Arabic : السودان as-Sūdān, English
pronunciation (US) /suˈdæn/ ( listen ), (GB) /suːˈdɑːn/ ),
also known as NORTH SUDAN since
South Sudan 's independence and
officially the REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN (
Arabic : جمهورية
السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in
Africa . It is bordered by
Egypt to the north, the
Red Sea ,
Eritrea , and
Ethiopia to the east,
South Sudan to the south, the
Central African Republic
Central African Republic to the southwest,
Chad to the west and Libya
to the northwest. It is the third largest country in Africa. The River
Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves. Before the
Sudanese Civil War ,
South Sudan was part of Sudan, but it became
independent in 2011. Its predominant religion is
What is now northern
Sudan was in ancient times the Kingdom of Nubia,
which came under Egyptian rule after 2600 BC. An Egyptian and Nubian
civilization called Kush flourished until 350 AD. Missionaries
converted the region to
Christianity in the 6th century, but an influx
Muslim Arabs , who had already conquered
Egypt , eventually
controlled the area and replaced
Islam . During the
1500s a people called the
Funj conquered much of Sudan, and several
other black African groups settled in the south, including the
Shilluk , Nuer , and
Egyptians again conquered
Sudan in 1874,
and after Britain occupied
Egypt in 1882, it took over
Sudan in 1898,
ruling the country in conjunction with Egypt. It was known as the
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan between 1898 and 1955.
The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism, and in 1953
Egypt and Britain granted
Sudan self-government. Independence was
proclaimed on January 1, 1956. Since independence,
Sudan has been
ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military
Gaafar Nimeiri ,
Sudan instituted fundamentalist
Islamic law in 1983. This exacerbated the rift between the
the seat of the government, and the black African animists and
Christians in the south . Differences in language, religion,
ethnicity, and political power erupted in an unending civil war
between government forces, strongly influenced by the National Islamic
Front (NIF) and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction is
Sudan People\'s Liberation Army (SPLA). Human rights violations,
religious persecution, and allegations that
Sudan had been a safe
haven for terrorists isolated the country from most of the
international community. In 1995, the UN imposed sanctions against it.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Prehistoric
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush (1070 BC – AD 350)
* 2.4 Turkiyah and
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956)
* 2.6 Independence (1956–)
* 2.7 1990s–2000s
* 2.8 Partition and rehabilitation
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 3.2 Environmental issues
* 4 Government and politics
* 4.2 Foreign relations
* 4.3 Armed Forces
* 4.4 International organizations in
* 4.5 Human rights
* 4.6 Disputed areas and zones of conflict
* 4.7 Administrative divisions
* 4.8 Regional bodies and areas of conflict
* 5 Economy
* 6 Demographics
* 6.1 Ethnic groups
* 6.3 Urban areas
* 6.4 Religion
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Music
* 7.2 Sport
* 7.3 Clothing
* 7.4 Media
* 8 Education
* 9 Health care
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 13 Bibliography
* 14 External links
The country's place name
Sudan is a name given to a geographical
region to the south of the
Sahara , stretching from Western
eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the
as-sūdān (بلاد السودان), or "the lands of the Blacks ".
History of Sudan
The large mud brick temple, known as the shrek or Western
Deffufa, in the ancient city of
Kerma Fortress of the Middle
Kingdom, reconstructed under the New Kingdom(about 1200 B.C.)
Nubian pyramids in
Meroë . The ruins of
Old Dongola .
Faras Cathedral, 10th–11th century
By the eighth millennium BC, people of a
Neolithic culture had
settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick
villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the
grain gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC
migrations from the drying
Sahara brought neolithic people into the
Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from
this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the
next centuries become the
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush (with the capital at Kerma)
at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that
during the predynastic period
Nubia and Nagadan Upper
ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously
evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.
KINGDOM OF KUSH (1070 BC – AD 350)
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush Archaeological Sites of the
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the
confluences of the Blue
Nile and White
Nile , and the Atbarah River
Nile River . It was established after the
Bronze Age collapse
and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of
Egypt , centered at
Napata in its early phase.
After King Kashta ("the Kushite") invaded
Egypt in the eighth century
BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of
Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the
Assyrians . At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an
empire that stretched from what is now known as
South Kordofan all the
way to the Sinai. Pharaoh
Piye attempted to expand the empire into the
Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king
Sargon II . The
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the
Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the
besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city.
Wide view of
Nubian pyramids in
The war that took place between Pharaoh
Taharqa and the Assyrian king
Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians
being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East
by Assyria. Sennacherib's successor
Esarhaddon went further, and
Egypt itself, deposing
Taharqa and driving the Nubians from
Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two
Egypt became an Assyrian colony; however, king Tantamani
, after succeeding Taharqa, made a final determined attempt to regain
Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital
Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal
(668 – c. 627 BC) sent a large army into southern
Egypt and routed
Tantamani, ending all hopes of a revival of the Nubian Empire.
During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at
Meroë . In
ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as
term also used earlier by the Assyrians when encountering the
Nubians). The civilization of Kush was among the first in the world to
use iron smelting technology. The Nubian kingdom at
until the fourth century AD. After the collapse of the Kushite empire
several states emerged in its former territories, among them Nubia.
CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM
By the 6th century, three states had emerged as the political and
cultural heirs of the Meroitic Kingdom.
Nobatia in the north, also
known as Ballanah, had its capital at
Faras ; the central kingdom,
Makuria ), was centred at Tungul (
Old Dongola ), about 13
kilometres (8 miles) south of modern
Dongola ; and Alawa (
Alodia ), in
the heartland of old Meroë, which had its capital at Soba (now a
suburb of modern-day Khartoum). In all three kingdoms, warrior
aristocracies ruled Meroitic populations from royal courts where
functionaries bore Greek titles in emulation of the Byzantine court .
A missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in
Christianity about 540 AD. The Nubian kings became
Monophysite Christians . However,
Makuria was a
Nobatia and Alodia.
After many attempts at military conquest failed, the
Egypt concluded the first in a series of regularly renewed treaties
known as al-baqṭ (pactum) with the Nubians that governed relations
between the two peoples for more than 678 years.
