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Nubia
Nubia
is a region along the Nile
Nile
river encompassing the area between Aswan
Aswan
in southern Egypt
Egypt
and Khartoum
Khartoum
in central Sudan. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2500 BC onward ( Kerma
Kerma
culture), and was home to several empires, most prominently the kingdom of Kush, which for a while even ruled over Egypt. Its collapse in the 4th century AD after more than 1000 years of existence saw the rise of three Christian kingdoms, Nobatia, Makuria
Makuria
and Alodia, the last two again lasting 1000 years. Their eventual decline initiated not only the partition of Nubia
Nubia
into the northern half conquered by the Ottomans and the southern half by the Sennar sultanate in the 16th century, but also a rapid Islamization
Islamization
and partial Arabization
Arabization
of the Nubian people. Nubia
Nubia
was again united under the Khedivate of Egypt
Egypt
in the 19th century. Today, Nubia
Nubia
is split between Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan.

Contents

1 Linguistics 2 Geography 3 History

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Nubia
Nubia
and Ancient
Ancient
Egypt 3.3 Kerma 3.4 Kush

3.4.1 Napatan period 3.4.2 Meroitic period

3.5 Christian Nubia 3.6 Islamic Nubia

4 Contemporary issues 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External links

Linguistics[edit] The name Nubia
Nubia
is derived from that of the Noba people, nomads who settled the area in the 4th century CE following the collapse of the kingdom of Meroë. The Noba spoke a Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
language, ancestral to Old Nubian. Old Nubian was mostly used in religious texts dating from the 8th and 15th centuries. Before the 4th century, and throughout classical antiquity, Nubia
Nubia
was known as Kush, or, in Classical Greek usage, included under the name Ethiopia (Aithiopia). Historically, the people of Nubia
Nubia
spoke at least two varieties of the Nubian language group, a subfamily that includes Nobiin
Nobiin
(the descendant of Old Nubian), Kenuzi-Dongola, Midob and several related varieties in the northern part of the Nuba Mountains
Nuba Mountains
in South Kordofan. Until at least 1970, the Birgid language was spoken north of Nyala in Darfur, but is now extinct. However, linguistic evidence indicates that the languages spoken in the ancient Kerma
Kerma
Culture (present-day southern Egypt
Egypt
and northern Sudan) in Nubia, belonged to the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic
Afroasiatic
languages.[1][2] Geography[edit] Nubia
Nubia
was divided into two major regions: Upper and Lower Nubia, so called because of their location in the Nile
Nile
river valley, the 'lower' being further downstream than the 'upper'. Lower Nubia lay between the First and Second Cataracts of the Nile
Nile
river, spreading into modern southern Egypt
Egypt
and northern Sudan, while Upper Nubia
Nubia
extended between the Second and Sixth Cataracts, in modern central Sudan. History[edit] Prehistory[edit]

Tools, Weapons and adornments from el-Barga (6000-5500 BC)

Early settlements sprouted in both Upper and Lower Nubia. Egyptians referred to Nubia
Nubia
as "Ta-Seti," or "The Land of the Bow," since the Nubians were known to be expert archers.[3] Modern scholars typically refer to the people from this area as the "A-Group" culture. Fertile farmland just south of the Third Cataract is known as the "pre-Kerma" culture in Upper Nubia, as they are the ancestors. The Neolithic
Neolithic
people in the Nile
Nile
Valley likely came from Sudan, as well as the Sahara, and there was shared culture with the two areas and with that of Egypt
Egypt
during this period.[4] By the 5th millennium BC, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia
Nubia
participated in the Neolithic
Neolithic
revolution. Saharan rock reliefs depict scenes that have been thought to be suggestive of a cattle cult, typical of those seen throughout parts of Eastern Africa
Africa
and the Nile
Nile
Valley even to this day.[5] Megaliths discovered at Nabta Playa
Nabta Playa
are early examples of what seems to be one of the world's first astronomical devices, predating Stonehenge
Stonehenge
by almost 2,000 years.[6] This complexity as observed at Nabta Playa, and as expressed by different levels of authority within the society there, likely formed the basis for the structure of both the Neolithic
Neolithic
society at Nabta and the Old Kingdom of Egypt.[7] Around 3500 BC, the second "Nubian" culture, termed the A-Group, arose.[8] It was a contemporary of, and ethnically and culturally very similar to, the polities in predynastic Naqada
Naqada
of Upper Egypt.[9][10] The A-Group people were engaged in trade with the Egyptians. This trade is testified archaeologically by large amounts of Egyptian commodities deposited in the graves of the A-Group people. The imports consisted of gold objects, copper tools, faience amulets and beads, seals, slate palettes, stone vessels, and a variety of pots.[11]

