Sudan (/suːˈdæn, -ˈdɑːn/ ( listen);
Arabic: السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North
South Sudan's independence and officially the
Republic of the
Sudan (Arabic: جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat
as-Sūdān), is a country in Northern Africa. It is bordered by Egypt
to the north, the Red Sea,
Ethiopia to the east, South
Sudan to the south, the
Central African Republic
Central African Republic to the southwest,
Chad to the west and
Libya to the northwest. It is the third largest
Africa covering 1,886,068 square kilometres
(728,215 sq mi). The
White Nile flows through the country,
emptying into Lake
Nubia in the north, the largest manmade lake in the
world. The River
Nile divides the country into eastern and western
halves. Before the Sudanese Civil War,
South Sudan was part of Sudan,
but it became independent in 2011.
What is now northern
Sudan was in ancient times the Kingdom of Nubia,
which came under Egyptian rule after 2600 B.C. Nubian civilization
called Kush flourished until 350 AD. Missionaries
converted the region to
Christianity in the 6th century, but an influx
of Muslim Arabs, who had already conquered, eventually controlled the
area and replaced
Christianity with Islam. During the 1500s, a people
Funj conquered much of
Sudan and several other black
African groups settled in the south, including the Dinka, Shilluk,
Nuer and Azande. Egyptians again conquered
Sudan in 1874, and after
Egypt in 1882, it took over
Sudan in 1898, ruling the
country in conjunction with Egypt. It was known as the Anglo-Egyptian
Sudan between 1898 and 1955.
The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953
Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on
January 1, 1956. Since independence,
Sudan has been ruled by a series
of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under
Sudan instituted fundamentalist
Islamic law in
1983. This exacerbated the rift between the
Arab north, the seat
of the government and the black African animists and Christians in the
south. Differences in language, religion, ethnicity and political
power erupted in an unending civil war between government forces,
strongly influenced by the
National Islamic Front (NIF) and the
southern rebels, whose most influential faction is the
Liberation Army (SPLA). Human rights violations, religious persecution
and allegations that
Sudan had been a safe haven for terrorists
isolated the country from most of the international community. In
United Nations (UN) imposed sanctions against it.
2.1 Prehistoric Sudan
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush (1070 BC – AD 350)
Christianity and Islam
2.4 Turkiyah and Mahdist Sudan
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956)
2.6 Independence (1956–present)
2.8 Partition and rehabilitation
3.2 Environmental issues
4 Government and politics
4.2 Foreign relations
4.3 Armed Forces
4.4 International organizations in Sudan
4.5 Human rights
4.6 Disputed areas and zones of conflict
4.7 Administrative divisions
4.8 Regional bodies and areas of conflict
6.1 Ethnic groups
6.3 Urban areas
9 Health care
10 See also
14 External links
The country's place name
Sudan is a name given to a geographical
region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western
eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the
as-sūdān (بلاد السودان), or "the lands of the
Blacks". The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar
etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar
meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants.
Main article: History of Sudan
The large mud brick temple, known as the shrek or Western Deffufa, in
the ancient city of Kerma
Fortress of the Middle Kingdom, reconstructed under the New Kingdom
(about 1200 B.C.)
Nubian pyramids in Meroë.
The ruins of Old Dongola.
Faras Cathedral, 10th–11th century
By the eighth millennium BC, people of a
Neolithic culture had settled
into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages,
where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the
Nile with grain
gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC,
migrations from the drying
Sahara brought neolithic people into the
Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from
this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the
next centuries become the
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush (with the capital at Kerma)
at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that
during the predynastic period
Nubia and Nagadan Upper
ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously
evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush (1070 BC – AD 350)
Main article: Kingdom of Kush
Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe.
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the
confluences of the Blue
Nile and White Nile, and the
Atbarah River and
Nile River. It was established after the
Bronze Age collapse and
the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in
its early phase.
After King Kashta ("the Kushite") invaded
Egypt in the eighth century
BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of
Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the
Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an
empire that stretched from what is now known as
South Kordofan all the
way to the Sinai. Pharaoh
Piye attempted to expand the empire into the
Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. The
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the
Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the
besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the
Wide view of
Nubian pyramids in Meroë
The war that took place between Pharaoh
Taharqa and the Assyrian king
Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians
being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East
by Assyria. Sennacherib's successor
Esarhaddon went further, and
Egypt itself, deposing
Taharqa and driving the Nubians from
Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two
Egypt became an Assyrian colony; however, king Tantamani,
after succeeding Taharqa, made a final determined attempt to regain
Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital
Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal
(668 – c. 627 BC) sent a large army into southern
Egypt and routed
Tantamani, ending all hopes of a revival of the Nubian Empire.
During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë. In
ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as
term also used earlier by the Assyrians when encountering the
Nubians). The civilization of Kush was among the first in the world to
use iron smelting technology. The Nubian kingdom at
until the fourth century AD. After the collapse of the Kushite empire
several states emerged in its former territories, among them Nubia.
Christianity and Islam
By the 6th century, three states had emerged as the political and
cultural heirs of the Meroitic Kingdom.
Nobatia in the north, also
known as Ballanah, had its capital at Faras; the central kingdom,
Muqurra (Makuria), was centred at Tungul (Old Dongola), about 13
kilometres (8 miles) south of modern Dongola; and Alawa (Alodia), in
the heartland of old Meroë, which had its capital at Soba (now a
suburb of modern-day Khartoum). In all three kingdoms, warrior
aristocracies ruled Meroitic populations from royal courts where
functionaries bore Greek titles in emulation of the Byzantine court. A
missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in
Christianity about 540 AD. The Nubian kings became
Monophysite Christians. However,
Makuria was a
Nobatia and Alodia.
After many attempts at military conquest failed, the
Arab commander in
Egypt concluded the first in a series of regularly renewed treaties
known as al-baqṭ (pactum) with the Nubians that governed relations
between the two peoples for more than 678 years.