Islam progressed in
the area over a long period of time through intermarriage and contacts
Sufi ascetics and settlers. Additionally,
exemption from taxation in regions under Muslim rule were also a
powerful incentive for conversion. In 1093, a Muslim prince of Nubian
royal blood ascended the throne of
Dunqulah as king. The two most
Arab tribes to emerge in
Nubia were the Ja\'alin and the
Juhaynah . Today's northern Sudanese culture often combines Nubian and
During the 16th century, the
Funj people under Amara Dunqus, appeared
Nubia and supplanted the remnants of the old Christian
Alodia , establishing as-Saltana az-Zarqa (the Blue
Sultanate), also called
Sennar . The Blue Sultanate eventually became
the keystone of the
Funj Empire. By the mid-16th century, Sennar
controlled Al Jazirah and commanded the allegiance of vassal states
and tribal districts north to the Third Cataract and south to the
rainforests. The government was substantially weakened by a series of
succession arguments and coups within the royal family. In 1820,
Muhammad Ali of
Egypt sent 4000 troops to invade Sudan. His forces
accepted Sennar's surrender from the last
Funj sultan ,
Badi VII .
TURKIYAH AND MAHDIST SUDAN
History of Sudan (1821–85) ,
Mahdist Sudan , and
Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896–1899 Ismail Pasha, the
Sudan from 1863 to 1879. Muhammad
Ahmad ruler of Sudan, 1881–1885. The Flight of the Khalifa
after his Defeat at the
Battle of Omdurman
Battle of Omdurman .
In 1821, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt, Muhammad Ali, had invaded and
conquered northern Sudan. Although technically the Vali of
Ottoman Empire , Muhammad Ali styled himself as
Khedive of a
virtually independent Egypt. Seeking to add
Sudan to his domains, he
sent his third son Ismail (not to be confused with Isma\'il Pasha
mentioned later) to conquer the country, and subsequently incorporate
it into Egypt. This policy was expanded and intensified by Ibrahim
Pasha 's son, Isma'il, under whose reign most of the remainder of
Sudan was conquered.
The Egyptian authorities made significant improvements to the
Sudanese infrastructure (mainly in the north), especially with regard
to irrigation and cotton production. In 1879, the
Great Powers forced
the removal of Ismail and established his son
Tewfik Pasha in his
place. Tewfik's corruption and mismanagement resulted in the ‘Urabi
Revolt , which threatened the Khedive's survival. Tewfik appealed for
help to the British , who subsequently occupied
Egypt in 1882. Sudan
was left in the hands of the Khedivial government, and the
mismanagement and corruption of its officials.
During the Khedivial period, wide spread dissent had spread due to
harsh taxation's imposed on most activities. Taxation on irrigation
wells and farming lands were so high most farmers abandoned their
farms and livestock. During the 1870s, European initiatives against
the slave trade had an adverse impact on the economy of northern
Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces.
Muhammad Ahmad ibn
Abd Allah , the
Mahdi (Guided One), offered to the ansars (his
followers) and those who surrendered to him a choice between adopting
Islam or being killed. The Mahdiyah (Mahdist regime) imposed
Sharia Islamic laws .
From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until the fall of
Khartoum in January 1885,
Muhammad Ahmad led a successful military
campaign against the Turco-Egyptian government of the Sudan, known as
the Turkiyah .
Muhammad Ahmad died on 22 June 1885, a mere six months
after the conquest of Khartoum. After a power struggle amongst his
Abdallahi ibn Muhammad , with the help primarily of the
Baggara of western Sudan, overcame the opposition of the others and
emerged as unchallenged leader of the Mahdiyah. After consolidating
Abdallahi ibn Muhammad assumed the title of Khalifa
(successor) of the Mahdi, instituted an administration, and appointed
Ansar (who were usually Baqqara) as emirs over each of the several
Regional relations remained tense throughout much of the Mahdiyah
period, largely because of the Khalifa's brutal methods to extend his
rule throughout the country. In 1887, a 60,000-man Ansar army invaded
Ethiopia , penetrating as far as
Gondar . In March 1889, king Yohannes
Ethiopia marched on
Metemma ; however, after Yohannes fell in
battle, the Ethiopian forces withdrew. Abd ar Rahman an Nujumi, the
Khalifa's general, attempted an invasion of
Egypt in 1889, but
British-led Egyptian troops defeated the Ansar at Tushkah. The failure
of the Egyptian invasion broke the spell of the Ansar's invincibility.
The Belgians prevented the Mahdi's men from conquering
Equatoria , and
in 1893, the Italians repelled an Ansar attack at
Agordat (in Eritrea
) and forced the Ansar to withdraw from Ethiopia.
In the 1890s, the British sought to re-establish their control over
Sudan, once more officially in the name of the Egyptian Khedive, but
in actuality treating the country as a British colony. By the early
1890s, British, French and Belgian claims had converged at the Nile
headwaters. Britain feared that the other powers would take advantage
of Sudan's instability to acquire territory previously annexed to
Egypt. Apart from these political considerations, Britain wanted to
establish control over the
Nile to safeguard a planned irrigation dam
Herbert Kitchener led military campaigns against the
Mahdist Sudan from 1896 to 1898. Kitchener's campaigns culminated in a
decisive victory in the
Battle of Omdurman
Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898.
ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN (1899–1956)
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan The
Mahdist War was fought
between a group of Muslim dervishes, called Mahdists , who had
over-run much of Sudan, and the British forces.
In 1899, Britain and
Egypt reached an agreement under which
run by a governor-general appointed by
Egypt with British consent. In
Sudan was effectively administered as a
Crown colony . The
British were keen to reverse the process, started under Muhammad Ali
Pasha , of uniting the
Nile Valley under Egyptian leadership, and
sought to frustrate all efforts aimed at further uniting the two
Under the Delimitation, Sudan's border with Abyssinia was contested
by raiding tribesmen trading slaves, breaching boundaries of law. In
1905 Local chieftain
Sultan Yambio reluctant to the end gave up the
struggle with British forces that had occupied the
finally ending the lawlessness. The continued British administration
Sudan fuelled an increasingly strident nationalist backlash, with
Egyptian nationalist leaders determined to force Britain to recognise
a single independent union of
Egypt and Sudan. With a formal end to
Ottoman rule in 1914, Sir Reginald Wingate was sent that December to
Sudan as the new Military Governor. Hussein Kamel was declared
Sudan , as was his brother and successor, Fuad I .
They continued upon their insistence of a single Egyptian-Sudanese
state even when the Sultanate of
Egypt was retitled as the Kingdom of
Sudan , but it was Sa\'d Zaghlul who continued to be
frustrated in the ambitions until his death in 1927. A camel
soldier of the native forces of the British army, early 20th century.