Nubian Terracotta Female Figurine, from the Neolithic
Neolithic
period ca. 3500-3100 B.C.E. Brooklyn Museum

Around 3300 BC, there is evidence of a unified kingdom, as shown by the finds at Qustul, that maintained substantial interactions (both cultural and genetic) with the culture of Naqadan Upper Egypt. The Nubian culture may have even contributed to the unification of the Nile
Nile
Valley. Toby Wilkinson, based on work by Bruce Williams in the 1980s, wrote that "The white crown, associated in historic times with Upper Egypt, is first attested later than the red crown, but is directly associated with the ruler somewhat earlier. The earliest known depiction of the white crown is on a ceremonial incense burner from Cemetery at Qustul in Lower Nubia".[12] Based on a 1998 excavation report, Jane Roy has written that "At the time of Williams’ argument, the Qustul
Qustul
cemetery and the ‘royal’ iconography found there was dated to the Naqada IIIA period, thus antedating royal cemeteries in Egypt
Egypt
of the Naqada IIIB phase. New evidence from Abydos, however, particularly the excavation of Cemetery U and the tome U-j, dating to Naqada
Naqada
IIIA has shown that this iconography appears earlier in Egypt."[13]

Pottery of the Nubian A-Group, Musee du Louvre

Around the turn of the protodynastic period, Naqada, in its bid to conquer and unify the whole Nile
Nile
Valley, seems to have conquered Ta-Seti (the kingdom where Qustul
Qustul
was located) and harmonized it with the Egyptian state. Thus, Nubia
Nubia
became the first nome of Upper Egypt. At the time of the first dynasty, the A-Group area seems to have been entirely depopulated,[3] most likely due to immigration to areas west and south. This culture began to decline in the early 28th century BC. George Reisner suggested that it was succeeded by a culture that he called the "B-Group", but most archaeologists today believe that this culture never existed and that the area was depopulated from c. 3000 BC to c. 2500, when a-group descendants returned to the area.[14][15] The causes of this are uncertain, but it was perhaps caused by Egyptian invasions and pillaging that began at this time. Nubia
Nubia
is believed to have served as a trade corridor between Egypt
Egypt
and tropical Africa
Africa
long before 3100 BC. Egyptian craftsmen of the period used ivory and ebony wood from tropical Africa
Africa
which came through Nubia.

Statue of the King Taharqa, 25th dynasty

In 2300 BC, Nubia
Nubia
was first mentioned in Old Kingdom Egyptian accounts of trade missions. From Aswan, right above the First Cataract, the southern limit of Egyptian control at the time, Egyptians
Egyptians
imported gold, incense, ebony, copper, ivory, and exotic animals from tropical Africa
Africa
through Nubia. As trade between Egypt
Egypt
and Nubia
Nubia
increased, so did wealth and stability. By the Egyptian 6th dynasty, Nubia
Nubia
was divided into a series of small kingdoms. There is debate over whether these C-Group peoples,[16] who flourished from c. 2500 BC to c. 1500 BC, were another internal evolution or invaders. There are definite similarities between the pottery of the A-Group and C-Group, so it may be a return of the ousted Group-As, or an internal revival of lost arts. At this time, the Sahara
Sahara
Desert was becoming too arid to support human beings, and it is possible that there was a sudden influx of Saharan nomads. C-Group pottery is characterized by all-over incised geometric lines with white infill and impressed imitations of basketry. During the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (c. 2040–1640 BC), Egypt
Egypt
began expanding into Nubia
Nubia
to gain more control over the trade routes in Northern Nubia
Nubia
and direct access to trade with Southern Nubia. They erected a chain of forts down the Nile
Nile
below the Second Cataract. These garrisons seemed to have peaceful relations with the local Nubian people, but little interaction during the period.[17] A contemporaneous but distinct culture from the C-Group was the Pan Grave culture, so called because of their shallow graves. The Pan Graves are associated with the East bank of the Nile, but the Pan Graves and C-Group definitely interacted. Their pottery is characterized by incised lines of a more limited character than those of the C-Group, generally having interspersed undecorated spaces within the geometric schemes. Nubia
Nubia
and Ancient
Ancient
Egypt[edit]

