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Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
and the capital city of the
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...

region
. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence was a centre of
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
an trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era. It is considered by many academics to have been the birthplace of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
, becoming a major artistic, cultural, commercial, political, economic and financial center. During this time, Florence rose to a position of enormous influence in Italy, Europe, and beyond. Its turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful
Medici The House of Medici ( , ) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social ...
family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city served as the capital of the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent l ...
(established in 1861). The
Florentine dialect The Florentine dialect or vernacular ( or ) is a variety of Tuscan dialect, Tuscan language, a Romance languages, Romance language, spoken in the Italy, Italian city of Florence and its hinterlands. Being the language spoken in the capital city of ...
forms the base of
Standard Italian
Standard Italian
and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by
Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 1321), was an Italian poet, writer and philosopher. His '' Divine Comedy'', originally called (modern Italian: ''C ...

Dante Alighieri
,
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly as Petrarch (), was a scholar and poet of early , and one of the earliest . Petrarch's rediscovery of 's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian a ...

Petrarch
,
Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or angliciza ...

Giovanni Boccaccio
,
Niccolò Machiavelli Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (; ; rarely rendered Nicholas Machiavel (see below See or SEE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Music: ** See (album), ''See'' (album), studio album by rock band The Rascals *** "See", song by ...
and
Francesco Guicciardini Francesco Guicciardini (; 6 March 1483 – 22 May 1540) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian l ...

Francesco Guicciardini
. The city attracts millions of tourists each year, and UNESCO declared the
Historic Centre of Florence The historic centre of Florence is part of quartiere 1 of the Italian city of Florence. This quarter was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. Built on the site of an Etruscan settlement, Florence, the symbol of the Renaissance, rose to ...
a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture and monuments. The city also contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the
Uffizi Gallery Image:Uffizi Gallery hallway.JPG, View of hallway. The walls were originally covered with tapestries. The Uffizi Gallery (; it, Galleria degli Uffizi, italic=no, ) is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in the Hi ...
and the
Palazzo Pitti The Palazzo Pitti (), in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages ...

Palazzo Pitti
, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art, culture and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, ''
Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family The Forbes family is one of the Boston Brahmins—a wealthy extended American family long prominent in Boston, Massachusett ...

Forbes
'' has ranked it as the most beautiful city in the world. Florence plays an important role in
Italian fashion Italy is one of the leading countries in fashion design, alongside French fashion, France, the Fashion in the United States, United States and the United Kingdom. Fashion has always been an important part of the culture of Italy, country's cultur ...
, and is ranked in the top 15
fashion capital A fashion capital is a city which has major influence on international fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression, at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kan ...
s of the world by Global Language Monitor; furthermore, it is a major national economic centre, as well as a tourist and industrial hub. It is the 4th richest Italian city.


History

Florence originated as a Roman city, and later, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking
medieval commune Medieval communes in the Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded a ...
, it was the birthplace of the
Italian Renaissance The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ) was a period in Italian history The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civi ...
. It was politically, economically, and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries. The language spoken in the city during the 14th century came to be accepted as the model for what would become the
Italian language Italian (''italiano'' or ) is a Romance languages, Romance language of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family that evolved from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. Italian is the most direct descendant of Latin, arguab ...

Italian language
. Thanks especially to the works of the Tuscans
Dante Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to Mononymous person, simply as Dante (, also ; – 1321), was an Italian poetry, Italian poet, writer and philosopher. His ''Divine Comedy'', origina ...

Dante
,
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly as Petrarch (), was a scholar and poet of early , and one of the earliest . Petrarch's rediscovery of 's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian a ...

Petrarch
and
Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. He was known par excellence as the Certaldese, and one of the most important figur ...

Boccaccio
, the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, was adopted as the basis for a national literary language. Starting from the late
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, Florentine money—in the form of the gold
florin The Florentine Florentine most commonly refers to: * a person or thing from Florence, a city in Italy * the Florentine dialect Florentine may also refer to: Places * Florentin, Tel Aviv, a neighborhood in the southern part of Tel Aviv, Is ...
—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the
Hundred Years War The Hundred Years’ War (french: link=yes, La guerre de Cent Ans; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of and during the . It originated from disputed claims to the between the English and the French roy ...