From 1924 until independence in 1956, the British had a policy of
Sudan as two essentially separate territories, the north and
south. The assassination of a Governor-General of
Khartoum in Cairo
was the causative factor; it brought demands of the newly elected Wafd
government from colonial forces. A permanent establishment of two
Khartoum was renamed the
Sudan Defence Force acting as
under the government, replacing the former garrison of Egyptian army
soldiers, saw action afterwards during the Wal Wal Incident . The
Wafdist parliamentary majority had rejected Sarwat Pasha's
accommodation plan with Austen Chamberlain in London; yet Cairo still
needed the money. The
Sudan Government's revenue had reached a peak in
1928 at £6.6 million, thereafter the
Wafdist disruptions, and Italian
borders incursions from Somaliland,
London decided to reduce
expenditure during the Great Depression. Cotton and Gum exports were
dwarfed by the necessity to import almost everything from Britain
leading to a balance of payments deficit at Khartoum.
In July 1936 the Liberal Constitutional leader, Muhammed Mahmoud was
persuaded to bring Wafd delegates to
London to sign the Anglo-Egyptian
Treaty, "the beginning of a new stage in Anglo-Egyptian relations",
Anthony Eden . The British Army was allowed to return to the
Sudan to protect the Canal Zone. They were able to find training
facilities; and the RAF was free to fly over Egyptian territory. It
did not however resolve the problem of Sudan: the Sudanese
Intelligentsia agitated for a return to metropolitan rule, conspiring
with Germany's agents.
Mussolini made it clear that he could not invade Abyssinia without
Egypt and the Sudan; they intended unification of
Libya with Italian East Africa. The British Imperial General Staff
prepared for a military defence of the region, which was lamentably
thin on the ground. The British ambassador blocked Italian attempts
to secure a Non-Aggression Treaty with Egypt-Sudan. But Mahmoud was a
supporter of the Mufti of Jerusalem; the region was caught between the
Empire's efforts to save the Jews, and moderate
Arab calls to halt
The Sudanese Government was directly involved militarily in the East
African Campaign . Formed in 1925, the
Sudan Defence Force played an
active part in responding to incursions early in World War Two.
Italian troops occupied
Kassala and other border areas from Italian
Somaliland during 1940. In 1942, the SDF also played a part in the
invasion of the Italian colony by British and Commonwealth forces. The
last British governor-general was
Robert George Howe .
Egyptian revolution of 1952 finally heralded the beginning of the
march towards Sudanese independence. Having abolished the monarchy in
1953, Egypt's new leaders,
Muhammad Naguib , whose mother was
Sudanese, and later
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser , believed the only way to end
British domination in
Sudan was for
Egypt to officially abandon its
claims of sovereignty. In addition Nasser knew it would be difficult
Egypt to govern an impoverished
Sudan after its independence. The
British on the other hand continued their political and financial
support for the Mahdist successor, Abd al-Rahman al-
Mahdi , whom it
was believed would resist Egyptian pressure for Sudanese independence.
Rahman was capable of this, but his regime was plagued by political
ineptitude, which garnered a colossal loss of support in northern and
central Sudan. Both
Egypt and Britain sensed a great instability
fomenting, and thus opted to allow both Sudanese regions, north and
south to have a free vote on whether they wished independence or a
History of Sudan (1956–1969) , History of Sudan
(1969–85) , and
History of Sudan (1986–present)
This section IS MISSING INFORMATION ABOUT THE HISTORY OF SUDAN
BETWEEN 1956 AND 1969 AND BETWEEN 1977 AND 1989. Please expand the
section to include this information. Further details may exist on the
talk page . (January 2016)
Sudan's flag raised at independence ceremony on 1 January 1956
by the Prime Minister
Ismail al-Azhari and in presence of opposition
leader Mohamed Ahmed Almahjoub
A polling process was carried out resulting in composition of a
democratic parliament and
Ismail al-Azhari was elected first Prime
Minister and led the first modern Sudanese government. On 1 January
1956, in a special ceremony held at the People's Palace, the Egyptian
and British flags were lowered and the new Sudanese flag, composed of
green, blue and yellow stripes, was raised in their place by the prime
Ismail al-Azhari .
Dissatisfaction culminated in a second coup d\'état on 25 May 1969.
The coup leader, Col.
Gaafar Nimeiry , became prime minister, and the
new regime abolished parliament and outlawed all political parties.
Marxist and non-
Marxist elements within the ruling
military coalition resulted in a briefly successful coup in July 1971
, led by the
Sudanese Communist Party
Sudanese Communist Party . Several days later,
anti-communist military elements restored Nimeiry to power. In 1972,
the Addis Ababa Agreement led to a cessation of the north-south civil
war and a degree of self-rule. This led to ten years hiatus in the
civil war but less happily an end to American investment in the
Jonglei Canal project. This had been considered absolutely essential
to irrigate the Upper
Nile region and to prevent an environmental
catastrophe; and wide-scale famine among the local tribes, most
especially the Dinka. In the civil war that followed their homeland
was raided looted, pillaged and burned. Many of the tribe were
murdered in a bloody civil war that raged for over 20 years.
Until the early 1970s, Sudan's agricultural output was mostly
dedicated to internal consumption. In 1972, the Sudanese government
became more pro-Western, and made plans to export food and cash crops
. However, commodity prices declined throughout the 1970s causing
economic problems for Sudan. At the same time, debt servicing costs,
from the money spent mechanizing agriculture, rose. In 1978, the IMF
Structural Adjustment Program with the government. This
further promoted the mechanized export agriculture sector. This caused
great hardship for the pastoralists of
Nuba Peoples ). In
1976, the Ansars had mounted a bloody but unsuccessful coup attempt.
But in July 1977, President Nimeiry met with Ansar leader Sadiq
Mahdi , opening the way for a possible reconciliation. Hundreds of
political prisoners were released, and in August a general amnesty was
announced for all oppositionists.
On 30 June 1989, Colonel
Omar al-Bashir led a bloodless military coup
. The new military government suspended political parties and
introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level. Later
al-Bashir carried out purges and executions in the upper ranks of the
army, the banning of associations, political parties, and independent
newspapers, and the imprisonment of leading political figures and
journalists. On 16 October 1993, al-Bashir appointed himself
"President " and disbanded the Revolutionary Command Council. The
executive and legislative powers of the council were taken by
In the 1996 general election he was the only candidate by law to run
Sudan became a one-party state under the National
Congress Party (NCP). During the 1990s,
Hassan al-Turabi , then
Speaker of the National Assembly, reached out to Islamic
fundamentalist groups, invited
Osama bin Laden to the country. The
United States subsequently listed
Sudan as a state sponsor of
terrorism . The U.S. bombed
Sudan in 1998 , targeting the Al-Shifa
pharmaceutical factory . Al-Turabi's influence began to wane, others
in favour of more pragmatic leadership tried to change Sudan's
international isolation . The country worked to appease its critics
by expelling members of the
Egyptian Islamic Jihad and encouraging bin
Laden to leave. Government
Before the 2000 presidential election , al-Turabi introduced a bill
to reduce the President's powers, prompting al-Bashir to order a
dissolution and declare a state of emergency . When al-Turabi urged a
boycott of the President's re-election campaign signing agreement with
Sudan People\'s Liberation Army , al-Bashir suspected they were
plotting to overthrow the government.