Nubia
Nubia
in hieroglyphs

[18] Ta-seti T3-stj Curved land[18]

[19] Setiu Stjw Curved land of the Nubians[19]

Nehset / Nehsyu / Nehsi Nḥst / Nḥsyw / Nḥsj Nubia
Nubia
/ Nubians

Nubia

One interpretation is that Nubian A-Group
Nubian A-Group
rulers and early Egyptian pharaohs used related royal symbols. Similarities in rock art of A-Group Nubia
Nubia
and Upper Egypt
Egypt
support this position. Ancient
Ancient
Egypt conquered Nubian territory in various eras, and incorporated parts of the area into its provinces. The Nubians in turn were to conquer Egypt under its 25th Dynasty.[20] However, relations between the two peoples also show peaceful cultural interchange and cooperation, including mixed marriages. The Medjay (mj3,[21]) represents the name ancient Egypt
Egypt
gave to a region in northern Sudan
Sudan
where an ancient people of Nubia
Nubia
inhabited. They became part of the Egyptian military as scouts and minor workers. During the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, "Medjay" no longer referred to the district of Medja but to a tribe or clan of people. It is not known what happened to the district, but, after the First Intermediate Period of Egypt, it and other districts in Nubia
Nubia
were no longer mentioned in the written record.[22] Written accounts detail the Medjay as nomadic desert people. Over time, they were incorporated into the Egyptian army. In the army, the Medjay served as garrison troops in Egyptian fortifications in Nubia
Nubia
and patrolled the deserts as a kind of gendarmerie.[23] This was done in the hope of preventing their fellow Medjay tribespeople from further attacking Egyptian assets in the region.[24] Later, they were even used during Kamose’s campaign against the Hyksos[25] and became instrumental in making the Egyptian state into a military power.[26] By the Eighteenth Dynasty of the New Kingdom period, the Medjay were an elite paramilitary police force.[24] No longer did the term refer to an ethnic group and, over time, the new meaning became synonymous with the policing occupation in general. Being an elite police force, the Medjay were often used to protect valuable areas, especially royal and religious complexes. Though they are most notable for their protection of the royal palaces and tombs in Thebes and the surrounding areas, the Medjay were known to have been used throughout Upper and Lower Egypt. Various pharaohs of Nubian origin are held by some Egyptologists to have played an important part towards the area in different eras of Egyptian history, particularly the 12th Dynasty. These rulers handled matters in typical Egyptian fashion, reflecting the close cultural influences between the two regions.

[T]he XIIth Dynasty (1991–1786 B.C.E.) originated from the Aswan region. As expected, strong Nubian features and dark coloring are seen in their sculpture and relief work. This dynasty ranks as among the greatest, whose fame far outlived its actual tenure on the throne. Especially interesting, it was a member of this dynasty that decreed that no Nehsy (riverine Nubian of the principality of Kush), except such as came for trade or diplomatic reasons, should pass by the Egyptian fortress and cops at the southern end of the Second Nile Cataract. Why would this royal family of Nubian ancestry ban other Nubians from coming into Egyptian territory? Because the Egyptian rulers of Nubian ancestry had become Egyptians
Egyptians
culturally; as pharaohs, they exhibited typical Egyptian attitudes and adopted typical Egyptian policies. (Yurco 1989) [27]

In the New Kingdom, Nubians became indistinguishable in the archaeological record from Egyptians.

It is an extremely difficult task to attempt to describe the Nubians during the course of Egypt's New Kingdom, because their presence appears to have virtually evaporated from the archaeological record. The result has been described as a wholesale Nubian assimilation into Egyptian society. This assimilation was so complete that it masked all Nubian ethnic identities insofar as archaeological remains are concerned beneath the impenetrable veneer of Egypt's material culture. In the Kushite Period, when Nubians ruled as Pharaohs in their own right, the material culture of Dynasty XXV (about 750–655 B.C.E.) was decidedly Egyptian in character. Nubia's entire landscape up to the region of the Third Cataract was dotted with temples indistinguishable in style and decoration from contemporary temples erected in Egypt. The same observation obtains for the smaller number of typically Egyptian tombs in which these elite Nubian princes were interred.[28]

