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Nubia
Nubia
Nubia
is a region along the Nile
Nile
river encompassing the area between Aswan
Aswan
in southern Egypt
Egypt
and Khartoum
Khartoum
in central Sudan. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2500 BC onward ( Kerma
Kerma
culture), and was home to several empires, most prominently the kingdom of Kush, which for a while even ruled over Egypt. Its collapse in the 4th century AD after more than 1000 years of existence saw the rise of three Christian kingdoms, Nobatia, Makuria
Makuria
and Alodia, the last two again lasting 1000 years
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New Ulaanbaatar International Airport
The New Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar
International Airport (Mongolian: Улаанбаатар хотын олон улсын шинэ нисэх онгоцны буудал), or the Khöshig Valley Airport (Mongolian: Хөшигийн хөндийн нисэх буудал[1]) is a new international airport presently under construction[2] 52 km south of Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar
city center in Sergelen sum, Töv Province, Mongolia
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Nyala, Sudan
Nyala (Daju: "the place of chatting or a theatre") is the capital of state of South Darfur
South Darfur
in the south-west of Sudan.Contents1 History 2 Economy 3 Water Infrastructure 4 Education 5 Climate 6 The Amel Center 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] Nyala was the capital of the Daju Empire, which was established around Jebel Um-Kurdós.Nyala AirportWhen the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
conquered the present-day Sudan, the British commander-in-chief met Sultan Adam Suleiman in 1932, seeking his advice for his knowledge of the best places in terms of availability of water sources and land topography in order to establish the British Administration Headquarters in Darfur. Sultan Adam Suleiman had chosen Nyala for that purpose
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Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Greece
was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.[1] This Classical period saw the annexation of much of modern-day Greece
Greece
by the Persian Empire[2] and its subsequent independence. Classical Greece
Greece
had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and on the foundations of western civilization. Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought (architecture, sculpture), scientific thought, theatre, literature, and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history. In the context of the art, architecture, and culture of Ancient Greece, the Classical period[3] corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC (the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian
Athenian
tyrant in 510 BC and the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC)
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Islamization
PoliticalHizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood List of Islamic political partiesMilitantMilitant Islamism
Islamism
based inMENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan AfricaKey textsReconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)Heads of stateAli Khamenei Omar al-Bashir Muammar Gaddafi Ruhollah
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Ottomans
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Turkish: Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes. Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks is scarce, but they take their Turkish name, Osmanlı ("Osman" being corrupted in some European languages as "Ottoman"), from the house of Osman I (reigned ca. 1299–1326), the founder of the dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for its entire 624 years. After the expansion from its home in Bithynia, the Ottoman principality began incorporating other Turkish-speaking Muslims and non-Turkish Christians, becoming the Ottoman Turks and ultimately the Turks of the present
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Kordofan
FlagLocation of Kordofan
Kordofan
in SudanCapital Al-UbayyidHistory •  Established 1898 •  Disestablished 1994Area •  1983 376,145 km2 (145,230 sq mi)Population •  1983 3,000,000 Density 8 /km2  (20.7 /sq mi)This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (February 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Kordofan
Kordofan
(Arabic: كردفان‎ Kurdufān) is a former province of central Sudan. In 1994 it was divided into three new federal states: North Kordofan, South Kordofan
South Kordofan
and West Kordofan
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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African Empires
African empires
African empires
is an umbrella term used in African studies
African studies
to refer to a number of pre-colonial
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Civilizations
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by other socio-politico-economic characteristics, including centralization, the domestication of both humans and other organisms, specialization of labour, culturally ingrained ideologies of progress and supremacism, monumental architecture, taxation, societal dependence upon farming and expansionism.[2][3][4][6][7][8] Historically, a civilization was a so-called "advanced" culture in contrast to more supposedly primitive cultures.[1][3][4][9] In this broad sense, a civilization contrasts with non-centralized tribal societies, including the cultures of nomadic pastoralists, Neoli
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Afroasiatic
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic)[3] or Semito-Hamitic,[4] is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.[5] It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and parts of the Sahel. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo).[6] The phylum has six branches: Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Egyptian, Omotic
Omotic
and Semitic. By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic. A language within the Semitic branch, it includes Modern Standard Arabic as well as spoken colloquial varieties
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Neolithic
PaleolithicLower PaleolithicEarly Stone Age Homo Control of fire Stone tools Middle PaleolithicMiddle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humans Upper PaleolithicLater Stone Age Behavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dog Epipalaeolithic Mesolithic<
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Neolithic Revolution
The Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Neolithic
Neolithic
Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.[1] These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants to learn how they grew and developed.[2] This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants.[2][3] Archaeological data indicates that the domestication of various types of plants and animals happened in separate locations worldwide, starting in the geological epoch of the Holocene[4] around 12,500 years ago.[5] It was the world's first historically verifiable revolution in agriculture
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Cushitic Languages
The Cushitic languages
Cushitic languages
are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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Nuba Mountains
The Nuba Mountains, also referred to as the Nuba Hills (Arabic: جبال النوبة‎), is an area located in South Kordofan, Sudan. The area is home to a group of indigenous ethnic groups known collectively as the Nuba peoples. In the 18th century, the Nuba Mountains became home to the kingdom of Taqali
Taqali
that controlled the hills of the mountains until their defeat by Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad. After the Mahdi's defeat by the British, Taqali
Taqali
was restored as a client state. Infiltration of the Messiria tribe
Messiria tribe
of Baggara Arabs
Baggara Arabs
has been influential in modern conflicts.Contents1 Geography 2 Political status 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksGeography[edit] The mountains cover an area roughly 64 km wide by 145 km long (40 by 90 miles), and are 450 to 900 metres (1,500 to 3,000 feet) higher in elevation than the surrounding plain
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