Hassan al-Turabi was jailed
later the same year.
In February 2003, the
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) groups in
Darfur took up arms,
accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing non-
Arab Sudanese in
Sudanese Arabs , precipitating the
War in Darfur . The
conflict has since been described as a genocide , and the
International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague has issued two arrest
warrants for al-Bashir. Arabic-speaking nomadic militias known as
Janjaweed stand accused of many atrocities.
On 9 January 2005, the government signed the Nairobi Comprehensive
Peace Agreement with the
Sudan People\'s Liberation Movement (SPLM)
with the objective of ending the
Second Sudanese Civil War . The
United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established under the UN
Security Council Resolution 1590 to support its implementation. The
peace agreement was a prerequisite to the 2011 referendum : the result
was a unanimous vote in favour of secession of
South Sudan ; the
Abyei will hold its own referendum at a future date.
South Sudanese independence referendum, 2011
Sudan People\'s Liberation Army (SPLA) was the primary member of
the Eastern Front , a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern
Sudan. After the peace agreement, their place was taken in February
2004 after the merger of the larger Hausa and
Beja Congress with the
Rashaida Free Lions . A peace agreement between the Sudanese
government and the Eastern Front was signed on 14 October 2006, in
Asmara. On 5 May 2006, the
Darfur Peace Agreement was signed, aiming
at ending the three-year-long conflict. The Chad–
(2005–2007) had erupted after the
Battle of Adré triggered a
declaration of war by Chad. The leaders of
Chad signed an
Saudi Arabia on 3 May 2007 to stop fighting from the
Darfur conflict spilling along their countries' 1,000-kilometre (600
In July 2007 the country was hit by devastating floods , with over
400,000 people being directly affected. Since 2009, a series of
ongoing conflicts between rival nomadic tribes in
Sudan and South
Sudan have caused a large number of civilian casualties.
PARTITION AND REHABILITATION
Sudan internal conflict in the early 2010s between the Army of
Sudan and the
Sudan Revolutionary Front started as a dispute over the
oil-rich region of
Abyei in the months leading up to South Sudanese
independence, though it is also related to civil war in
Darfur that is
On January 13, 2017,
President Barack Obama
President Barack Obama signed an Executive Order
that lifted many sanctions placed against
Sudan and assets of its
government held abroad.
Geography of Sudan A map of Sudan. The Hala\'ib
Triangle has been under Egyptian administration since 2000. A
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification map of Sudan.
Sudan is situated in northern Africa, with a 853 km (530 mi)
coastline bordering the
Red Sea . It has land borders with
South Sudan , the
Central African Republic
Central African Republic , Chad
Libya . With an area of 1,886,068 km2 (728,215 sq mi), it is the
third largest country on the continent (after
Algeria and Democratic
Republic of the Congo ) and the sixteenth largest in the world.
Sudan lies between latitudes 8° and 23°N . The terrain is generally
flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges. In the west the Deriba
Caldera (3,042 m or 9,980 ft), located in the
Marrah Mountains , is
the highest point in Sudan. In the east are the
Red Sea Hills.
The Blue and White
Nile rivers meet in
Khartoum to form the River
Nile , which flows northwards through
Egypt to the
Mediterranean Sea .
The Blue Nile's course through
Sudan is nearly 800 km (497 mi) long
and is joined by the Dinder and Rahad Rivers between
Khartoum . The White
Sudan has no significant tributaries.
There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles. Among them are
Sennar and Roseires Dams on the Blue Nile, and the Jebel Aulia Dam
on the White Nile. There is also Lake
Nubia on the Sudanese-Egyptian
Rich mineral resources are available in
Sudan including asbestos ,
chromite , cobalt , copper , gold , granite , gypsum , iron , kaolin ,
lead , manganese , mica , natural gas , nickel , petroleum , silver ,
tin , uranium and zinc .
The amount of rainfall increases towards the south. The central and
the northern part have extremely dry desert areas such as the Nubian
Desert to the northeast and the
Bayuda Desert to the east; in the
south there are swamps and rainforest. Sudan's rainy season lasts for
about three months (July to September) in the north, and up to six
months (June to November) in the south.
The dry regions are plagued by sandstorms , known as haboob , which
can completely block out the sun. In the northern and western
semi-desert areas, people rely on the scant rainfall for basic
agriculture and many are nomadic , travelling with their herds of
sheep and camels . Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated
farms growing cash crops . The sunshine duration is very high all
over the country but especially in deserts where it could soar to over
4,000 h per year.
Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan. There is also concern
over soil erosion . Agricultural expansion, both public and private,
has proceeded without conservation measures. The consequences have
manifested themselves in the form of deforestation , soil desiccation,
and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table .
The nation's wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001,
twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as
well as two species of plants. Endangered species include: the
waldrapp , northern white rhinoceros , tora hartebeest ,
slender-horned gazelle , and hawksbill turtle . The
Sahara oryx has
become extinct in the wild.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Politics of Sudan The military situation in Sudan
as of 21 February 2016. Under control of the Sudanese Government and
Allies Under control of the
Sudan Revolutionary Front and allies
Under control of the Sudanese Awakening Revolutionary Council
Officially, the politics of
Sudan takes place in the framework of a
federal presidential representative democratic republic , where the
Sudan is head of state , head of government and
commander-in-chief of the
Sudan People\'s Armed Forces in a
multi-party system . Legislative power is vested in both the
government and the bicameral parliament —the National Legislature ,
with its National Assembly (lower chamber) and the Council of States
(upper chamber). The judiciary is independent and obtained by the
Constitutional Court . It is part of the Northern
Africa grouping of
the UN geoscheme . JEM rebels in Darfur. Both the government and
the rebels have been accused of atrocities.