Kerma[edit] Main article: Kerma
Kerma
Culture

Kerma
Kerma
city

From the pre- Kerma
Kerma
culture, the first kingdom to unify much of the region arose. The Kerma
Kerma
Culture, named for its presumed capital at Kerma, was one of the earliest urban centers in the Nile
Nile
region and spoke languages of the Cushitic branch.[1][2][29] By 1750 BC, the kings of Kerma
Kerma
were powerful enough to organize the labor for monumental walls and structures of mud brick. They also had rich tombs, with possessions for the afterlife and large human sacrifices. George Andrew Reisner
George Andrew Reisner
excavated sites at Kerma
Kerma
and found distinctive Nubian architecture
Nubian architecture
such as large tombs and palace-like structures. At one point, Kerma
Kerma
came very close to conquering Egypt. Egypt
Egypt
suffered a serious defeat at the hands of the Kingdom of Kush.[30][31]

The Turin Papyrus Map

According to Davies, head of the joint British Museum
British Museum
and Egyptian archaeological team, the attack was so devastating that, if the Kerma forces had chosen to stay and occupy Egypt, they might have eliminated it for good and brought the nation to extinction. When Egyptian power revived under the New Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
(c. 1532–1070 BC), Egyptians began to expand further southwards. The Egyptians
Egyptians
destroyed Kerma's kingdom and capitol and expanded the Egyptian empire to the Fourth Cataract. By the end of the reign of Thutmose I
Thutmose I
(1520 BC), all of northern Nubia had been annexed. The Egyptians
Egyptians
built a new administrative center at Napata, and used the area to produce gold and incense.[32][33] The Nubian gold production made Egypt
Egypt
a prime source of the precious metal in the Middle East. The primitive working conditions for the slaves are recorded by Diodorus Siculus, who saw some of the mines at a later time.[34] One of the oldest maps known is of a gold mine in Nubia, the Turin Papyrus Map
Turin Papyrus Map
dating to about 1160 BC; this map is also one of the earliest characterized road maps in existence.[35] Kush[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Kush Napatan period[edit]

Figurine of the King Senkamanisken, Napata
Napata
period ca. 643-623 BC

When the Egyptians
Egyptians
pulled out of the Napata
Napata
region, they left a lasting legacy that was merged with indigenous customs, forming the kingdom of Kush. Archaeologists have found several burials in the area that seem to belong to local leaders. The Kushites were buried there soon after the Egyptians
Egyptians
decolonized the Nubian frontier. Kush adopted many Egyptian practices, such as their religion. The Kingdom of Kush survived longer than that of Egypt, invaded Egypt
Egypt
(under the leadership of king Piye), and controlled Egypt
Egypt
during the 8th century BC as the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt.[36]

Pharaohs of Nubia

The Kushites held sway over their northern neighbors for nearly 100 years, until they were eventually repelled by the invading Assyrians. The Assyrians forced them to move farther south, where they eventually established their capital at Meroë. Of the Nubian kings of this era, Taharqa
Taharqa
is perhaps the best known. A son and the third successor of the founding pharaoh, Piye, he was crowned in Memphis, Egypt c. 690.[37] Taharqa
Taharqa
ruled over both Nubia
Nubia
and Egypt, restored Egyptian temples at Karnak, and built new temples and pyramids in Nubia
Nubia
before being driven from Egypt
Egypt
by the Assyrians.[38][39][40][41] Meroitic period[edit] Main article: Meroë