Islam progressed in
the area over a long period of time through intermarriage and contacts
Sufi ascetics and settlers. Additionally,
exemption from taxation in regions under Muslim rule were also a
powerful incentive for conversion. In 1093, a Muslim prince of
Nubian royal blood ascended the throne of
Dunqulah as king. The two
Arab tribes to emerge in
Nubia were the Ja'alin and the
Juhaynah. Today's northern Sudanese culture often combines Nubian and
During the 16th century, the
Funj people under Amara Dunqus, appeared
Nubia and supplanted the remnants of the old Christian
kingdom of Alodia, establishing as-Saltana az-Zarqa (the Blue
Sultanate), also called Sennar. The Blue Sultanate eventually became
the keystone of the
Funj Empire. By the mid-16th century, Sennar
controlled Al Jazirah and commanded the allegiance of vassal states
and tribal districts north to the Third Cataract and south to the
rainforests. The government was substantially weakened by a series of
succession arguments and coups within the royal family. In 1820,
Muhammad Ali of
Egypt sent 4000 troops to invade Sudan. His forces
accepted Sennar's surrender from the last
Funj sultan, Badi VII.
Turkiyah and Mahdist Sudan
History of Sudan
History of Sudan (1821–1885), Mahdist Sudan, and
Anglo-Egyptian invasion of
Ismail Pasha, the Ottoman
Sudan from 1863 to
Muhammad Ahmad ruler of Sudan, 1881–1885.
The Flight of the Khalifa after his Defeat at the Battle of Omdurman.
In 1821, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt, Muhammad Ali, had invaded and
conquered northern Sudan. Although technically the Vali of
the Ottoman Empire, Muhammad Ali styled himself as
Khedive of a
virtually independent Egypt. Seeking to add
Sudan to his domains, he
sent his third son Ismail (not to be confused with Isma'il Pasha
mentioned later) to conquer the country, and subsequently incorporate
it into Egypt. This policy was expanded and intensified by Ibrahim
Pasha's son, Isma'il, under whose reign most of the remainder of
Sudan was conquered.
The Egyptian authorities made significant improvements to the Sudanese
infrastructure (mainly in the north), especially with regard to
irrigation and cotton production. In 1879, the
Great Powers forced the
removal of Ismail and established his son
Tewfik Pasha in his place.
Tewfik's corruption and mismanagement resulted in the ‘Urabi Revolt,
which threatened the Khedive's survival. Tewfik appealed for help to
the British, who subsequently occupied
Egypt in 1882.
Sudan was left
in the hands of the Khedivial government, and the mismanagement and
corruption of its officials.
During the Khedivial period, wide spread dissent had spread due to
harsh taxation's imposed on most activities. Taxation on irrigation
wells and farming lands were so high most farmers abandoned their
farms and livestock. During the 1870s, European initiatives against
the slave trade had an adverse impact on the economy of northern
Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces. Muhammad Ahmad
ibn Abd Allah, the
Mahdi (Guided One), offered to the ansars (his
followers) and those who surrendered to him a choice between adopting
Islam or being killed. The Mahdiyah (Mahdist regime) imposed
Sharia Islamic laws.
From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until the fall of
Khartoum in January 1885,
Muhammad Ahmad led a successful military
campaign against the Turco-Egyptian government of the Sudan, known as
Muhammad Ahmad died on 22 June 1885, a mere six months
after the conquest of Khartoum. After a power struggle amongst his
deputies, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, with the help primarily of the
Baggara of western Sudan, overcame the opposition of the others and
emerged as unchallenged leader of the Mahdiyah. After consolidating
Abdallahi ibn Muhammad assumed the title of Khalifa
(successor) of the Mahdi, instituted an administration, and appointed
Ansar (who were usually Baqqara) as emirs over each of the several
Regional relations remained tense throughout much of the Mahdiyah
period, largely because of the Khalifa's brutal methods to extend his
rule throughout the country. In 1887, a 60,000-man Ansar army invaded
Ethiopia, penetrating as far as Gondar. In March 1889, king Yohannes
Ethiopia marched on Metemma; however, after Yohannes fell in
battle, the Ethiopian forces withdrew. Abd ar Rahman an Nujumi, the
Khalifa's general, attempted an invasion of
Egypt in 1889, but
British-led Egyptian troops defeated the Ansar at Tushkah. The failure
of the Egyptian invasion broke the spell of the Ansar's invincibility.
The Belgians prevented the Mahdi's men from conquering Equatoria, and
in 1893, the Italians repelled an Ansar attack at
Agordat (in Eritrea)
and forced the Ansar to withdraw from Ethiopia.
In the 1890s, the British sought to re-establish their control over
Sudan, once more officially in the name of the Egyptian Khedive, but
in actuality treating the country as a British colony. By the early
1890s, British, French and Belgian claims had converged at the Nile
headwaters. Britain feared that the other powers would take advantage
of Sudan's instability to acquire territory previously annexed to
Egypt. Apart from these political considerations, Britain wanted to
establish control over the
Nile to safeguard a planned irrigation dam
Herbert Kitchener led military campaigns against the Mahdist
Sudan from 1896 to 1898. Kitchener's campaigns culminated in a
decisive victory in the
Battle of Omdurman
Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898.
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956)
Main article: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Mahdist War was fought between a group of Muslim dervishes, called
Mahdists, who had over-run much of Sudan, and the British forces.
In 1899, Britain and
Egypt reached an agreement under which
run by a governor-general appointed by
Egypt with British consent. In
Sudan was effectively administered as a Crown colony. The
British were keen to reverse the process, started under Muhammad Ali
Pasha, of uniting the
Nile Valley under Egyptian leadership, and
sought to frustrate all efforts aimed at further uniting the two
Under the Delimitation, Sudan's border with Abyssinia was contested by
raiding tribesmen trading slaves, breaching boundaries of law. In 1905
Sultan Yambio reluctant to the end gave up the
struggle with British forces that had occupied the
finally ending the lawlessness. The continued British administration
Sudan fuelled an increasingly strident nationalist backlash, with
Egyptian nationalist leaders determined to force Britain to recognise
a single independent union of
Egypt and Sudan. With a formal end to
Ottoman rule in 1914, Sir Reginald Wingate was sent that December to
Sudan as the new Military Governor. Hussein Kamel was declared
Egypt and Sudan, as was his brother and successor, Fuad I.
They continued upon their insistence of a single Egyptian-Sudanese
state even when the Sultanate of
Egypt was retitled as the Kingdom of
Egypt and Sudan, but it was
Sa'd Zaghlul who continued to be
frustrated in the ambitions until his death in 1927.
