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Novella
A NOVELLA is a text of written, fictional, narrative prose normally longer than a short story but shorter than a novel . The English word "_novella_" derives from the Italian _novella_, feminine of _novello_, which means "new". The novella is a common literary genre in several European languages. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Structure * 3 Versus novel * 4 Versus novelette * 5 Notable examples * 6 Word counts * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe novella as a literary genre began developing in the early Renaissance by the Italian and French _literatura_, principally Giovanni Boccaccio , author of _ The Decameron _ (1353). _The Decameron_ featured 100 tales (novellas) told by 10 people (seven women and three men) fleeing the Black Death , by escaping from Florence to the Fiesole hills in 1348. This structure was then imitated by subsequent authors, notably the French queen Marguerite de Navarre , whose _Heptaméron _ (1559) included 72 original French tales and was modeled after the structure of _The Decameron_. Not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries did writers fashion the novella into a literary genre structured by precepts and rules, generally in a realistic mode . At that time, the Germans were the most active writers of the _novelle_ (German: "Novelle"; plural: "Novellen")
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Novella (other)
A NOVELLA is a written, fictional, prose narrative longer than a novelette but shorter than a novel. NOVELLA may also refer to: * Novella (album) , a 1977 album by Renaissance * Novella - Christian rock band formed by Jonathan Paganno that released debut album in 1991("One Big Sky")on the Star Song Records label. * The Novella , a 1653 play by Richard Brome * Novella, Haute-Corse , a commune in France * "Novella", a song by Funeral for a Friend from Casually Dressed font-style: italic;">This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title NOVELLA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Novella_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Literature
LITERATURE, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works . More restrictively, literature is writing that is considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root _literatura_/_litteratura_ (derived itself from _littera_: _letter_ or _handwriting_) was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature ). The concept has changed meaning over time: nowadays it can broaden to have non-written verbal art forms, and thus it is difficult to agree on its origin, which can be paired with that of language or writing itself. Developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature . Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction , and whether it is poetry or prose . It can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel , short story or drama ; and works are often categorized according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations (genre )
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Novel
A NOVEL is any relatively long, written work of narrative fiction , normally in prose , and typically published as a book. The genre has been described as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years," with its origins in classical Greece and Rome , in medieval and early modern romance , and in the tradition of the novella . The latter, an Italian word for a short story to distinguish it from a novel, has been used in English since the 18th century for a work that falls somewhere in between. Ian Watt , in _The Rise of the Novel_, suggested in 1957 that the novel first came into being in the early 18th century. Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
, author of _ Don Quixote
Don Quixote
_, is frequently cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era , the first part of which was published in 1605. The ROMANCE is a closely related long prose narrative. Walter Scott defined it as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents", whereas in the novel "the events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society"
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Poetry
POETRY (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, _poiesis _, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language —such as phonaesthetics , sound symbolism , and metre —to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning . Poetry
Poetry
has a long history , dating back to the Sumerian _Epic of Gilgamesh _. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese _ Shijing
Shijing
_, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit _ Vedas
Vedas
_, Zoroastrian _ Gathas _, and the Homeric epics, the _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and the _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle
Aristotle
's _ Poetics _, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric , drama , song and comedy . Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme , and emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a fundamental creative act employing language. Poetry
Poetry
uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses
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Drama
DRAMA is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance . Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle 's _Poetics _ (c. 335 BCE)—the earliest work of dramatic theory . The term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action " (Classical Greek : δρᾶμα, _drama_), which is derived from "I do" (Classical Greek : δράω, _drao_). The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy . They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses , Thalia , and Melpomene . Thalia was the Muse of comedy (the laughing face), while Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy (the weeping face). In English (as was the analogous case in many other European languages), the word "play " or "game" (translating the Anglo-Saxon _plèga_ or Latin _ludus_) was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare 's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre ". The use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific _type_ of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play that is _neither_ a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola\'s _ Thérèse Raquin _ (1873 ) or Chekhov\'s _Ivanov _ (1887 )