Aerial view at Nubian pyramids, Meroe

Meroë
Meroë
(800 BC – c. AD 350) in southern Nubia
Nubia
lay on the east bank of the Nile, about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, ca. 200 km north-east of Khartoum. The people there preserved many ancient Egyptian customs, but were unique in many respects. They developed their own form of writing, first utilizing Egyptian hieroglyphs, and later using an alphabetic script with 23 signs.[42] Since king Arakamani
Arakamani
the kings were buried in Meroe. Strabo describes a clash with the Romans in which the Romans defeated Nubians. According to Strabo, following the Kushite advance, Gaius Petronius (a Prefect of Egypt
Egypt
at the time) prepared a large army and marched south. The Roman forces clashed with the Kushite armies near Thebes and forced them to retreat to Pselchis (Maharraqa) in Kushite lands. Petronius then sent deputies to the Kushites in an attempt to reach a peace agreement and make certain demands. Quoting Strabo, the Kushites "desired three days for consideration" in order to make a final decision. However, after the three days, Kush did not respond and Petronius advanced with his armies and took the Kushite city of Premnis (modern Karanog) south of Maharraqa. From there, he advanced all the way south to Napata, the second Capital in Kush after Meroe. Petronius attacked and sacked Napata, causing the son of the Kushite Queen to flee. Strabo
Strabo
describes the defeat of the Kushites at Napata, stating that "He (Petronius) made prisoners of the inhabitants".[43] During this time, the different parts of the region divided into smaller groups with individual leaders, or generals, each commanding small armies of mercenaries. They fought for control of what is now Nubia
Nubia
and its surrounding territories, leaving the entire region weak and vulnerable to attack. Meroë
Meroë
would eventually meet defeat by the new rising Kingdom of Aksum
Kingdom of Aksum
to their south under King Ezana. The classification of the Meroitic language
Meroitic language
is uncertain; it was long assumed to have been one of the Afroasiatic
Afroasiatic
languages like the Egyptian language, but is now considered to have likely been one of the Eastern Sudanic languages. At some point during the 4th century, the region was conquered by the Noba, from which the name Nubia
Nubia
may derive; another possibility is that it comes from the Egyptian word for gold.[44] From then on, the Romans referred to the area as Nobatia. Christian Nubia[edit] Main articles: Makuria, Nobadia, and Alodia

A church mural depicting an elaborate cross, Faras
Faras
(12th century).

Around AD 350, the area was invaded by the Kingdom of Aksum
Kingdom of Aksum
and the Meroitic kingdom collapsed. Eventually, three smaller Christian kingdoms replaced it: northernmost was Nobatia
Nobatia
between the first and second cataract of the Nile
Nile
River, with its capital at Pachoras (modern-day Faras); in the middle was Makuria, with its capital at Old Dongola; and southernmost was Alodia, with its capital at Soba (near Khartoum). King Silky of Nobatia
Nobatia
crushed the Blemmyes, and recorded his victory in a Greek inscription carved in the wall of the temple of Talmis (modern Kalabsha) around AD 500.

Marble portrait of a Nubia
Nubia
denizen ca. 120-100 BC

While bishop Athanasius of Alexandria
Athanasius of Alexandria
consecrated one Marcus as bishop of Philae
Philae
before his death in 373, showing that Christianity
Christianity
had penetrated the region by the 4th century, John of Ephesus records that a Monophysite
Monophysite
priest named Julian converted the king and his nobles of Nobatia
Nobatia
around 545. John of Ephesus also writes that the kingdom of Alodia
Alodia
was converted around 569. However, John of Biclarum records that the kingdom of Makuria
Makuria
was converted to Catholicism
Catholicism
the same year, suggesting that John of Ephesus might be mistaken. Further doubt is cast on John's testimony by an entry in the chronicle of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria
Alexandria
Eutychius, which states that in 719 the church of Nubia
Nubia
transferred its allegiance from the Greek to the Coptic Orthodox Church.

Nubians from the early 19th century.

By the 7th century, Makuria
Makuria
expanded becoming the dominant power in the region. It was strong enough to halt the southern expansion of Islam
Islam
after the Arabs
Arabs
had taken Egypt. After several failed invasions the new rulers agreed to a treaty with Dongola, called Baqt, allowing for peaceful coexistence and trade. This treaty held for six hundred years. Over time the influx of Arab traders introduced Islam
Islam
to Nubia and it gradually supplanted Christianity. While there are records of a bishop at Qasr Ibrim
Qasr Ibrim
in 1372, his see had come to include that located at Faras. It is also clear that the cathedral of Dongola had been converted to a mosque in 1317.[45] The influx of Arabs
Arabs
and Nubians to Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
had contributed to the suppression of the Nubian identity following the collapse of the last Nubian kingdom around 1504. A vast majority of the Nubian population is currently Muslim, and the Arabic language is their main medium of communication in addition to their indigenous old Nubian language. The unique characteristic of Nubian is shown in their culture (dress, dances, traditions, and music). Islamic Nubia[edit] Main article: Islamization
Islamization
of Sudan In the 14th century, the Dongolan government collapsed and the region became divided and dominated by Arabs. The next centuries would see several Arab invasions of the region, as well as the establishment of a number of smaller kingdoms. Northern Nubia
Nubia
was brought under Egyptian control, while the south came under the control of the Kingdom of Sennar
Kingdom of Sennar
in the 16th century. The entire region would come under Egyptian control during the rule of Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century, and later became a joint Anglo-Egyptian condominium. Further information: Egyptian invasion of Sudan
Sudan
1820-24 § Invasion of Nubia Contemporary issues[edit] Further information: Nubian people With the end of colonialism and the establishment of the Republic of Egypt
Egypt
(1953), and the secession of the Republic of Sudan
Sudan
from unity with Egypt
Egypt
(1956), Nubia
Nubia
was divided between Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan. During the early-1970s, many Egyptian and Sudanese Nubians were forcibly resettled to make room for Lake Nasser
Lake Nasser
after the construction of the dams at Aswan. Nubian villages can now be found north of Aswan on the west bank of the Nile
Nile
and on Elephantine Island; and many Nubians now live in large cities, such as Cairo. See also[edit]