A camel soldier of the native forces of the British army, early 20th
From 1924 until independence in 1956, the British had a policy of
Sudan as two essentially separate territories, the north and
south. The assassination of a Governor-General of
Khartoum in Cairo
was the causative factor; it brought demands of the newly elected Wafd
government from colonial forces. A permanent establishment of two
Khartoum was renamed the
Sudan Defence Force
Sudan Defence Force acting as
under the government, replacing the former garrison of Egyptian army
soldiers, saw action afterwards during the Wal Wal Incident. The
Wafdist parliamentary majority had rejected Sarwat Pasha's
accommodation plan with Austen Chamberlain in London; yet Cairo still
needed the money. The
Sudan Government's revenue had reached a peak in
1928 at £6.6 million, thereafter the
Wafdist disruptions, and Italian
borders incursions from Somaliland,
London decided to reduce
expenditure during the Great Depression. Cotton and Gum exports were
dwarfed by the necessity to import almost everything from Britain
leading to a balance of payments deficit at Khartoum.
In July 1936 the Liberal Constitutional leader, Muhammed Mahmoud was
persuaded to bring Wafd delegates to
London to sign the Anglo-Egyptian
Treaty, "the beginning of a new stage in Anglo-Egyptian relations",
wrote Anthony Eden. The British Army was allowed to return to the
Sudan to protect the Canal Zone. They were able to find training
facilities; and the RAF was free to fly over Egyptian territory. It
did not however resolve the problem of Sudan: the Sudanese
Intelligentsia agitated for a return to metropolitan rule, conspiring
with Germany's agents.
Mussolini made it clear that he could not invade Abyssinia without
Egypt and the Sudan; they intended unification of
Libya with Italian East Africa. The British Imperial General Staff
prepared for a military defence of the region, which was lamentably
thin on the ground. The British ambassador blocked Italian
attempts to secure a Non-Aggression Treaty with Egypt-Sudan. But
Mahmoud was a supporter of the Mufti of Jerusalem; the region was
caught between the Empire's efforts to save the Jews, and moderate
Arab calls to halt migration.
The Sudanese Government was directly involved militarily in the East
African Campaign. Formed in 1925, the
Sudan Defence Force
Sudan Defence Force played an
active part in responding to incursions early in World War Two.
Italian troops occupied
Kassala and other border areas from Italian
Somaliland during 1940. In 1942, the SDF also played a part in the
invasion of the Italian colony by British and Commonwealth forces. The
last British governor-general was Robert George Howe.
Egyptian revolution of 1952
Egyptian revolution of 1952 finally heralded the beginning of the
march towards Sudanese independence. Having abolished the monarchy in
1953, Egypt's new leaders, Muhammad Naguib, whose mother was Sudanese,
and later Gamal Abdel Nasser, believed the only way to end British
Sudan was for
Egypt to officially abandon its claims of
sovereignty. In addition Nasser knew it would be difficult for Egypt
to govern an impoverished
Sudan after its independence. The British on
the other hand continued their political and financial support for the
Mahdist successor, Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, whom it was believed would
resist Egyptian pressure for Sudanese independence. Rahman was capable
of this, but his regime was plagued by political ineptitude, which
garnered a colossal loss of support in northern and central Sudan.
Egypt and Britain sensed a great instability fomenting, and thus
opted to allow both Sudanese regions, north and south to have a free
vote on whether they wished independence or a British withdrawal.
History of Sudan
History of Sudan (1956–1969), History of Sudan
History of Sudan
History of Sudan (1986–present)
This section is missing information about the history of
1956 and 1969 and between 1977 and 1989. Please expand the section to
include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page.
Sudan's flag raised at independence ceremony on 1 January 1956 by the
Ismail al-Azhari and in presence of opposition leader
Mohamed Ahmed Almahjoub
A polling process was carried out resulting in composition of a
democratic parliament and
Ismail al-Azhari was elected first Prime
Minister and led the first modern Sudanese government. On 1
January 1956, in a special ceremony held at the People's Palace, the
Egyptian and British flags were lowered and the new Sudanese flag,
composed of green, blue and yellow stripes, was raised in their place
by the prime minister Ismail al-Azhari.
Dissatisfaction culminated in a second coup d'état on 25 May 1969.
The coup leader, Col. Gaafar Nimeiry, became prime minister, and the
new regime abolished parliament and outlawed all political parties.
Marxist and non-
Marxist elements within the ruling
military coalition resulted in a briefly successful coup in July 1971,
led by the Sudanese Communist Party. Several days later,
anti-communist military elements restored Nimeiry to power. In 1972,
the Addis Ababa Agreement led to a cessation of the north-south civil
war and a degree of self-rule. This led to ten years hiatus in the
civil war but less happily an end to American investment in the
Jonglei Canal project. This had been considered absolutely essential
to irrigate the Upper
Nile region and to prevent an environmental
catastrophe; and wide-scale famine among the local tribes, most
especially the Dinka. In the civil war that followed their homeland
was raided looted, pillaged and burned. Many of the tribe were
murdered in a bloody civil war that raged for over 20 years.
Until the early 1970s, Sudan's agricultural output was mostly
dedicated to internal consumption. In 1972, the Sudanese government
became more pro-Western, and made plans to export food and cash crops.
However, commodity prices declined throughout the 1970s causing
economic problems for Sudan. At the same time, debt servicing costs,
from the money spent mechanizing agriculture, rose. In 1978, the IMF
Structural Adjustment Program with the government. This
further promoted the mechanized export agriculture sector. This caused
great hardship for the pastoralists of
Nuba Peoples). In
1976, the Ansars had mounted a bloody but unsuccessful coup attempt.
But in July 1977, President Nimeiry met with Ansar leader Sadiq
al-Mahdi, opening the way for a possible reconciliation. Hundreds of
political prisoners were released, and in August a general amnesty was
announced for all oppositionists.
On 30 June 1989, Colonel
Omar al-Bashir led a bloodless military
coup. The new military government suspended political parties and
introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level. Later
al-Bashir carried out purges and executions in the upper ranks of the
army, the banning of associations, political parties, and independent
newspapers, and the imprisonment of leading political figures and
journalists. On 16 October 1993, al-Bashir appointed himself
"President" and disbanded the Revolutionary Command Council. The
executive and legislative powers of the council were taken by
Sudan before the 2011 independence of South Sudan.
