fungal folliculitis Fusarium

Fusariosis

Granuloma gluteale infantum Hyalohyphomycosis Otomycosis Phaeohyphomycosis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q142764 EoL: 31754 EPPO: 1CCDIG Fungorum: 7712 GBIF: 2596338 MycoBank: 7712

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