Aida Northeast Africa Nubia
Nubia
(Mesolithic) / Nile
Nile
boat Nubian Archaeological Expeditions Nubian architecture Nubian Desert Nubian languages Nubiology Pyramids of Nubia

Notes[edit]

^ a b Bechaus-Gerst, Marianne; Blench, Roger (2014). Kevin MacDonald, ed. The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Ethnography - "Linguistic evidence for the prehistory of livestock in Sudan" (2000). Routledge. p. 453. ISBN 1135434166. Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ a b Behrens, Peter (1986). Libya Antiqua: Report and Papers of the Symposium Organized by Unesco in Paris, 16 to 18 January 1984 - "Language and migrations of the early Saharan cattle herders: the formation of the Berber branch". Unesco. p. 30. ISBN 9231023764. Retrieved 14 September 2014.  ^ a b Emberling, Geoff (2011). Nubia: Ancient
Ancient
Kingdoms of Africa. New York: Institute for the study of the ancient world. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-615-48102-9.  ^ "Studies of Ancient
Ancient
Crania From Northern Africa".  – S.O.Y. Keita, American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1990) ^ "Dr. Stuart Tyson Smith". ucsb.edu.  ^ PlanetQuest: The History of Astronomy
Astronomy
– Retrieved on 2007-08-29 ^ Late Neolithic
Neolithic
megalithic structures at Nabta Playa
Nabta Playa
– by Fred Wendorf (1998) ^ Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert, eds. (2002). A Dictionary of Archaeology. Wiley. p. 433. ISBN 978-0-631-23583-5.  ^ Hunting for the Elusive Nubian A-Group
Nubian A-Group
People – by Maria Gatto, archaeology.org ^ "Further Studies of Crania From Ancient
Ancient
Northern Africa: An Analysis of Crania From First Dynasty Egyptian Tombs, using Multiple Discriminant Functions".  – American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 87: 245–254 (1992) ^ "Hierarchy and heterarchy - the earliest cross-cultural trade along the Nile". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-08.  ^ Emberling, Geoff (1999). Early Dynastic Egypt. London: Routledge. p. 165. ISBN 0-415-18633-1.  ^ Roy, Jane (February 2011). The Politics of Trade: Egypt
Egypt
and Lower Nubia
Nubia
in the 4th Millennium BC. Brill. p. 215. ISBN 9789004196117. Retrieved 16 June 2015.  ^ Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert, eds. (2002). A Dictionary of Archaeology. Wiley. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-631-23583-5.  ^ Török, László (2008). Between Two Worlds:The Frontier Region between Ancient
Ancient
Nubia
Nubia
and Egypt
Egypt
3700 BC - 500AD. Brill. pp. 53–54. ISBN 9789004171978.  ^ "The C-Group people in Lower Nubia, 2500 - 1500 BC. Cattle pastoralists in a multicultural setting". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-08.  ^ "Between Kush and Egypt: The C-Group people of Lower Nubia during the Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-08.  ^ a b Elmar Edel: Zu den Inschriften auf den Jahreszeitenreliefs der "Weltkammer" aus dem Sonnenheiligtum des Niuserre, Teil 2. In: Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Nr. 5. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1964, p. 118–119. ^ a b Christian Leitz et al.: Lexikon der ägyptischen Götter und Götterbezeichnungen, Bd. 6: H̱-s. Peeters, Leuven 2002, ISBN 90-429-1151-4, p. 697. ^ Barbara Watterson, The Egyptians. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 50–117 ^ Erman & Grapow, Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, 2, 186.1-2 ^ Gardiner, op.cit., p. 76* ^ Bard, op.cit., p.486 ^ a b Wilkinson, op.cit., p. 147 ^ Shaw, op.cit., p.201 ^ Steindorff & Seele, op.cit., p. 28 ^ F. J. Yurco, "The ancient Egyptians..", Biblical Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5, 1989) ^ Bianchi, 2004, Daily Life of the Nubians. p. 99–100 ^ "The Kingdom of Kush: An African Centre on the Periphery of the Bronze Age World System". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-08.  ^ Tomb Reveals Ancient
Ancient
Egypt's Humiliating Secret The Times (London, 2003) ^ "Elkab's hidden treasure". Al-Ahram. Archived from the original on 2009-02-15.  ^ James G. Cusick (5 March 2015). Studies in Culture Contact: Interaction, Culture Change, and Archaeology. SIU Press. pp. 269–. ISBN 978-0-8093-3409-4. ^ Richard Bulliet; Pamela Crossley; Daniel Headrick (1 January 2010). The Earth
Earth
and Its Peoples. Cengage Learning. pp. 66–. ISBN 0-538-74438-3. ^ Anne Burton (1973). Diodorus Siculus, Book
Book
1: A Commentary. BRILL. pp. 129–. ISBN 90-04-03514-1. ^ James R. Akerman; Robert W. Karrow (2007). Maps: Finding Our Place in the World. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-01075-5. ^ " Ancient
Ancient
Sudan~ Nubia: History: The Kushite Conquest of Egypt". ancientsudan.org.  ^ Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 219–221. ISBN 1-55652-072-7.  ^ Bonnet, Charles (2006). The Nubian Pharaohs. New York: The American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. pp. 142–154. ISBN 978-977-416-010-3.  ^ Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa. California, USA: University of California Press. pp. 161–163. ISBN 0-520-06697-9.  ^ Emberling, Geoff (2011). Nubia: Ancient
Ancient
Kingdoms of Africa. New York: Institute for the Study of the Ancient
Ancient
World. pp. 9–11. ISBN 978-0-615-48102-9.  ^ Silverman, David (1997). Ancient
Ancient
Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 36–37. ISBN 0-19-521270-3.  ^ Meroë: writing – digitalegypt ^ Nubian Queens in the Nile
Nile
Valley and Afro-Asiatic Cultural History – Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, Professor of Anthropology, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston U.S.A, August 20–26, 1998 ^ "Nubia". Catholic Encyclopedia.  ^ Hassan, Arabs, 125.