In the 1996 general election al-Bashir was the only candidate by law
to run for election.
Sudan became a one-party state under the
National Congress Party (NCP). During the 1990s, Hassan al-Turabi,
then Speaker of the National Assembly, reached out to Islamic
fundamentalist groups, inviting
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden to the country.
United States subsequently listed
Sudan as a state sponsor of
terrorism. The U.S. bombed
Sudan in 1998, targeting the Al-Shifa
pharmaceutical factory. Al-Turabi's influence began to wane, others in
favour of more pragmatic leadership tried to change Sudan's
international isolation. The country worked to appease its critics
by expelling members of the
Egyptian Islamic Jihad and encouraging bin
Laden to leave.
Militia in Darfur
Before the 2000 presidential election, al-Turabi introduced a bill to
reduce the President's powers, prompting al-Bashir to order a
dissolution and declare a state of emergency. When al-Turabi urged a
boycott of the President's re-election campaign signing agreement with
Sudan People's Liberation Army, al-Bashir suspected they were plotting
to overthrow the government.
Hassan al-Turabi was jailed later the
In February 2003, the
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and
Justice and Equality Movement
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) groups in
Darfur took up arms,
accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing non-
Arab Sudanese in
favor of Sudanese Arabs, precipitating the War in Darfur. The conflict
has since been described as a genocide, and the International
Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague has issued two arrest warrants for
al-Bashir. Arabic-speaking nomadic militias known as the
Janjaweed stand accused of many atrocities.
On 9 January 2005, the government signed the Nairobi Comprehensive
Peace Agreement with the
Sudan People's Liberation Movement
Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM)
with the objective of ending the Second Sudanese Civil War. The United
Nations Mission in
Sudan (UNMIS) was established under the UN Security
Council Resolution 1590 to support its implementation. The peace
agreement was a prerequisite to the 2011 referendum: the result was a
unanimous vote in favour of secession of South Sudan; the region of
Abyei will hold its own referendum at a future date.
South Sudanese independence referendum, 2011
Sudan People's Liberation Army
Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was the primary member of
the Eastern Front, a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern
Sudan. After the peace agreement, their place was taken in February
2004 after the merger of the larger Hausa and
Beja Congress with the
Rashaida Free Lions. A peace agreement between the
Sudanese government and the Eastern Front was signed on 14 October
2006, in Asmara. On 5 May 2006, the
Darfur Peace Agreement was signed,
aiming at ending the three-year-long conflict. The Chad–Sudan
Conflict (2005–2007) had erupted after the
Battle of Adré
Battle of Adré triggered
a declaration of war by Chad. The leaders of
an agreement in
Saudi Arabia on 3 May 2007 to stop fighting from the
Darfur conflict spilling along their countries' 1,000-kilometre
(600 mi) border.
In July 2007 the country was hit by devastating floods, with over
400,000 people being directly affected. Since 2009, a series of
ongoing conflicts between rival nomadic tribes in
Sudan and South
Sudan have caused a large number of civilian casualties.
Partition and rehabilitation
Sudan internal conflict in the early 2010s between the Army of
Sudan and the
Sudan Revolutionary Front
Sudan Revolutionary Front started as a dispute over the
oil-rich region of
Abyei in the months leading up to South Sudanese
independence, though it is also related to civil war in
Darfur that is
On January 13, 2017,
President Barack Obama
President Barack Obama signed an Executive Order
that lifted many sanctions placed against
Sudan and assets of its
government held abroad. On October 6, 2017, President Donald Trump
lifted most of the remaining sanctions against the country and its
petroleum, export-import, and property industries.
Main article: Geography of Sudan
A map of Sudan. The
Hala'ib Triangle has been under Egyptian
administration since 2000.
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification map of Sudan.
Sudan is situated in northern Africa, with a 853 km (530 mi)
coastline bordering the Red Sea. It has land borders with Egypt,
Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, Chad,
and Libya. With an area of 1,886,068 km2
(728,215 sq mi), it is the third largest country on the
Algeria and Democratic
Republic of the Congo) and the
sixteenth largest in the world.
Sudan lies between latitudes 8° and 23°N. The terrain is generally
flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges. In the west the Deriba
Caldera (3,042 m or 9,980 ft), located in the Marrah
Mountains, is the highest point in Sudan. In the east are the Red Sea
The Blue and
White Nile rivers meet in
Khartoum to form the River
Nile, which flows northwards through
Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Blue Nile's course through
Sudan is nearly 800 km
(497 mi) long and is joined by the Dinder and Rahad Rivers
Sennar and Khartoum. The
White Nile within
Sudan has no
There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles. Among them are the
Sennar and Roseires Dams on the Blue Nile, and the
Jebel Aulia Dam on
the White Nile. There is also Lake
Nubia on the Sudanese-Egyptian
Rich mineral resources are available in
Sudan including asbestos,
chromite, cobalt, copper, gold, granite, gypsum, iron, kaolin, lead,
manganese, mica, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, silver, tin, uranium
The amount of rainfall increases towards the south. The central and
the northern part have extremely dry desert areas such as the Nubian
Desert to the northeast and the
Bayuda Desert to the east; in the
south there are swamps and rainforest. Sudan's rainy season lasts for
about three months (July to September) in the north, and up to six
months (June to November) in the south.
The dry regions are plagued by sandstorms, known as haboob, which can
completely block out the sun. In the northern and western semi-desert
areas, people rely on the scant rainfall for basic agriculture and
many are nomadic, travelling with their herds of sheep and camels.
Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated farms growing cash
crops. The sunshine duration is very high all over the country but
especially in deserts where it could soar to over 4,000 h per year.
Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan. There is also
concern over soil erosion. Agricultural expansion, both public and
private, has proceeded without conservation measures. The consequences
have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation, soil
desiccation, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water
The nation's wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001, twenty-one
mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two
species of plants. Endangered species include: the waldrapp, northern
white rhinoceros, tora hartebeest, slender-horned gazelle, and
hawksbill turtle. The
Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild.
Government and politics
Main article: Politics of Sudan
The military situation in
Sudan as of 21 February 2016.