Hundred Years War
. They similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families.
Lorenzo de' Medici Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici (; 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, banker, ''de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is ...

Lorenzo de' Medici
was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
s in the early 16th century:
Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, ...

Leo X
and
Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ) (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534. “The most unfortunate of the popes,” Clem ...
.
Catherine de Medici Catherine de' Medici ( it, Caterina de' Medici, ; french: Catherine de Médicis, ; 13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589) was an Italian noblewoman. She also was queen consort of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to Henry II of France, K ...

Catherine de Medici
married King
Henry II of France Henry II (french: Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medie ...
and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France. Marie de' Medici married
Henry IV of France Henry IV (french: Henri IV; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was (as Henry III) from 1572 and from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the , a branch of the ...

Henry IV of France
and gave birth to the future King
Louis XIII Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was from 1610 until his death in 1643 and (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth bi ...
. The Medici reigned as
Grand Dukes of Tuscany Grand may refer to: People with the name * Grand (surname)Grand * Cedric Grand (born 1976), Swiss bobsledder * Gil Grand (born 1968), Canadian country music singer * Jean-Pierre Grand (born 1950), French politician * Pascale Grand (born 1967), Ca ...
, starting with
Cosimo I de' Medici Cosimo I de' Medici (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death. Life Rise to power Cosimo was ...

Cosimo I de' Medici
in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.


Roman origins

In the 9th–8th century BC, the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna ...
formed the small settlement of
Fiesole Fiesole () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functi ...

Fiesole
(Faesulae in Latin) This was destroyed by
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Ancient Romans, Roman List of Roman generals, general and Politician, statesman. He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history, and became the first man of Rom ...
in 80 BC, in reprisal for supporting the
populares The Populares (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...

populares
faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named originally ''Fluentia'', owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, which was later changed to ''Florentia'' ("flowering"). It was built in the style of an with the main streets, the ''
cardo Cardo was the Latin name (plural ''cardines'') given to a north-south street in Ancient Roman cities and military camps as an integral component of city planning. The cardo maximus, or most often ''the cardo'', was the main or central north–so ...

cardo
'' and the '''', intersecting at the present '' Piazza della Repubblica''. Situated along the ''
Via Cassia The ''Via Cassia'' ("way of Cassius") was an important Roman road Roman roads ( la, viae Romanae ; singular: ; meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from a ...
'', the main route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the
Arno The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber. Source and route The river originates on Monte Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, and i ...

Arno
, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre. In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of
Ostrogothic The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic peoples, Germanic people. In the 5th century, they followed the Visigoths in creating one of the two great Goths, Gothic kingdoms within the Roman Empire, based upon the large ...
rule, during which the city was often troubled by warfare between the
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mention ...
and the , which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under
Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 ...
rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
as capital. The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and
Fiesole Fiesole () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functi ...

Fiesole
were united in one county.


Second millennium

Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
at about 1000 AD. The
Golden Age#REDIRECT Golden Age The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the ''Works and Days'' of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages of Man, Ages, Gold being the first a ...

Golden Age
of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di
San Miniato al Monte San Miniato al Monte (St. Minias on the Mountain) is a basilica In Ancient Roman architecture, a basilica is a large public building with multiple functions, typically built alongside the town's Forum (Roman), forum. The basilica was in the L ...

San Miniato al Monte
. The exterior of the church was reworked in
Romanesque style Romanesque architecture is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style in ...
between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "
commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether ...

commune
", meaning a city state. The city's primary resource was the
Arno river The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber. Source and route The river originates on Monte Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, and i ...

Arno river
, providing power and access for the industry (mainly textile industry), and access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community. The Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation (e.g.
bills of exchange A negotiable instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand, or at a set time, whose payer is usually named on the document. More specifically, it is a document contemplated by or consisting of a c ...
,
double-entry bookkeeping system Double-entry bookkeeping, also known as, double-entry accounting, is a method of bookkeeping Bookkeeping is the recording of financial transactions, and is part of the process of accounting in business and other organisations. It involves ...
) to medieval fairs. This period also saw the eclipse of Florence's formerly powerful rival
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
(defeated by
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
in 1284 and subjugated by Florence in 1406), and the exercise of power by the
mercantile Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to ...

mercantile
elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the
Ordinances of Justice The Ordinances of Justice were a series of statutory law Statutory law or statute law is written law passed by a body of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is ...
(1293).