Further reading[edit]

Adam, William Y. (1977): Nubia: Corridor to Africa, London. "Black Pharaohs", National Geographic, Feb 2008 Bulliet et al. (2001): Nubia, The Earth
Earth
and Its Peoples, pp. 70–71, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Drower M. (1970): Nubia
Nubia
A Drowning Land, London: Longmans. Emberling, Geoff (2011): Nubia: Ancient
Ancient
Kingdoms of Africa. New York: Institute for the Study of the Ancient
Ancient
World. Fisher, Marjorie, et al. (2012): Ancient
Ancient
Nubia: African Kingdoms on the Nile. The American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. Hassan, Yusuf Fadl (1973): The Arabs
Arabs
and the Sudan, Khartoum. Jennings, Anne (1995) The Nubians of West Aswan: Village Women in the Midst of Change, Lynne Reinner Publishers. Thelwall, Robin (1978): "Lexicostatistical relations between Nubian, Daju and Dinka", Études nubiennes: colloque de Chantilly, 2–6 juillet 1975, 265–286. Thelwall, Robin (1982) 'Linguistic Aspects of Greater Nubian History', in Ehret, C. & Posnansky, M. (eds.) The Archeological and Linguistic Reconstruction of African History. Berkeley/Los Angeles, 39–56. Török, László (1997): The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. Brill Academic Publishers. Valbelle, Dominique, and Bonnet, Charles (2006): The Nubian Pharaohs. New York: The American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nubia.

African Kingdoms Ancient
Ancient
Sudan
Sudan
Website Racism and the Rediscovery of Ancient
Ancient
Nubia Medieval Sai Project "Journey to Ethiopia, Eastern Sudan, and Nigritia" was written by Pierre Trémaux
Pierre Trémaux
in 1862-63. It features extensive descriptions and drawings of Nubia. 1960s Nubia
Nubia
Scrapbook

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248963570 GND: 4042734-1 SELIBR: 155387

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  Bo

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