Under control of the Sudanese Government and Allies
Under control of the
Sudan Revolutionary Front
Sudan Revolutionary Front and allies
Under control of the Sudanese Awakening Revolutionary
Officially, the politics of
Sudan takes place in the framework of a
federal presidential representative democratic republic, where the
Sudan is head of state, head of government and
commander-in-chief of the
Sudan People's Armed Forces
Sudan People's Armed Forces in a multi-party
system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the
bicameral parliament—the National Legislature, with its National
Assembly (lower chamber) and the Council of States (upper chamber).
The judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional
Court. It is part of the Northern
Africa grouping of the UN
JEM rebels in Darfur. Both the government and the rebels have been
accused of atrocities.
Executive posts are divided between the NCP, the SPLA, the Sudanese
Eastern Front and factions of the Umma Party and Democratic Unionist
According to the new 2005 constitution, the bicameral National
Legislature is the official Sudanese parliament and is divided between
two chambers—the National Assembly, a lower house with 450 seats,
and the Council of States, an upper house with 50 seats. Thus the
parliament consists of 500 appointed members altogether, where all are
indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms.
Despite his international arrest warrant, al-Bashir was a candidate in
the 2010 Sudanese presidential election, the first democratic election
with multiple political parties participating in twenty-four
years. In the build-up to the vote, Sudanese pro-democracy
activists say they faced intimidation by the government and the
International Crisis Group
International Crisis Group reported that the ruling party had
gerrymandered electoral districts. A few days before the vote, the
main opposition candidate, Yasir Arman from the SPLM, withdrew from
the race. The U.S.-based Carter Center, which helped monitor the
elections, described the vote tabulation process as "highly chaotic,
non-transparent and vulnerable to electoral manipulation."
Al-Bashir was declared the winner of the election with sixty-eight
percent of the vote.
The legal system in
Sudan is based on Islamic
Sharia law. The 2005
Naivasha Agreement, ending the civil war between north and south
Sudan, established some protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum.
Sudan's application of
Sharia law is geographically inconsistent.
Stoning remains a judicial punishment in Sudan. Between 2009 and 2012,
several women were sentenced to death by stoning. Flogging
is a legal punishment. Between 2009 and 2014, many people were
sentenced to 40–100 lashes. In August 2014,
several Sudanese men died in custody after being flogged.
53 Christians were flogged in 2001. Sudan's public order law
allows police officers to publicly whip women who are accused of
Crucifixion is a legal punishment. In 2002, 88 people were sentenced
to death for crimes relating to murder, armed robbery, and
participating in ethnic clashes,
Amnesty International wrote that they
could be executed by either hanging or crucifixion.
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice jurisdiction is accepted, though with
reservations. Under the terms of the Naivasha Agreement, Islamic law
did not apply in South Sudan. Since the secession of South Sudan
there is some uncertainty as to whether
Sharia law will now apply to
the non-Muslim minorities present in Sudan, especially because of
contradictory statements by al-Bashir on the matter.
The judicial branch of the Sudanese government consists of a
Constitutional Court of nine justices, the National Supreme Court, the
Court of Cassation, and other national courts; the National
Judicial Service Commission provides overall management for the
Main article: Foreign relations of Sudan
Bashir and U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick, 2005
Sudan has had a troubled relationship with many of its neighbours and
much of the international community, owing to what is viewed as its
radical Islamic stance. For much of the 1990s, Uganda,
Ethiopia formed an ad-hoc alliance called the "Front Line States" with
support from the
United States to check the influence of the National
Islamic Front government. The Sudanese Government supported
anti-Ugandan rebel groups such as the Lord's Resistance Army
National Islamic Front regime in
Khartoum gradually emerged as
a real threat to the region and the world, the U.S. began to list
Sudan on its list of State Sponsors of Terrorism. After the US listed
Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism, the NIF decided to develop
relations with Iraq, and later Iran, the two most controversial
countries in the region.
From the mid-1990s,
Sudan gradually began to moderate its positions as
a result of increased U.S. pressure following the 1998 U.S. embassy
Tanzania and Kenya, and the new development of oil fields
previously in rebel hands.
Sudan also has a territorial dispute with
Egypt over the Hala'ib Triangle. Since 2003, the foreign relations of
Sudan had centered on the support for ending the Second Sudanese Civil
War and condemnation of government support for militias in the war in
Sudan has extensive economic relations with China. China obtains ten
percent of its oil from Sudan. According to a former Sudanese
government minister, China is Sudan's largest supplier of arms.
In December 2005,
Sudan became one of the few states to recognize
Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara.
Sudan participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in
Yemen against the Shia
Houthis and forces loyal to former President
Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 uprising.
Sudan People's Armed Forces
Sudan People's Armed Forces
Sudan People's Armed Forces is the regular forces of
Sudan and is
divided into five branches: the Sudanese Army, Sudanese Navy
(including the Marine Corps), Sudanese Air Force, Border Patrol and
the Internal Affairs Defense Force, totalling about 200,000 troops.
The military of
Sudan has become a well-equipped fighting force,
thanks to increasing local production of heavy and advanced arms.
These forces are under the command of the National Assembly and its
strategic principles include defending Sudan's external borders and
preserving internal security.
Darfur crisis in 2004, safe-keeping the central government
from the armed resistance and rebellion of paramilitary rebel groups
such as the
Sudan People's Liberation Army
Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), the Sudanese
Liberation Army (SLA) and the
Justice and Equality Movement
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) have
been important priorities. While not official, the Sudanese military
also uses nomad militias, the most prominent being the Janjaweed, in
executing a counter-insurgency war. Somewhere between 200,000
and 400,000 people have died in the violent struggles.
International organizations in Sudan
Several UN agents are operating in
Sudan such as the World Food
Program (WFP); the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nation (FAO); the
United Nations Development Program (UNDP); the
United Nations Industrial Development Organizations (UNIDO); the
United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF); the
United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); the
United Nations Mine Service
United Nations Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the World Bank. Also present is the
International Organization for Migration
International Organization for Migration (IOM).
Sudan has experienced civil war for many years, many
Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are also involved in
humanitarian efforts to help internally displaced people. The NGOs are
working in every corner of Sudan, especially in the southern part and
western parts. During the civil war, international nongovernmental
organizations such as the Red Cross were operating mostly in the south
but based in the capital Khartoum. The attention of NGOs shifted
shortly after the war broke out in the western part of
Sudan known as
Darfur. The most visible organization in
South Sudan is the Operation
Sudan (OLS) consortium.
