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Matera
Matera
Matera
(Italian pronunciation: [maˈteːra] or locally [maˈtɛːra] ( listen)) is a city and a province in the region of Basilicata, in Southern Italy
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Comune
The comune (IPA: [koˈmune]; plural: comuni, IPA: [koˈmuni]) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.Contents1 Importance and function 2 Subdivisions 3 Homonymy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksImportance and function[edit] The comune provides many of the basic civil functions: registry of births and deaths, registry of deeds, and contracting for local roads and public works. It is headed by a mayor (sindaco) assisted by a legislative body, the consiglio comunale (communal council), and an executive body, the giunta comunale (communal committee). The mayor and members of the consiglio comunale are elected together by resident citizens: the coalition of the elected mayor (who needs an absolute majority in the first or second round of voting) gains three fifths of the consiglio's seats
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William Iron Arm
William I of Hauteville (before 1010 – 1046), known as William Iron Arm,[1] was a Norman adventurer who was the founder of the fortunes of the Hauteville family. One of twelve sons of Tancred of Hauteville, he journeyed to the Mezzogiorno
Mezzogiorno
with his younger brother Drogo in the first half of the eleventh century (c.1035), in response to requests for help made by fellow Normans
Normans
under Rainulf Drengot, count of Aversa. Between 1038 and 1040, he and other Normans
Normans
fought in Sicily
Sicily
along with the Lombards
Lombards
as mercenaries for the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
against the Saracens. It was there that he won his nickname "Iron Arm" by single-handedly killing the emir of Syracuse during a sally at the siege of Syracuse
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Caecilii Metelli
The gens Caecilia was a plebeian[i] family at Rome. Members of this gens are mentioned in history as early as the fifth century BC, but the first of the Caecilii who obtained the consulship was Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter, in 284 BC.[1][2]Contents1 Origin 2 Praenomina 3 Branches and cognomina 4 Members4.1 Caecilii Metelli 4.2 Others5 Footnotes 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyOrigin[edit] Like other Roman families in the later times of the Republic, the Caecilii traced their origin to a mythical personage, Caeculus, the founder of Praeneste. He was said to be the son of Vulcan, and engendered by a spark; a similar story was told of Servius
Servius
Tullius. He was exposed as an infant, but preserved by his divine father, and raised by maidens. He grew up amongst the shepherds, and became a highwayman. Coming of age, he called upon the people of the countryside to build a new town, convincing them with the aid of a miracle
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Lombards
The Lombards
Lombards
or Longobards (Latin: Langobardi, Italian: Longobardi [loŋɡoˈbardi], Lombard: Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
from 568 to 774. The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon
wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards
Lombards
descended from a small tribe called the Winnili,[1] who dwelt in southern Scandinavia[2] (Scadanan) before migrating to seek new lands. In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in northwestern Germany. By the end of the 5th century, they had moved into the area roughly coinciding with modern Austria and Slovakia
Slovakia
north of the Danube
Danube
river, where they subdued the Heruls and later fought frequent wars with the Gepids
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Duchy Of Benevento
The Duchy of Benevento
Benevento
(after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy. Being cut off from the rest of the Lombard possessions by the papal Duchy of Rome, Benevento
Benevento
was practically independent from the start. Only during the reigns of Grimoald I of Benevento
Benevento
and the kings from Liutprand on was the duchy closely tied to the kingdom
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Benedictine
The Order of Saint Benedict
Order of Saint Benedict
(OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known – in reference to the colour of its members' habits – as the Black Monks, is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict. Each community (monastery, priory or abbey) within the order maintains its own autonomy, while the order itself represents their mutual interests
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Basilian Monks
Basilian monks
Basilian monks
are monks who follow the rule of Saint
Saint
Basil the Great, bishop of Caesarea (330–379). The monastic rules and institutes of St. Basil are important because their reconstruction of monastic life remains the basis for most Eastern Orthodox and some Greek Catholic monasticism. Saint
Saint
Benedict of Nursia, who fulfilled much the same function in the West, took his Regula Benedicti from the writings of St. Basil and other earlier church fathers. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, monks do not generally call themselves "Basilians", while the Greek Catholics do. Thus the expression "Basilian monk" almost always refers to religious of those Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
which follow the Byzantine Rite.Contents1 Rule of St
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
(historically Romanorum Imperator " Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(800-1806 CE, from Charlemagne
Charlemagne
to Francis II). The title was almost without interruption held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany.[1][2][3] From an autocracy in Carolingian
Carolingian
times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right by Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
rulers in Europe, and he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs
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Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Louis II, sometimes called the Younger[1] (825 – 12 August 875), was the King of Italy
King of Italy
and Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 844, co-ruling with his father Lothair I
Lothair I
until 855, after which he ruled alone. Louis's usual title was imperator augustus ("august emperor"), but he used imperator Romanorum ("emperor of the Romans") after his conquest of Bari
Bari
in 871, which led to poor relations with the Eastern Roman Empire
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Italo-Normans
The Italo-Normans, or Siculo- Normans
Normans
when referring to Sicily
Sicily
and Southern Italy, are the Italian-born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to southern Italy
Italy
in the first half of the eleventh century. While maintaining much of their distinctly Norman piety and customs of war, they were shaped by the diversity of southern Italy, by the cultures and customs of the Greeks, Lombards, and Arabs
Arabs
in Sicily.Contents1 History 2 Italo-Norman
Italo-Norman
families 3 Further reading 4 Notes 5 See alsoHistory[edit] Normans
Normans
first arrived in Italy
Italy
as pilgrims probably either on their way or returning from Rome
Rome
or Jerusalem
Jerusalem
also visiting the shrine at Monte Gargano in the late tenth and early eleventh century
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House Of Aragon
Aragon
Aragon
(/ˈærəɡɒn/ or /ˈærəɡən/, Spanish and Aragonese: Aragón [aɾaˈɣon], Catalan: Aragó [əɾəˈɣo] or [aɾaˈɣo]) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces (from north to south): Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Its capital is Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(also called Saragossa in English). The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain. Covering an area of 47720 km2 (18420 sq mi)[2], the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands
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Palaeolithic
The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Palaeolithic /ˌpæliːəˈlɪθɪk/ is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.[1] It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
c. 11,650 cal BP.[2] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals.[3] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools
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Orsini
Orsini is a surname of Italian origin, ultimately derived from Latin ursinus ("bearlike") and originating as an epithet or sobriquet describing the name-bearer's purported strength
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Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe Buonaparte (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe di bwɔnaˈparte]; 7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples
Naples
and Sicily (1806–1808), and later King of Spain
Spain
(1808–1813, as José I). After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.Contents1 Early years and personal life 2 King of Naples 3 Spain 4 United States 5 Family and Issue 6 Freemasonry 7 Gallery 8 Titles and styles 9 Legacy 10 Fictional portrayals 11 Ancestry 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External linksEarly years and personal life[edit] Joseph was born in 1768 to Carlo Buonaparte
Carlo Buonaparte
and Maria Letizia Ramolino at Corte, the capital of the Corsican Republic
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