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Short Story
A SHORT STORY is a piece of prose fiction that can be read in one sitting. Emerging from earlier oral storytelling traditions in the 17th century, the short story has grown to encompass a body of work so diverse as to defy easy characterization. At its most prototypical the short story features a small cast of named characters, and focuses on a self-contained incident with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood. In doing so, short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote , yet to a far lesser degree than a novel . While the short story is largely distinct from the novel, authors of both generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques . Short stories have no set length. In terms of word count there is no official demarcation between an anecdote , a short story, and a novel. Rather, the form's parameters are given by the rhetorical and practical context in which a given story is produced and considered, so that what constitutes a short story may differ between genres, countries, eras, and commentators. Like the novel, the short story's predominant shape reflects the demands of the available markets for publication, and the evolution of the form seems closely tied to the evolution of the publishing industry and the submission guidelines of its constituent houses
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Literary Genre
A LITERARY GENRE is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by literary technique , tone , content , or even (as in the case of fiction) length. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined, often with subgroups. The most general genres in literature are (in loose chronological order) epic , tragedy , comedy , and creative nonfiction . They can all be in the form of prose or poetry . Additionally, a genre such as satire , allegory or pastoral might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre (see below), but as a mixture of genres. Finally, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. Genre
Genre
should not be confused with age categories, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult , or children\'s . They also must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. CONTENTS * 1 Genres * 2 Major forms * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links GENRES For more details on this topic, see List of writing genres . William Shakespeare's statue Just as in painting, there are different types: the landscape, the still life, the portrait; there are different types of literary works. These types tend to share specific characteristics. Genres describe those works which share specific conventions. Genres are often divided into subgenres
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Comedy
In a modern sense, COMEDY (from the Greek : κωμῳδία, _kōmōidía_) refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter , especially in theatre , television , film , and stand-up comedy . The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece . In the Athenian democracy , the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters . The theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old". A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a relatively powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, and is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender very dramatic irony which provokes laughter . Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humour. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without necessarily condemning them
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Epic Poetry
An EPIC POEM, EPIC, EPOS, or EPOPEE is a lengthy narrative poem , ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation. Milman Parryand Albert Lordhave argued that the Homeric epics, the earliest works of Western literature, were fundamentally an oral poetic form. These works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all of Western epic (including Virgil's _ Aeneid
Aeneid
_ and Dante's _Divine Comedy
Comedy
_) self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems. Classical epic poetry employs a meter called dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical (as typified by Odysseus in the _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_) or mental (as typified by Achilles in the _ Iliad
Iliad
_) or both. Epics also tend to highlight cultural norms and to define or call into question cultural values, particularly as they pertain to heroism . Another type of epic poetry is epyllion (plural: epyllia), which is a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme . The term, which means "little epic", came into use in the nineteenth century
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Erotic Literature
EROTIC LITERATURE comprises fictional and/or factual stories and accounts of human sexual relationships which have the power to or are intended to arouse the reader sexually. Such erotica takes the form of novels, short stories, poetry , true-life memoirs , and sex manuals . A common feature of the genre is sexual fantasies on such themes as prostitution , orgies , homosexuality , sadomasochism , and many other taboo subjects and fetishes , which may or may not be expressed in explicit language. Other common elements are satire and social criticism . Despite cultural taboos on such material, circulation of erotic literature was not seen as a major problem before the invention of printing, as the costs of producing individual manuscripts limited distribution to a very small group of readers. The invention of printing, in the 15th century, brought with it both a greater market and increasing restrictions, like censorship and legal restraints on publication on the grounds of obscenity . Because of this, much of the production of this type of material became clandestine. Much erotic literature features erotic art , illustrating the text