Even though most of the international organizations are substantially
concentrated in both
South Sudan and
Darfur region, some of them are
working in the northern part as well. For example, the United Nations
Industrial Development Organization is successfully operating in
Khartoum, the capital. It is mainly funded by the European Union and
recently opened more vocational training. The Canadian International
Development Agency is operating largely in northern Sudan.
Main articles: Human rights in Sudan, Freedom of religion in Sudan,
and Slavery in Sudan
Since 1983, a combination of civil war and famine has taken the lives
of nearly 2 million people in Sudan. It is estimated that as many
as 200,000 people had been taken into slavery during the Second
Sudanese Civil War.
Sudan ranks 172 of 180 countries in terms of freedom of the press
according to Reporters Without Borders, yet more curbs of press
freedom to report official corruption are planned.
Muslims who convert to
Christianity can face the death penalty for
Persecution of Christians in Sudan
Persecution of Christians in Sudan and the death
Mariam Yahia Ibrahim Ishag
Mariam Yahia Ibrahim Ishag (who actually was raised
as Christian). According to a 2013
UNICEF report, 88% of women in
Sudan had undergone female genital mutilation. Sudan's Personal
Status law on marriage has been criticized for restricting women's
rights and allowing child marriage. Evidence suggests that
support for female genital mutilation remains high, especially among
rural and less well educated groups, although it has been declining in
recent years. Homosexuality is illegal and is a capital offense
Darfur refugee camp in Chad, 2005
A letter dated 14 August 2006, from the executive director of Human
Rights Watch found that the Sudanese government is both incapable of
protecting its own citizens in
Darfur and unwilling to do so, and that
its militias are guilty of crimes against humanity. The letter added
that these human-rights abuses have existed since 2004. Some
reports attribute part of the violations to the rebels as well as the
government and the Janjaweed. The U.S. State Department's human-rights
report issued in March 2007 claims that "[a]ll parties to the
conflagration committed serious abuses, including widespread killing
of civilians, rape as a tool of war, systematic torture, robbery and
recruitment of child soldiers."
Over 2.8 million civilians have been displaced and the death toll is
estimated at 300,000 killed. Both government forces and militias
allied with the government are known to attack not only civilians in
Darfur, but also humanitarian workers. Sympathizers of rebel groups
are arbitrarily detained, as are foreign journalists, human-rights
defenders, student activists and displaced people in and around
Khartoum, some of whom face torture. The rebel groups have also been
accused in a report issued by the U.S. government of attacking
humanitarian workers and of killing innocent civilians. According
to UNICEF, in 2008, there were as many as 6,000 child soldiers in
Disputed areas and zones of conflict
In mid-April 2012, the South Sudanese army captured the
field from Sudan.
In mid-April 2012 the Sudanese army recaptured Heglig.
Kafia Kingi and
Radom National Park
Radom National Park was a part of Bahr el Ghazal in
Sudan has recognized
South Sudan independence according to
the borders for 1 January 1956.
Abyei Area is disputed region between
Sudan and South Sudan. It is
The states of
South Kurdufan and Blue
Nile are to hold "popular
consultations" to determine their constitutional future within the
Hala'ib triangle is disputed region between
Sudan and Egypt. It is
currently under Egyptian administration.
Bir Tawil is a terra nullius occurring on the border between
Sudan, claimed by neither state.
Main articles: States of Sudan, List of Sudan's state governors, and
Districts of Sudan
Sudan is divided into 18 states (wilayat, sing. wilayah). They are
further divided into 133 districts.
Central and northern states
South Kurdufan and Blue
Regional bodies and areas of conflict
In addition to the states, there also exist regional administrative
bodies established by peace agreements between the central government
and rebel groups.
Darfur Regional Authority was established by the
Agreement to act as a co-ordinating body for the states that make up
the region of Darfur.
Eastern Sudan States Coordinating Council
Eastern Sudan States Coordinating Council was established by the
Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement
Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement between the Sudanese Government and the
rebel Eastern Front to act as a coordinating body for the three
Abyei Area, located on the border between
South Sudan and the
Republic of the Sudan, currently has a special administrative status
and is governed by an
Abyei Area Administration. It was due to hold a
referendum in 2011 on whether to join an independent
South Sudan or
remain part of the
Republic of the Sudan.
Main article: Economy of Sudan
Communications in Sudan
Communications in Sudan and Transport in Sudan
Oil and gas concessions in
Sudan – 2004
Sudan was considered the 17th-fastest-growing economy in
the world and the rapid development of the country largely from oil
profits even when facing international sanctions was noted by The New
York Times in a 2006 article. Because of the secession of South
Sudan, which contained over 80 percent of Sudan's oilfields, Sudan
entered a phase of stagflation, GDP growth slowed to 3.4 percent in
2014, 3.1 percent in 2015 and is projected to recover slowly to 3.7
percent in 2016 while inflation remained as high as 21.8% as of
Even with the oil profits before the secession of South Sudan, Sudan
still faced formidable economic problems, and its growth was still a
rise from a very low level of per capita output. The economy of Sudan
has been steadily growing over the 2000s, and according to a World
Bank report the overall growth in GDP in 2010 was 5.2 percent compared
to 2009 growth of 4.2 percent. This growth was sustained even
during the war in
Darfur and period of southern autonomy preceding
South Sudan's independence. Oil was Sudan's main export,
with production increasing dramatically during the late 2000s, in the
South Sudan gained independence in July 2011. With rising
oil revenues, the Sudanese economy was booming, with a growth rate of
about nine percent in 2007. The independence of oil-rich South Sudan,
however, placed most major oilfields out of the Sudanese government's
direct control and oil production in
Sudan fell from around 450,000
barrels per day (72,000 m3/d) to under 60,000 barrels per day
(9,500 m3/d). Production has since recovered to hover around
250,000 barrels per day (40,000 m3/d) for 2014–15.
In order to export oil,
South Sudan relies on a pipeline to Port Sudan
Red Sea coast, as
South Sudan is a landlocked country, as
well as the oil refining facilities in Sudan. In August 2012, Sudan
South Sudan agreed a deal to transport South Sudanese oil through
Sudanese pipelines to Port Sudan.
Republic of China is one of Sudan's major trading
partners, China owns a 40 percent share in the Greater
Operating Company. The country also sells
Sudan small arms, which
have been used in military operations such as the conflicts in Darfur
and South Kordofan.
