COCCIDIOIDES is a genus of dimorphic ascomycetes in the family
Onygenaceae . Member species are the cause of coccidioidomycosis ,
also known as San Joaquin
Valley fever , an infectious fungal disease
largely confined to the
Western Hemisphere and endemic in the
Southwestern United States
Southwestern United States . The host acquires the disease by
respiratory inhalation of spores disseminated in their natural
habitat. The causative agents of coccidioidomycosis are Coccidioides
Coccidioides posadasii . Both C. immitis and C. posadasii
are indistinguishable during laboratory testing and commonly referred
in literature as Coccidioides.
* 1 Clinical presentation
* 2 Epidemiology
* 3 Etymology
* 4 References
* 5 External links
Coccidioides species share the same asexual life cycle ,
switching between saprobic (on left) and parasitic (on right) life
Coccidioidomycosis is amazingly diverse in terms of its scope of
clinical presentation, as well as clinical severity. About 60% of
Coccidioides infections as determined by serologic conversion are
asymptomatic. The most common clinical syndrome in the other 40% of
infected patients is an acute respiratory illness characterized by
fever, cough, and pleuritic pain. Skin manifestations, such as
erythema nodosum , are also common with
Coccidioides infection can cause a severe and difficult-to-treat
meningitis in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients, and
occasionally in immunocompetent hosts. Infection can sometimes cause
acute respiratory distress syndrome and fatal multilobar pneumonia .
The risk of symptomatic infection increases with age.
The primary coccidioidomycosis-endemic areas are located in Southern
California and southern Arizona, and northern Mexico, in Sonora, Nuevo
León, Coahuila, and Baja California, where it resides in soil. Both
C. immitis and C. posadasii were viewed as desert saprophytes , but
recent genomic research revealed
Coccidioides species to have evolved
interacting with their animal hosts.
The soil fungus
Coccidioides was discovered in 1892 by Alejandro
Posadas, a medical student, in an
Argentinian soldier with widespread
disease. Biopsy specimens revealed organisms that resembled the
Coccidia (from the Greek kokkis, "little berry"). In 1896,
Gilchrist and Rixford named the organism
Coccidia") immitis (Latin for “harsh,” describing the clinical
course). Ophüls and Moffitt proved that C. immitis was a fungus
rather than a protozoan in 1900. In 2002, C. immitis was divided into
a second species, C. posadasii , after
Alejandro Posadas . .
This article cites public domain text from the CDC, as shown.
* ^ Rixford E, Gilchrist TC (1896). "Two cases of protozoan
(coccidioidal) infection of the skin and other organs". Johns Hopkins
Hospital Reports. 1: 209–268 (see p. 243).
* ^ "
Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)". Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 11 July 2013.
* ^ Fauci, Anthony S. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine.
New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2008.
* ^ Baptista-Rosas, Riquelme M., Hinojosa A. Ecological niche
Coccidioides spp. in Western North American deserts.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 2007, Vol. 1111, pp.
* ^ Sharpton, T. J.; Stajich, J. E.; Rounsley, S. D.; et al.
(October 2009). "Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Human Fungal
Coccidioides and Their Relatives". Genome Research. 19 (10):
1722–31. PMC 2765278 . PMID 19717792 . doi :10.1101/gr.087551.108
* ^ Anonymous (June 2015). "Etymologia: Coccidioides". Emerg Infect
Dis. 21 (6). doi :10.3201/eid2106.ET2106 .