Executive posts are divided between the NCP, the SPLA, the Sudanese
Eastern Front and factions of the Umma Party and Democratic Unionist
According to the new 2005 constitution, the bicameral National
Legislature is the official Sudanese parliament and is divided between
two chambers—the National Assembly, a lower house with 450 seats,
and the Council of States, an upper house with 50 seats. Thus the
parliament consists of 500 appointed members altogether, where all are
indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms.
Despite his international arrest warrant, al-Bashir was a candidate in
the 2010 Sudanese presidential election , the first democratic
election with multiple political parties participating in twenty-four
years. In the build-up to the vote, Sudanese pro-democracy activists
say they faced intimidation by the government and the International
Crisis Group reported that the ruling party had gerrymandered
electoral districts. A few days before the vote, the main opposition
candidate, Yasir Arman from the SPLM, withdrew from the race. The
Carter Center , which helped monitor the elections,
described the vote tabulation process as "highly chaotic,
non-transparent and vulnerable to electoral manipulation." Al-Bashir
was declared the winner of the election with sixty-eight percent of
The legal system in
Sudan is based on Islamic
Sharia law . The 2005
Naivasha Agreement , ending the civil war between north and south
Sudan, established some protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum.
Sudan's application of
Sharia law is geographically inconsistent.
Stoning remains a judicial punishment in Sudan. Between 2009 and
2012, several women were sentenced to death by stoning.
a legal punishment. Between 2009 and 2014, many people were sentenced
to 40–100 lashes. In August 2014, several Sudanese men died in
custody after being flogged. 53 Christians were flogged in 2001.
Sudan's public order law allows police officers to publicly whip women
who are accused of public indecency.
Crucifixion is a legal punishment. In 2002, 88 people were sentenced
to death for crimes relating to murder, armed robbery, and
participating in ethnic clashes,
Amnesty International wrote that they
could be executed by either hanging or crucifixion.
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice jurisdiction is accepted, though with
reservations. Under the terms of the Naivasha Agreement, Islamic law
did not apply in South Sudan. Since the secession of South Sudan
there is some uncertainty as to whether
Sharia law will now apply to
the non-Muslim minorities present in Sudan, especially because of
contradictory statements by al-Bashir on the matter.
The judicial branch of the Sudanese government consists of a
Constitutional Court of nine justices, the National Supreme Court, the
Court of Cassation, and other national courts; the National Judicial
Service Commission provides overall management for the judiciary.
Foreign relations of Sudan Bashir and U.S. Deputy
Secretary of State
Robert Zoellick , 2005
Sudan has had a troubled relationship with many of its neighbours and
much of the international community, owing to what is viewed as its
radical Islamic stance. For much of the 1990s,
Ethiopia formed an ad-hoc alliance called the "Front Line States" with
support from the
United States to check the influence of the National
Islamic Front government. The Sudanese Government supported
anti-Ugandan rebel groups such as the Lord\'s Resistance Army (LRA).
National Islamic Front regime in
Khartoum gradually emerged as
a real threat to the region and the world, the U.S. began to list
Sudan on its list of
State Sponsors of Terrorism . After the US listed
Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism, the NIF decided to develop
Iraq , and later
Iran , the two most controversial
countries in the region.
From the mid-1990s,
Sudan gradually began to moderate its positions
as a result of increased U.S. pressure following the 1998 U.S. embassy
bombings , in
Kenya , and the new development of oil
fields previously in rebel hands.
Sudan also has a territorial dispute
Egypt over the Hala\'ib Triangle . Since 2003, the foreign
Sudan had centered on the support for ending the Second
Sudanese Civil War and condemnation of government support for militias
in the war in
Sudan has extensive economic relations with China. China obtains ten
percent of its oil from Sudan. According to a former Sudanese
government minister, China is Sudan's largest supplier of arms.
In December 2005,
Sudan became one of the few states to recognize
Moroccan sovereignty over Western
Sudan participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in
Yemen against the Shia
Houthis and forces loyal to former President
Ali Abdullah Saleh , who was deposed in the 2011 uprising.
Sudan People\'s Armed Forces
Sudan People's Armed Forces is the regular forces of
Sudan and is
divided into five branches: the Sudanese Army, Sudanese Navy
(including the Marine Corps),
Sudanese Air Force , Border Patrol and
the Internal Affairs Defense Force, totalling about 200,000 troops.
The military of
Sudan has become a well-equipped fighting force,
thanks to increasing local production of heavy and advanced arms.
These forces are under the command of the National Assembly and its
strategic principles include defending Sudan's external borders and
preserving internal security.
Darfur crisis in 2004, safe-keeping the central government
from the armed resistance and rebellion of paramilitary rebel groups
such as the
Sudan People\'s Liberation Army (SPLA), the Sudanese
Liberation Army (SLA) and the
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) have
been important priorities. While not official, the Sudanese military
also uses nomad militias, the most prominent being the
Janjaweed , in
executing a counter-insurgency war. Somewhere between 200,000 and
400,000 people have died in the violent struggles.
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN SUDAN
Several UN agents are operating in
Sudan such as the World Food
WFP ); the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United
FAO ); the United Nations Development Program (
UNDP ); the
United Nations Industrial Development Organizations (
UNIDO ); the
United Nations Children Fund (
UNICEF ); the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR ); the United Nations Mine Service
(UNMAS), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the
World Bank . Also present is the
International Organization for Migration (IOM).
Sudan has experienced civil war for many years, many
Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are also involved in
humanitarian efforts to help internally displaced people. The NGOs are
working in every corner of Sudan, especially in the southern part and
western parts. During the civil war, international nongovernmental
organizations such as the Red Cross were operating mostly in the south
but based in the capital Khartoum. The attention of NGOs shifted
shortly after the war broke out in the western part of
Sudan known as
Darfur. The most visible organization in
South Sudan is the Operation
Sudan (OLS) consortium.
Even though most of the international organizations are substantially
concentrated in both
South Sudan and
Darfur region, some of them are
working in the northern part as well. For example, the United Nations
Industrial Development Organization is successfully operating in
Khartoum , the capital. It is mainly funded by the European Union and
recently opened more vocational training. The Canadian International
Development Agency is operating largely in northern Sudan.
Human rights in Sudan ,
Freedom of religion in Sudan ,
Slavery in Sudan
Since 1983, a combination of civil war and famine has taken the lives
of nearly 2 million people in Sudan. It is estimated that as many as
200,000 people had been taken into slavery during the Second Sudanese
Civil War .
Sudan ranks 172 of 180 countries in terms of freedom of the press
Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders , yet more curbs of press
freedom to report official corruption are planned.