While historically agriculture remains the main source of income and
employment hiring of over 80 percent of Sudanese, and makes up a third
of the economic sector, oil production drove most of Sudan's post-2000
growth. Currently, the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund IMF is working hand
in hand with
Khartoum government to implement sound macroeconomic
policies. This follows a turbulent period in the 1980s when
debt-ridden Sudan's relations with the IMF and
World Bank soured,
culminating in its eventual suspension from the
IMF.[page needed] The program has been in place since the
early 1990s, and also work-out exchange rate and reserve of foreign
exchange. Since 1997,
Sudan has been implementing the
macroeconomic reforms recommended by the International Monetary
Agricultural production remains Sudan's most-important sector,
employing 80 percent of the workforce and contributing 39 percent of
GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought.
Instability, adverse weather and weak world-agricultural prices
ensures that much of the population will remain at or below the
poverty line for years.
The Merowe Dam, also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or
Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in Northern Sudan, about
350 kilometres (220 mi) north of the capital, Khartoum. It is
situated on the River Nile, close to the Fourth Cataract where the
river divides into multiple smaller branches with large islands in
between. Merowe is a city about 40 kilometres (25 mi) downstream
from the dam's construction site.
The main purpose of the dam will be the generation of electricity. Its
dimensions make it the largest contemporary hydropower project in
Africa. The construction of the dam was finished December 2008,
supplying more than 90 percent of the population with electricity.
Other gas-powered generating stations are operational in Khartoum
State and other States.
According to the Corruptions Perception Index,
Sudan is one of the
most corrupt nations in the world. According to the Global Hunger
Index of 2013,
Sudan has an GHI indicator value of 27.0 indicating
that the nation has an 'Alarming Hunger Situation' and earning the
nation the distinction of being the 5th hungriest nation in the
world. According to the 2015
Human Development Index
Human Development Index (HDI) Sudan
ranked the 167st place in Human Development, indicating
has one of the lowest human development in the world. Almost
one-fifth of Sudan's population lives below the international poverty
line which means living on less than US$1.25 per day.
Main article: Demographics of Sudan
Student from Khartoum
In Sudan's 2008 census, the population of Northern, Western and
Sudan was recorded to be over 30 million. This puts
present estimates of the population of
Sudan after the secession of
South Sudan at a little over 30 million people. This is a significant
increase over the past two decades as the 1983 census put the total
population of Sudan, including present-day South Sudan, at 21.6
million. The population of Greater
Khartoum (including Khartoum,
Khartoum North) is growing rapidly and was recorded to
be 5.2 million.
Despite being a refugee-generating country,
Sudan also hosts a refugee
population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by
the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, 310,500 refugees and
asylum seekers lived in
Sudan in 2007. The majority of this population
Eritrea (240,400 people),
Central African Republic
Central African Republic (2,500). The Sudanese government
UN High Commissioner for Refugees
UN High Commissioner for Refugees in 2007 forcibly deported at least
1,500 refugees and asylum seekers during the year.
Sudan is a party to
the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.
Arab of Al-Manasir
Arab presence is estimated at 70% of the Sudanese population.
Others include the Arabized ethnic groups of Nubians, Zaghawa, and
Sudan has 597 groups that speak over 400 different languages and
Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in
Sudan. They are almost entirely Muslims; while the majority speak
Sudanese Arabic, some other
Arab tribes speak different Arabic
Awadia and Fadnia tribes and Bani Arak tribes who speak
Najdi Arabic; and Rufa'a, Bani Hassan, Al-Ashraf,
Kinanah and Rashaida
who speak Hejazi Arabic. In addition, the Western province comprises
various ethnic groups, while a few
Bedouin of the northern
Rizeigat and others who speak Sudanese
Arabic share the same culture
and backgrounds of the Sudanese Arabs.
The majority of Arabized and indigenous tribes like the Fur, Zaghawa,
Borgo, Masalit and some
Baggara ethnic groups, who speak Chadian
Arabic, show less cultural integration because of cultural, linguistic
and genealogical variations with other
Arab and Arabized tribes.
Sudanese Arabs of Northern and Eastern parts descend primarily from
migrants from the
Arabian Peninsula and intermarriages with the
pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, especially the Nubian
people, who also share a common history with Egypt. Additionally, a
few pre-Islamic Arabian tribes existed in
Sudan from earlier
migrations into the region from Western Arabia, although most Arabs in
Sudan are dated from migrations after the 12th century.
The vast majority of
Arab tribes in
Sudan migrated into the
the 12th century, intermarried with the indigenous Nubian and other
African populations and introduced Islam.
Sudan consists of numerous other non-
Arabic groups, such as the
Masalit, Zaghawa, Fulani, Northern Nubians, Nuba, and the Beja people.
Languages of Sudan
Rashaida came to
Arabia about 170 years
Approximately 70 languages are native to Sudan.
Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the country. It
is the variety of Arabic, an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic
branch spoken throughout Sudan. The dialect has borrowed much
vocabulary from local
Nilo-Saharan languages (Nobiin, Fur, Zaghawa,
Mabang). This has resulted in a variety of
Arabic that is unique to
Sudan, reflecting the way in which the country has been influenced by
Nilotic, Arab, and western cultures. Few nomads in
Sudan still have
similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia. Other important languages
include Beja (AKA Bedawi) along the Red Sea, with perhaps 2 million
speakers. It is the only language from the Afroasiatic family's
Cushitic branch that is today spoken in the territory.
As with South Sudan, a number of
Nilo-Saharan languages are also
spoken in Sudan. Fur speakers inhabit the west (Darfur), with perhaps
a million speakers. There are likewise various Nubian languages, with
over 6 million speakers along the
Nile in the north. The most
linguistically diverse region in the country is the
Nuba Hills area in
Kordofan, inhabited by speakers of multiple language families, with
Darfur and other border regions being second.
The Niger-Congo family is represented by many of the Kordofanian
languages, and Indo-European by Domari (Gypsy) and English.
Historically, Old Nubian, Greek, and Coptic were the languages of
Christian Nubia, while Meroitic was the language of the Kingdom of
Kush, which conquered Egypt.
Sudan also has multiple regional sign languages, which are not
mutually intelligible. A 2009 proposal for a unified Sudanese Sign
Language had been worked out, but was not widely known.