Middle Ages and Renaissance


Rise of the Medici

At the height of demographic expansion around 1325, the urban population may have been as great as 120,000, and the rural population around the city was probably close to 300,000. The
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Afro-Eurasia from 1346 to 1353. It is the List of epidemics, most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, causing th ...

Black Death
of 1348 reduced it by over half, about 25,000 are said to have been supported by the city's
wool Wool is the textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitti ...
industry: in 1345 Florence was the scene of an attempted strike by wool combers (''ciompi''), who in 1378 rose up in a brief revolt against oligarchic rule in the Revolt of the Ciompi. After their suppression, Florence came under the sway (1382–1434) of the
Albizzi The Albizzi family () was a Florentine Florentine most commonly refers to: * a person or thing from Florence, a city in Italy * the Florentine dialect Florentine may also refer to: Places * Florentin, Tel Aviv, a neighborhood in the southern p ...
family, who became bitter rivals of the Medici. In the 15th century, Florence was among the largest cities in Europe, with a population of 60,000, and was considered rich and economically successful.
Cosimo de' Medici Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician who established the Medici family The House of Medici ( , ) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gathe ...
was the first Medici family member to essentially control the city from behind the scenes. Although the city was technically a democracy of sorts, his power came from a vast
patronage Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows on another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists suc ...

patronage
network along with his alliance to the new immigrants, the ''gente nuova'' (new people). The fact that the Medici were bankers to the pope also contributed to their ascendancy. Cosimo was succeeded by his son , who was, soon after, succeeded by Cosimo's grandson,
Lorenzo Lorenzo may refer to: People * Lorenzo (name) Places Peru * San Lorenzo Island (Peru), sometimes referred to as the island of Lorenzo United States * Lorenzo, Illinois * Lorenzo, Texas * San Lorenzo, California, formerly Lorenzo * Lorenzo State ...

Lorenzo
in 1469. Lorenzo was a great patron of the arts, commissioning works by
Michelangelo Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known simply as Michelangelo (), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance In art history, the High Renaissance was ...

Michelangelo
,
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
and
Botticelli Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi ( – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli (, ), was an . Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century, when he was rediscovered by the who stimulated a reappraisal of ...

Botticelli
. Lorenzo was an accomplished poet and musician and brought composers and singers to Florence, including
Alexander Agricola Alexander Agricola (; born Alexander Ackerman; 1445 or 1446 – 15 August 1506) was a Netherlandish composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European la ...
, Johannes Ghiselin, and
Heinrich Isaac Image:Isaac pallepalle.jpg, Illuminated chansonnier by Heinrich Isaac, showing the beginning of his four-voice motet ''Palle, palle''; probably written in Florence in the 1480s and copied during that period. Palle (Italian for "balls") is a referenc ...
. By contemporary Florentines (and since), he was known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent" (Lorenzo il Magnifico). Following Lorenzo de' Medici's death in 1492, he was succeeded by his son Piero II. When the French king Charles VIII invaded
northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical cha ...
, Piero II chose to resist his army. But when he realised the size of the
French army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air force, air and space force ...
at the gates of Pisa, he had to accept the humiliating conditions of the French king. These made the Florentines rebel, and they expelled Piero II. With his exile in 1494, the first period of Medici rule ended with the restoration of a republican government.


Savonarola, Machiavelli, and the Medici popes

During this period, the
Dominican friar The Order of Preachers, whose members are known as Dominicans, ( la, Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may c ...
Girolamo Savonarola Girolamo Savonarola (, , ; 21 September 1452 – 23 May 1498) or Jerome Savonarola was an Italian Dominican Order, Dominican friar from Ferrara and preacher active in Renaissance Florence. He was known for his prophecies of civic glory, the des ...

Girolamo Savonarola
had become
prior Prior (or prioress) is an ecclesiastical {{Short pages monitor Former capitals of Italy Former national capitals 50s BC establishments 59 BC Capitals of former nations Populated places established in the 1st century BC