Muslims who convert to
Christianity can face the death penalty for
Persecution of Christians in Sudan and the death
Mariam Yahia Ibrahim Ishag (who actually was raised
as Christian). According to a 2013
UNICEF report, 88% of women in
Sudan had undergone female genital mutilation . Sudan's Personal
Status law on marriage has been criticized for restricting women\'s
rights and allowing child marriage . Evidence suggests that support
for female genital mutilation remains high, especially among rural and
less well educated groups, although it has been declining in recent
years. Homosexuality is illegal and is a capital offense in Sudan.
Darfur refugee camp in
Chad , 2005
A letter dated 14 August 2006, from the executive director of Human
Rights Watch found that the Sudanese government is both incapable of
protecting its own citizens in
Darfur and unwilling to do so, and that
its militias are guilty of crimes against humanity . The letter added
that these human-rights abuses have existed since 2004. Some reports
attribute part of the violations to the rebels as well as the
government and the
Janjaweed . The U.S. State Department's
human-rights report issued in March 2007 claims that "ll parties to
the conflagration committed serious abuses, including widespread
killing of civilians, rape as a tool of war, systematic torture ,
robbery and recruitment of child soldiers."
Over 2.8 million civilians have been displaced and the death toll is
estimated at 300,000 killed. Both government forces and militias
allied with the government are known to attack not only civilians in
Darfur, but also humanitarian workers. Sympathizers of rebel groups
are arbitrarily detained, as are foreign journalists, human-rights
defenders , student activists and displaced people in and around
Khartoum, some of whom face torture. The rebel groups have also been
accused in a report issued by the U.S. government of attacking
humanitarian workers and of killing innocent civilians. According to
UNICEF, in 2008, there were as many as 6,000 child soldiers in Darfur.
DISPUTED AREAS AND ZONES OF CONFLICT
* In mid-April 2012, the South Sudanese army captured the
field from Sudan.
* In mid-April 2012 the Sudanese army recaptured Heglig.
Kafia Kingi and
Radom National Park was a part of Bahr el Ghazal
Sudan has recognized
South Sudan independence according to
the borders for 1 January 1956.
Abyei Area is disputed region between
South Sudan .
It is currently under
* The states of
South Kurdufan and Blue
Nile are to hold "popular
consultations" to determine their constitutional future within the
* The Hala\'ib triangle is disputed region between
It is currently under Egyptian administration.
Bir Tawil is a terra nullius occurring on the border between Egypt
and Sudan, claimed by neither state.
States of Sudan , List of Sudan\'s state governors ,
Districts of Sudan
Sudan is divided into 18 states (wilayat , sing. wilayah ). They are
further divided into 133 districts . Central and northern
Darfur Eastern Front
South Kurdufan and
* Al Jazirah
* Al Qadarif
REGIONAL BODIES AND AREAS OF CONFLICT
In addition to the states, there also exist regional administrative
bodies established by peace agreements between the central government
and rebel groups.
Darfur Regional Authority was established by the
Agreement to act as a co-ordinating body for the states that make up
the region of
Eastern Sudan States Coordinating Council was established by
Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement between the Sudanese Government and
the rebel Eastern Front to act as a coordinating body for the three
Abyei Area , located on the border between
South Sudan and the
Republic of the Sudan, currently has a special administrative status
and is governed by an
Abyei Area Administration . It was due to hold a
referendum in 2011 on whether to join an independent
South Sudan or
remain part of the
Republic of the Sudan.
Economy of Sudan See also:
Communications in Sudan and
Transport in Sudan Oil and gas concessions in
Sudan – 2004
Sudan was considered the 17th-fastest-growing economy in
the world and the rapid development of the country largely from oil
profits even when facing international sanctions was noted by The New
York Times in a 2006 article. Because of the secession of South Sudan
, which contained over 80 percent of Sudan's oilfields,
a phase of stagflation , GDP growth slowed to 3.4 percent in 2014, 3.1
percent in 2015 and is projected to recover slowly to 3.7 percent in
2016 while inflation remained as high as 21.8% as of 2015 .
Even with the oil profits before the secession of South Sudan, Sudan
still faced formidable economic problems, and its growth was still a
rise from a very low level of per capita output. The economy of Sudan
has been steadily growing over the 2000s, and according to a World
Bank report the overall growth in GDP in 2010 was 5.2 percent compared
to 2009 growth of 4.2 percent. This growth was sustained even during
the war in
Darfur and period of southern autonomy preceding South
Sudan's independence. Oil was Sudan's main export, with production
increasing dramatically during the late 2000s, in the years before
South Sudan gained independence in July 2011. With rising oil
revenues, the Sudanese economy was booming, with a growth rate of
about nine percent in 2007. The independence of oil-rich
South Sudan ,
however, placed most major oilfields out of the Sudanese government's
direct control and oil production in
Sudan fell from around 450,000
barrels per day (72,000 m3/d) to under 60,000 barrels per day (9,500
m3/d). Production has since recovered to hover around 250,000 barrels
per day (40,000 m3/d) for 2014–15.
In order to export oil,
South Sudan relies on a pipeline to Port
Sudan on Sudan's
Red Sea coast, as
South Sudan is a landlocked country
, as well as the oil refining facilities in Sudan. In August 2012,
South Sudan agreed a deal to transport South Sudanese oil
through Sudanese pipelines to Port Sudan.
Republic of China is one of Sudan's major trading
partners, China owns a 40 percent share in the Greater
Operating Company . The country also sells
Sudan small arms, which
have been used in military operations such as the conflicts in Darfur
South Kordofan .
While historically agriculture remains the main source of income and
employment hiring of over 80 percent of Sudanese, and makes up a third
of the economic sector, oil production drove most of Sudan's post-2000
growth. Currently, the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund IMF is working hand
in hand with
Khartoum government to implement sound macroeconomic
policies. This follows a turbulent period in the 1980s when
debt-ridden Sudan's relations with the IMF and
World Bank soured,
culminating in its eventual suspension from the IMF. The program has
been in place since the early 1990s, and also work-out exchange rate
and reserve of foreign exchange. Since 1997,
Sudan has been
implementing the macroeconomic reforms recommended by the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund .
Agricultural production remains Sudan's most-important sector,
employing 80 percent of the workforce and contributing 39 percent of
GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought .
Instability, adverse weather and weak world-agricultural prices
ensures that much of the population will remain at or below the
poverty line for years.
Merowe Dam , also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or
Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in Northern Sudan, about
350 kilometres (220 mi) north of the capital, Khartoum. It is situated
on the River Nile, close to the Fourth Cataract where the river
divides into multiple smaller branches with large islands in between.
