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Muscidae
Muscidae
are a family of flies found in the superfamily Muscoidea. Muscidae, some of which are commonly known as house flies or stable flies due to their synanthropy, are worldwide in distribution and contain almost 4,000 described species in over 100 genera. Most species are not synanthropic. Adults can be predatory, hematophagous, saprophagous, or feed on a number of types of plant and animal exudates. They can be attracted to various substances including sugar, sweat, tears [1] and blood. Larvae occur in various habitats including decaying vegetation, dry and wet soil, nests of insects and birds, fresh water, and carrion. The housefly, Musca domestica, is the best known and most important species. Some, from the genera Hydrotaea
Hydrotaea
and Muscina, are involved in forensic case studies.

Contents

1 Identifying characteristics 2 Biology 3 Health and economic importance 4 Evolution 5 Genera 6 Images 7 Further reading 8 Links to Genera and species lists 9 Other 10 References 11 External links

Identifying characteristics[edit] The antennae are three-segmented and aristate; vein Rs is two-branched, a frontal suture is present, and the calypters are well developed. The arista is often plumose for the entire length. The hypopleuron is usually without bristles; generally, more than one sternopleural bristle is present. The R5 cell is either parallel-sided or narrowed distally. Vein 2A is short and does not reach the wing margin. For a pictorial atlas explaining these terms, go to [2] The Fanniidae, which used to be a subfamily (Fanniinae) of the Muscidae, share these characters, but may be separated from them by the absence of the identifying characteristics for the family Fanniidae.

Biology[edit] Larvae mainly develop in decaying plant material or manure. Health and economic importance[edit] Adults of many species are passive vectors of pathogens for diseases such as typhoid fever, dysentery, anthrax, and African sleeping sickness. Larvae of some Atherigona species are important pests in cultivation of cereals, like rice and maize. Evolution[edit] Seven species in six described genera have been recorded from the fossil record. Lambrecht (1980: 369) estimated that the family Muscidae
Muscidae
originated as long ago as the Permian, although no fossil record exists for the family any older than the Eocene. Genera[edit] List of genera according to the Catalogue of Life:[1]

Adia Aethiopomyia Afromydaea Agenamyia Albertinella Alluaudinella Altimyia Amicitia Anaphalantus Andersonosia Anthocoenosia Anthomyia Apsil Arthurella Atelia Atherigona Auria Azelia Balioglutum Beccimyia Biopyrellia Bithoracochaeta Brachygasterina Brevicosta Bruceomyia Bryantina Buccophaonia Calliphoroides Camptotarsopoda Caricea Cariocamyia Cephalispa Chaetagenia Chaetopapuaia Chaetophaonia Charadrella Chortinus Coenosia Cordilura Cordiluroides Correntosia Crucianella Curranosia Cypselodopteryx Cyrtoneurina Dasyphora Deltotus Dichaetomyia Dimorphia Dolichophaonia Drepanocnemis Drymeia Eginia Eginiella Eudasyphora Exsul Fraserella Graphomya Gymnodia Gymnopapuaia Haematobia Haematobosca Haematostoma Haroldopsis Hebecnema Helina Helinomydaea Heliographa Hemichlora Hennigiola Hennigmyia Huckettomyia Hydrotaea Idiohelina Insulamyia Itatingamyia Lasiopelta Limnohelina Limnophora Limnospila Lispacoenosia Lispe Lispocephala Lispoides Lophosceles Macroeginia Macrorchis Magma Megophyra Mesembrina Metopomyia Microcalyptra Mitroplatia Morellia Mulfordia Musca Muscina Mydaea Myiophaea Myospila Neivamyia Neodexiopsis Neohelina Neolimnophora Neomuscina Neomyia Neorypellia Neurotrixa Notoschoenomyza Nystomyia Ochromusca Ocypodomyia Ophyra Opsolasia Orchisia Oxytonocera Pachyceramyia Palpibracus Papuaia Papuaiella Paracoenosia Paralimnophora Parastomoxys Parvisquama Passeromyia Pectiniseta Pentacricia Phaomusca Phaonia Phaonidia Phaonina Philornis Pictia Pilispina Plexiopsis Plumispina Polietes Polietina Potamia Prohardyia Prostomoxys Pseudocoenosia Pseudohelina Pseudoptilolepis Psilochaeta Pygophora Pyrellia Pyrellina Reinwardtia Reynoldsia Rhabdoptera Rhinomusca Rhynchomydaea Rypellia Sarcopromusca Scenetes Schoenomyza Schoenomyzina Scutellomusca Sinophaonia Souzalopesmyia Spanochaeta Spathipheromyia Spilogona Stomopogon Stomoxys Stygeromyia Syllimnophora Syngamoptera Synthesiomyia Tamilomyia Tertiuseginia Tetramerinx Thaumasiochaeta Thricops Trichomorellia Villeneuvia Xenomorellia Xenomyia Xenotachina Xestomyia

Images[edit]

Mydaeinae
Mydaeinae
sp.

Musca domestica

Stable fly, Stomoxys
Stomoxys
calcitrans, Albuquerque

Muscidae
Muscidae
sp.

Limnophora
Limnophora
sp.

Graphomya
Graphomya
eustolia

Further reading[edit]

Identification

Hennig, W. (1955–64). Muscidae
Muscidae
in Erwin Lindner, Die Fliegen der Paläarktischen Region 63b,Schweizerbart,Stuttgart. Huckett, H.C. 1965. The Muscidae
Muscidae
of northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland (Diptera). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 42: 1-369. 23 plates of drawings. Séguy, E., 1937, Diptera, family Muscidae. In: P. Wystmann (ed.), Genera Insectorum, Brussels, 205: 604. Includes a key to world genera. Shinonaga, S. & Kano, R., 1971, Fauna Japonica Muscidae (Insecta:Diptera), Academia press,242pp.+28Plates. Keys to Eastern Palaearctic
Palaearctic
genera of several subfamilies.

Gregor, Fr. et al., 2002 The Muscidae
Muscidae
(Diptera) of Central Europe, Brno, Folia Biologia, 107. Biology Use of DNA in forensic entomology

Skidmore, P., 1985, The biology of the Muscidae
Muscidae
of the world. Junk, Dordrecht. Series entomologica, 29, xiv + 550p.

Links to Genera and species lists[edit]

Palaearctic Nearctic Japan

Other[edit] Types in Humboldt Museum, Berlin [3] References[edit]

^ Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (2011). "Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist". Species 2000: Reading, UK. Retrieved 24 September 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muscidae.

Family description and images Image Gallery from Diptera.info (in Dutch)Muscidae

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q527224 ADW: Muscidae BugGuide: 7266 EoL: 428 EPPO: 1MUSCF Fauna Europaea: 10928 Fossilworks: 139450 GBIF: 5564 ITIS: 150025 NCBI:

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