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Muscidae
Muscidae
Muscidae
are a family of flies found in the superfamily Muscoidea. Muscidae, some of which are commonly known as house flies or stable flies due to their synanthropy, are worldwide in distribution and contain almost 4,000 described species in over 100 genera. Most species are not synanthropic. Adults can be predatory, hematophagous, saprophagous, or feed on a number of types of plant and animal exudates. They can be attracted to various substances including sugar, sweat, tears [1] and blood
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Calypter
A calypter is either of two posterior lobes of the posterior margin of the forewing of flies between the extreme posterior wing base and the alula, which covers the halteres. The lower calypter is the proximal calypter (synonyms: squama (of some authors), tegula ) and the upper calypter is the distal calypter (synonym: squamula). Species of the subsection Acalyptratae
Acalyptratae
are noted for lacking calypters. References[edit]This article relates to members of the fly suborder Brachycera
Brachycera
is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis insect anatomy-related article is a stub
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Auria
Auria – also known as Oria – was an early Queen consort of Pamplona. She is known from a single historical source, the Roda Codex, which only gives her name and not her parentage. Historian and professor Antonio Rei has put forward the hypothesis that she could have been the granddaughter of Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi,[1] while genealogist Christian Settipani suggested this and two other alternatives when addressing her possible parentage.[2] Marriage and issue[edit] She married King Fortún Garcés of Pamplona, who died in 922. These are the children of Auria and Fortún:Íñigo Fortúnez[3] Aznar Fortúnez[3] Velasco Fortúnez[3] Lope Fortúnez[3] Onneca Fortúnez[3]References[edit]^ Rei & 2011/2012, pp. 44–45. ^ Settipani 2004, p. 116. ^ a b c d e Cañada Juste 2013, p. 482.Sources[edit]Aguado Bleye, Pedro; Alcazar Molina, Cayetano Prehistoria, edades antigua y media. Collins, Roger (2012)
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Permian
The Permian
Permian
is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea
Pangaea
and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa
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Anthrax
Anthrax
Anthrax
is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis.[2] It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal, and injection.[9] Symptoms begin between one day and two months after the infection is
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Dysentery
Dysentery
Dysentery
is a type of gastroenteritis that results in diarrhea with blood.[1][2] Other symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain,[3] and a feeling of incomplete defecation. It is caused by several types of infections such as bacteria, viruses, parasitic worms, or protozoa. The mechanism is an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, especially of the colon.Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Mechanism2.1 Amoebic dysentery 2.2 Bacillary dysentery 2.3 Other bacterial diarrhea3 Diagnosis3.1 Physical exam 3.2 Stool and blood tests4 Treatment 5 Prognosis 6 Epidemiology 7 Society and culture7.1 Notable cases8 Research 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] The most common form of dysentery is bacillary dysentery, which is typically a mild illness, causing symptoms normally consisting of mild stomach pains and frequent passage of stool or diarrhea
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Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi
Salmonella typhi
that causes symptoms.[3] Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure.[1][2] Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days.[1] Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches also commonly occur.[2][6]
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Arista (insect Anatomy)
In insect anatomy the arista is a simple or variously modified apical or subapical bristle, arising from the third antennal segment. It is the evolutionary remains of antennal segments, and may sometimes show signs of segmentation. These segments are called aristameres. The arista may be bare, sometime appearing no more than a simple bristle, pubescent - covered in short hairs, or plumose - covered in long hairs. The presence of an arista is a feature of the Diptera suborder Brachycera
Brachycera
and may be especially well-developed in some species. It is known to contain thermo and hygroreceptors in Diptera that helps the flies to detect changes in temperature and moisture.[1][2]References[edit]^ Foelix, R. F., Stocker, R. F. & Steinbrecht, R.A. (1989). Fine structure of a sensory organ in the arista of Drosophila melanogaster and some other dipterans
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Saprophage
Saprotrophic nutrition
Saprotrophic nutrition
/sæprəˈtrɒfɪk, -proʊ-/[1] or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed organic matter. It occurs in saprotrophs and heterotrophs, and is most often associated with fungi (for example Mucor) and soil bacteria. Saprotrophic microscopic fungi are sometimes called saprobes; saprotrophic plants or bacterial flora are called saprophytes (sapro- + -phyte, "rotten material" + "plant"), though it is now believed that all plants previously thought to be saprotrophic are in fact parasites of microscopic fungi or other plants
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Hematophagy
Hematophagy
Hematophagy
(sometimes spelled haematophagy or hematophagia) is the practice by certain animals of feeding on blood (from the Greek words αἷμα haima "blood" and φάγειν phagein "to eat"). Since blood is a fluid tissue rich in nutritious proteins and lipids that can be taken without great effort, hematophagy has evolved as a preferred form of feeding for many small animals, such as worms and arthropods. Some intestinal nematodes, such as Ancylostomids, feed on blood extracted from the capillaries of the gut, and about 75 percent of all species of leeches (e.g., Hirudo medicinalis), a free-living worm, are hematophagous
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Synanthrope
A synanthrope (from the Greek syn-, "together with" + anthro, "man") is a member of a species of wild animals and plants of various kinds that live near, and benefit from, an association with humans and the somewhat artificial habitats that humans create around them (see anthropophilia). Those habitats include houses, gardens, farms, roadsides, garbage dumps, and so on. The category of synanthrope includes a large number of what humans regard as pest species. It does not include domesticated animals such as cattle, goats and dogs.[1] Examples of synanthropes are rodents, house sparrows, rock doves (pigeons), lice, and other urban wildlife.[1] Botany[edit] In plants, synanthropes are classified into two main types - apophytes and anthropophytes. Apophytes are synanthropic species that are native in origin
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Catalogue Of Life
The Catalogue of Life, started in June 2001 by Species 2000 and Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
(ITIS), is planned to become a comprehensive catalogue of all known species of organisms on Earth. The Catalogue currently compiles data from 156 peer-reviewed taxonomic databases, that are maintained by specialist institutions around the w
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Eocene
The Eocene
Eocene
( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/[2][3]) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Crucianella
Crucianella (common name crossworts) is a genus of flowering plants in the Rubiaceae family. The species are annual herbs found from the Mediterranean to Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula.[1] One species (C. angustifolia) is naturalized in northern California, southern Oregon (Josephine County), and Idaho (Clearwater County).[2]Contents1 Species 2 Image gallery 3 References 4 External linksSpecies[edit]Crucianella aegyptiaca L. Crucianella angustifolia L. Crucianella arabica Schönb.-Tem. & Ehrend. Crucianella baldschuanica Krasch. Crucianella bithynica Boiss. Crucianella bouarfae Andreonszkyu Crucianella bucharica B.Fedtsch. Crucianella chlorostachys Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Crucianella ciliata Lam. Crucianella disticha Boiss. Crucianella divaricata Korovin Crucianella exasperata Fisch
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Pierre André Latreille
Pierre André Latreille
Pierre André Latreille
(29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist, specialising in arthropods. Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution, Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis. He published his first important work in 1796 (Précis des caractères génériques des insectes), and was eventually employed by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
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