Merowe is a city about 40 kilometres (25 mi) downstream from the dam's
The main purpose of the dam will be the generation of electricity.
Its dimensions make it the largest contemporary hydropower project in
Africa. The construction of the dam was finished December 2008,
supplying more than 90 percent of the population with electricity.
Other gas-powered generating stations are operational in Khartoum
State and other States.
According to the Corruptions Perception Index,
Sudan is one of the
most corrupt nations in the world. According to the Global Hunger
Index of 2013,
Sudan has an GHI indicator value of 27.0 indicating
that the nation has an 'Alarming Hunger Situation' and earning the
nation the distinction of being the 5th hungriest nation in the world.
According to the 2015
Human Development Index
Human Development Index (HDI)
Sudan ranked the
167st place in Human Development, indicating
Sudan still has one of
the lowest human development in the world. Almost one-fifth of
Sudan's population lives below the international poverty line which
means living on less than US$1.25 per day.
Demographics of Sudan Student from
In Sudan's 2008 census , the population of Northern, Western and
Sudan was recorded to be over 30 million. This puts present
estimates of the population of
Sudan after the secession of South
Sudan at a little over 30 million people. This is a significant
increase over the past two decades as the 1983 census put the total
population of Sudan, including present-day South Sudan, at 21.6
million. The population of Greater
Omdurman , and
Khartoum North ) is growing rapidly and was recorded to
be 5.2 million.
Despite being a refugee-generating country,
Sudan also hosts a
refugee population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008,
published by the
U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants , 310,500
refugees and asylum seekers lived in
Sudan in 2007. The majority of
this population came from
Eritrea (240,400 people),
Ethiopia (49,300) and the
Central African Republic
Central African Republic (2,500). The
UN High Commissioner for Refugees in 2007 forcibly
deported at least 1,500 refugees and asylum seekers during the year.
Sudan is a party to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of
Arab of Al-
Arab presence is estimated at 70% of the Sudanese population.
Others include the Arabized ethnic groups of Nubians , Zaghawa , and
Sudan has 597 groups that speak over 400 different languages and
Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in
Sudan. They are almost entirely Muslims; while the majority speak
Arabic , some other
Arab tribes speak different Arabic
Awadia and Fadnia tribes and Bani Arak tribes who speak
Arabic ; and Rufa\'a ,
Bani Hassan ,
Rashaida who speak Hejazi
Arabic . In addition, the Western province
comprises various ethnic groups, while a few
Bedouin of the
Rizeigat and others who speak Sudanese
Arabic share the same
culture and backgrounds of the Sudanese Arabs.
The majority of Arabized and indigenous tribes like the Fur , Zaghawa
, Borgo , Masalit and some
Baggara ethnic groups, who speak Chadian
Arabic , show less cultural integration because of cultural,
linguistic and genealogical variations with other
Arab and Arabized
Sudanese Arabs of Northern and Eastern parts descend primarily from
migrants from the
Arabian Peninsula and intermarriages with the
pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, especially the Nubian
people , who also share a common history with
Egypt . Additionally, a
few pre-Islamic Arabian tribes existed in
Sudan from earlier
migrations into the region from Western Arabia, although most Arabs in
Sudan are dated from migrations after the 12th century.
The vast majority of
Arab tribes in
Sudan migrated into the
the 12th century, intermarried with the indigenous Nubian and other
African populations and introduced Islam.
In common with much of the rest of the
Arab world , the gradual
Sudan following these Arabian migrations
after the 12th century led to the predominance of the
and aspects of
Arab culture , leading to the shift among a majority of
Sudanese today to an
Arab ethnic identity. This process was furthered
both by the spread of
Islam and an emigration to
Sudan of ethnic Arabs
from the Arabian Peninsula, and their intermarriage with the Arabized
indigenous peoples of the country.
Sudan consists of numerous other non-
Arabic groups, such as the
Masalit , Zaghawa ,
Fulani , Northern Nubians ,
Nuba , and the Beja
Languages of Sudan The Arabic-speaking Rashaida
Arabia about 170 years ago.
Approximately 70 languages are native to Sudan.
Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the country. It
is the variety of
Arabic , an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic
branch spoken throughout Sudan. The dialect has borrowed much
vocabulary from local
Nilo-Saharan languages (Nobiin , Fur , Zaghawa ,
Mabang ). This has resulted in a variety of
Arabic that is unique to
Sudan, reflecting the way in which the country has been influenced by
Nilotic, Arab, and western cultures. Few nomads in
Sudan still have
similar accents to the ones in
Saudi Arabia . Other important
languages include Beja (AKA Bedawi) along the
Red Sea , with perhaps 2
million speakers. It is the only language from the Afroasiatic
family's Cushitic branch that is today spoken in the territory.
As with South Sudan, a number of
Nilo-Saharan languages are also
spoken in Sudan. Fur speakers inhabit the west (
Darfur ), with perhaps
a million speakers. There are likewise various
Nubian languages , with
over 6 million speakers along the
Nile in the north. The most
linguistically diverse region in the country is the
Nuba Hills area in
Kordofan, inhabited by speakers of multiple language families, with
Darfur and other border regions being second.
The Niger-Congo family is represented by many of the Kordofanian
languages , and Indo-European by Domari (Gypsy) and English.
Old Nubian , Greek , and Coptic were the languages of
Nubia , while Meroitic was the language of the Kingdom of
Kush , which conquered Egypt.
Sudan also has multiple regional sign languages, which are not
mutually intelligible . A 2009 proposal for a unified Sudanese Sign
Language had been worked out, but was not widely known.
Prior to 2005,
Arabic was the nation's sole official language . In
the 2005 constitution, Sudan's official languages became
List of cities in Sudan
Largest cities or towns in Sudan
Religion in Sudan
RELIGION IN SUDAN
African Traditional Religion
At the 2011 division which split off South Sudan, over 97% of the
population in the remaining
Sudan adheres to
Islam . Most Muslims are
divided between two groups:
Salafi (Ansar Al Sunnah) Muslims.
Two popular divisions of Sufism, the Ansar and the Khatmia, are
associated with the opposition Umma and Democratic Unionist parties,
respectively. Only the
Darfur region has traditionally been bereft of
Sufi brotherhoods common in the rest of the country.
Significant, long-established groups of Coptic Orthodox and Greek
Orthodox Christians exist in
Khartoum and other northern cities.
Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox communities also exist in
eastern Sudan, largely made up of refugees and migrants from the past
few decades. The largest groups affiliated with Western Christian
Roman Catholic and Anglican . Other Christian groups
with smaller followings in the country include the
Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church , the
Sudan Church of Christ,
Sudan Interior Church , Jehovah\'s Witnesses , the Sudan
Pentecostal Church, the
Sudan Evangelical Presbyterian Church (in the
Religious identity plays a role in the country's political divisions.
Northern and western Muslims have dominated the country's political
and economic system since independence. The NCP draws much of its
Wahhabis and other conservative Arab
Muslims in the north. The Umma Party has traditionally attracted Arab
followers of the Ansar sect of
Sufism as well as non-
Arab Muslims from
Darfur and Kordofan. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) includes both
Arab and non-
Arab Muslims in the north and east, especially those in
Music of Sudan ,
List of Sudanese writers , and
List of Sudanese singers
Sudanese culture melds the behaviors, practices, and beliefs of about
578 ethnic groups, communicating in 145 different languages , in a
region microcosmic of
Africa , with geographic extremes varying from
sandy desert to tropical forest . Recent evidence suggests that while
most citizens of the country identify strongly with both
Arab and African supranational identities are much
more polarising and contested.
Music of Sudan A
Sufi dervish drums up the Friday
afternoon crowd in
Sudan has a rich and unique musical culture that has been through
chronic instability and repression during the modern history of Sudan.
Beginning with the imposition of strict
Salafi interpretation of
sharia law in 1989, many of the country's most prominent poets, like
Mahjoub Sharif , were imprisoned while others, like Mohammed el Amin
Sudan in the mid-1990s) and
Mohammed Wardi (returned to
Sudan 2003), fled to Cairo.
Traditional music suffered too, with
Zār ceremonies being interrupted and drums confiscated .
At the same time European militaries contributed to the development of
Sudanese music by introducing new instruments and styles; military
bands, especially the Scottish bagpipes , were renowned, and set
traditional music to military march music. The march March Shulkawi No
1, is an example, set to the sounds of the Shilluk . In northern Sudan
different music from the rest of Sudan, is used as a type of music
called (ALDLAYIB) used a musical instrument called (TAMBUR) are
industry manually and has five strings and is made from wood and made
wonderful music accompanied by the voices of human applause and
singing artists give a perfect blend gives the area Northern State
The most popular sports in
Sudan are athletics (track and field ) and
football . Though not as successful as football, basketball , handball
, and volleyball are also popular in Sudan. In the 1960s and 1970s,
the national basketball team finished among the continent's top teams.
Nowadays, it is only a minor force.
Sudanese football has a long history.
Sudan was one of the four
African nations – the others being Egypt,
Ethiopia and South Africa
– which formed African football.
Sudan hosted the first African Cup
of Nations in 1956, and has won the African Cup Of Nations once, in
1970. Two years later, the
Sudan National Football Team participated
in the 1972 Olympic Games in
Munich . The nation\'s capital is home to
Khartoum League, which is considered to be the oldest football
league in Africa.
Sudanese football teams such as Al-Hilal and
El-Merreikh are among
the nation's strongest teams. Other teams like Khartoum, El-Neel,
Al-Nidal El-Nahud and Hay-Al
Arab , are also starting to grow in
Most individual Sudanese wear either traditional or western attire. A
traditional garb widely worn in
Sudan is the jalabiya , which is a
loose-fitting, long-sleeved, collarless ankle-length garment also
Egypt . The jalabiya is accompanied by a large scarf worn by
women, and the garment may be white, colored, striped, and made of
fabric varying in thickness, depending on the season of the year and
A similar garment common to
Sudan is the thobe or thawb , pronounced
tobe in Sudanese dialect. The thobe is a long one piece cloth that
women wrap around their inner garments. The word "thawb" means
"garment" in Arabic, and the thawb itself is the traditional Arab
dress for men.
Media of Sudan
Sudanese tourists by the
Meroë pyramids in various types of
Sudanese women in
Herders at the camel market on the far west side of
Education in Sudan
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it .
Education in Sudan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13
years. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three
years of secondary education. The former educational ladder 6 + 3 + 3
was changed in 1990. The primary language at all levels is Arabic.
Schools are concentrated in urban areas; many in the West have been
damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. In 2001 the World Bank
estimated that primary enrollment was 46 percent of eligible pupils
and 21 percent of secondary students. Enrollment varies widely,
falling below 20 percent in some provinces.
Sudan has 19 universities;
instruction is primarily in Arabic. Education at the secondary and
university levels has been seriously hampered by the requirement that
most males perform military service before completing their education.
The literacy rate is 70.2% of total population, male: 79.6%, female:
Khartoum University established in 1902
Health care in Sudan
List of heads of government of Sudan
Outline of Sudan
Lost Boys of Sudan
Society for the Study of the Sudans UK
Sudan Studies Association
* ^ A B "2005 constitution in English" (PDF). Archived from the
original (PDF) on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
* ^ Rayah, Mubarak B. (1978).
Sudan civilization. Democratic
Republic of the Sudan, Ministry of Culture and Information. p. 64.
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* ^ "Discontent over
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* ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
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* ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary
(18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532
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Intelligence Agency. ISSN 1553-8133 . Retrieved 10 July 2011.
* ^ Collins, Robert O. (2008). A History of Modern Sudan. Cambridge
University Press . ISBN 978-0-521-85820-5 .
* ^ Davison, Roderic H. (1960). "Where is the Middle East?".
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* ^ HistoryWorld - The History of Sudan
* ^ Ancient
Sudan - Nubia: Prehistory of the Sudan
* ^ Ancient
Sudan - Nubia: Pre-Kerma
sometimes it has been called the central and western Sudan, the Bilad
as-Sūdan, 'Land of the Blacks', of the Arabs
* ^ "
Sudan A Country Study". Countrystudies.us.
* ^ Roux, Georges (1992). Ancient Iraq. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN
* ^ Metz, Helen C. (1991). Sudan: a Country Study. Washington: GPO
for the Library of Congress. pp. "The Coming of Islam".
* ^ Churchill, Winston (1902). "The Rebellion of the Mahdi". The
* ^ Rudolf Carl Freiherr von Slatin; Sir Francis Reginald Wingate
(1896). Fire and Sword in the Sudan. E. Arnold. Retrieved 26 June
* ^ Domke, D. Michelle (November 1997). "ICE Case Studies; Case
Number: 3; Case Identifier: Sudan; Case Name: Civil War in the Sudan:
Resources or Religion?".
Inventory of Conflict and Environment (via
School of International Service
School of International Service at the
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