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Literary Nonsense
LITERARY NONSENSE (or NONSENSE LITERATURE) is a broad categorization of literature that balances elements that make sense with some that do not, with the effect of subverting language conventions or logical reasoning. Even though the most well-known form of literary nonsense is nonsense verse , the genre is present in many forms of literature. The effect of nonsense is often caused by an excess of meaning, rather than a lack of it. Its humor is derived from its nonsensical nature, rather than wit or the "joke" of a punchline. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Theory * 3 Distinction * 4 Audience * 5 Nonsense writers * 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links HISTORY _ John Tenniel 's depiction of the nonsense creatures in Carroll 's Jabberwocky _. Literary nonsense, as recognized since the nineteenth century, comes from a combination of two broad artistic sources. The first and older source is the oral folk tradition, including games, songs, dramas, and rhymes, such as the nursery rhyme _ Hey Diddle Diddle _. The literary figure Mother Goose represents common incarnations of this style of writing. The second, newer source of literary nonsense is in the intellectual absurdities of court poets , scholars, and intellectuals of various kinds
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Lyric Poetry
LYRIC POETRY is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person. The term derives from a form of Ancient Greek literature , the lyric , which was defined by its musical accompaniment, usually on a stringed instrument known as a lyre . The term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed by Aristotle between three broad categories of poetry: lyrical, dramatic and epic . CONTENTS * 1 Meters * 2 History * 2.1 Antiquity * 2.1.1 Greece * 2.1.2 Rome * 2.1.3 China * 2.2 Medieval verse * 2.3 16th century * 2.4 17th century * 2.5 18th century * 2.6 19th century * 2.7 20th century * 3 References * 4 Further reading METERSMuch lyric poetry depends on regular meter based either on number of syllables or on stress. The most common meters are as follows: * Iambic – two syllables , with the short or unstressed syllable followed by the long or stressed syllable. * Trochaic – two syllables, with the long or stressed syllable followed by the short or unstressed syllable. In English, this metre is found almost entirely in lyric poetry
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Mythopoeia
MYTHOPOEIA (also MYTHOPOESIS, after Hellenistic Greek μυθοποιία, μυθοποίησις "myth-making") is a narrative genre in modern literature and film where a fictional or artificial mythology is created by the writer of prose or other fiction. This meaning of the word _mythopoeia_ follows its use by J. R. R. Tolkien in the 1930s. The authors in this genre integrate traditional mythological themes and archetypes into fiction. CONTENTS * 1 Introduction and definition * 2 Etymology * 3 The place in society * 4 Critics of the genre * 5 In literature * 5.1 Antiquity * 5.2 Lord Dunsany * 5.3 J. R. R. Tolkien * 5.4 C. S. Lewis * 5.5 William Blake * 5.6 Collaborative efforts * 5.7 Other modern literature * 6 In film * 6.1 George Lucas and the Star Wars series * 7 In music * 8 In popular culture * 9 Organizations * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (October 2010)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_ Mythopoeia is also the act of making (creating) mythologies. Notable mythopoeic authors include Tolkien, C. S. Lewis , William Blake , H. P
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Chivalric Romance
As a literary genre of high culture , ROMANCE or CHIVALRIC ROMANCE is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe . They were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures , often of a knight-errant portrayed as having heroic qualities, who goes on a quest , yet it is "the emphasis on love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the _chanson de geste _ and other kinds of epic , in which masculine military heroism predominates." Popular literature also drew on themes of romance, but with ironic , satiric or burlesque intent. Romances reworked legends , fairy tales , and history to suit the readers' and hearers' tastes, but by c. 1600 they were out of fashion, and Miguel de Cervantes famously burlesqued them in his novel _ Don Quixote _. Still, the modern image of "medieval" is more influenced by the romance than by any other medieval genre, and the word _medieval_ evokes knights, distressed damsels, dragons, and other romantic tropes. Originally, romance literature was written in Old French , Anglo-Norman , Occitan , and Provençal , and later in Portuguese , in Castilian , in English , in Italian (particularly with the Sicilian poetry) and German . During the early 13th century, romances were increasingly written as prose
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Satire
SATIRE is a genre of literature , and sometimes graphic and performing arts , in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism , using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm —"in satire, irony is militant" —but parody , burlesque , exaggeration , juxtaposition, comparison, analogy, and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing. This "militant" irony or sarcasm often professes to approve of (or at least accept as natural) the very things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire
Satire
is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes , literature, plays, commentary, television shows, and media such as lyrics
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