Prior to 2005,
Arabic was the nation's sole official language. In
the 2005 constitution, Sudan's official languages became
Further information: List of cities in Sudan
Largest cities or towns in Sudan
Main article: Religion in Sudan
Masjid Al-Nilin, August 2007
Religion in Sudan
African Traditional Religion
At the 2011 division which split off South Sudan, over 97% of the
population in the remaining
Sudan adheres to Islam. Most Muslims
are divided between two groups:
Salafi (Ansar Al Sunnah)
Muslims. Two popular divisions of Sufism, the Ansar and the Khatmia,
are associated with the opposition Umma and Democratic Unionist
parties, respectively. Only the
Darfur region has traditionally been
bereft of the
Sufi brotherhoods common in the rest of the
Significant, long-established groups of Coptic Orthodox and Greek
Orthodox Christians exist in
Khartoum and other northern cities.
Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox communities also exist in
eastern Sudan, largely made up of refugees and migrants from the past
few decades. The largest groups affiliated with Western Christian
Roman Catholic and Anglican. Other Christian groups
with smaller followings in the country include the
Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the
Sudan Church of Christ, the
Sudan Interior Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, the
Sudan Evangelical Presbyterian Church (in the North).
Religious identity plays a role in the country's political divisions.
Northern and western Muslims have dominated the country's political
and economic system since independence. The NCP draws much of its
support from Islamists, Salafis/
Wahhabis and other conservative Arab
Muslims in the north. The Umma Party has traditionally attracted Arab
followers of the Ansar sect of
Sufism as well as non-
Arab Muslims from
Darfur and Kordofan. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) includes both
Arab and non-
Arab Muslims in the north and east, especially those in
Further information: Music of Sudan, List of Sudanese writers, and
List of Sudanese singers
Sudanese culture melds the behaviors, practices, and beliefs of about
578 ethnic groups, communicating in 145 different languages, in a
region microcosmic of Africa, with geographic extremes varying from
sandy desert to tropical forest. Recent evidence suggests that while
most citizens of the country identify strongly with both
Arab and African supranational identities are much
more polarising and contested.
Main article: Music of Sudan
Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman.
Sudan has a rich and unique musical culture that has been through
chronic instability and repression during the modern history of Sudan.
Beginning with the imposition of strict
Salafi interpretation of
sharia law in 1989, many of the country's most prominent poets, like
Mahjoub Sharif, were imprisoned while others, like Mohammed el Amin
Sudan in the mid-1990s) and
Mohammed Wardi (returned to
Sudan 2003), fled to Cairo.
Traditional music suffered too, with
Zār ceremonies being interrupted and drums confiscated
. At the same time European militaries contributed to the
development of Sudanese music by introducing new instruments and
styles; military bands, especially the Scottish bagpipes, were
renowned, and set traditional music to military march music. The march
March Shulkawi No 1, is an example, set to the sounds of the Shilluk.
Sudan different music from the rest of Sudan, is used as a
type of music called (Aldlayib) used a musical instrument called
(Tambur) are industry manually and has five strings and is made from
wood and made wonderful music accompanied by the voices of human
applause and singing artists give a perfect blend gives the area
Northern State special character.
The most popular sports in
Sudan are athletics (track and field) and
football. Though not as successful as football, basketball, handball,
and volleyball are also popular in Sudan. In the 1960s and 1970s, the
national basketball team finished among the continent's top teams.
Nowadays, it is only a minor force.
Sudanese football has a long history.
Sudan was one of the four
African nations – the others being Egypt,
Ethiopia and South Africa
– which formed African football.
Sudan hosted the first African Cup
of Nations in 1956, and has won the African Cup Of Nations once, in
1970. Two years later, the
Sudan National Football Team participated
in the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. The nation's capital is home to
Khartoum League, which is considered to be the oldest football
league in Africa.
Sudanese football teams such as Al-Hilal and
El-Merreikh are among the
nation's strongest teams. Other teams like Khartoum, El-Neel, Al-Nidal
El-Nahud and Hay-Al Arab, are also starting to grow in popularity.
Most individual Sudanese wear either traditional or western attire. A
traditional garb widely worn in
Sudan is the jalabiya, which is a
loose-fitting, long-sleeved, collarless ankle-length garment also
common to Egypt. The jalabiya is accompanied by a large scarf worn by
women, and the garment may be white, colored, striped, and made of
fabric varying in thickness, depending on the season of the year and
A similar garment common to
Sudan is the thobe or thawb, pronounced
tobe in Sudanese dialect. The thobe is a long one piece cloth that
women wrap around their inner garments. The word "thawb" means
"garment" in Arabic, and the thawb itself is the traditional Arab
dress for men.
Main article: Media of Sudan
Sudanese author Leila Aboulela
Sudanese tourists by the
Meroë pyramids in various types of clothing.
Sudanese women in Darfur
Herders at the camel market on the far west side of Omdurman
Main article: Education in Sudan
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January
Khartoum University established in 1902
Education in Sudan
Education in Sudan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13
years. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three
years of secondary education. The former educational ladder 6 + 3 + 3
was changed in 1990. The primary language at all levels is Arabic.
Schools are concentrated in urban areas; many in the West have been
damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. In 2001 the World Bank
estimated that primary enrollment was 46 percent of eligible pupils
and 21 percent of secondary students. Enrollment varies widely,
falling below 20 percent in some provinces. The literacy rate is 70.2%
of total population, male: 79.6%, female: 60.8%.
Sudan has 19 universities; instruction is primarily in Arabic.
Education at the secondary and university levels has been seriously
hampered by the requirement that most males perform military service
before completing their education. Changes encouraged by
president Al-Bashir alienated many researchers: the official language
of instruction in universities was changed from English to
Islamic courses became mandatory. Internal science funding
withered. According to UNESCO, more than 3000 Sudanese
researchers left the country between 2002 and 2014. By 2013, the
country had a mere 19 researchers for every 100,000 citizens, or 1/30
the ratio of Egypt, according to the Sudanese National Centre for
Research. In 2015,
Sudan published only about 500 scientific
Main article: Health care in Sudan
List of heads of government of Sudan
Outline of Sudan
Lost Boys of Sudan
Society for the Study of the Sudans UK
Sudan Studies Association
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country stretching from
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