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it, Lucano (man)
it, Lucana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 = , demographics1_info2 = , demographics1_title3 = , demographics1_info3 = , timezone1 =
CET CET or cet may refer to: Places * Cet, Albania * Cet, standard astronomical abbreviation for the constellation Cetus * Colchester Town railway station (National Rail code CET), in Colchester, England Arts, entertainment, and media * Comcast Enter ...
, utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = CEST , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = , postal_code = , area_code_type =
ISO 3166 code ISO 3166 is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined ...
, area_code = IT-77 , blank_name_sec1 =
GDP (nominal) Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period. List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect di ...
, blank_info_sec1 = €12.6 billion (2018) , blank1_name_sec1 =
GDP per capita Lists of countries by GDP per capita list the countries in the world by their gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money ba ...
, blank1_info_sec1 = €22,200 (2018) , blank2_name_sec1 =
HDI The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
(2018) , blank2_info_sec1 = 0.853
· 17th of 21 , blank_name_sec2 =
NUTS Region
NUTS Region
, blank_info_sec2 = ITF , website
www.regione.basilicata.it
, footnotes = Basilicata (, , ), also known by
its ancient name
its ancient name
Lucania (, also , ), is an administrative
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...

region
in
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivisi ...
, bordering on
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
to the west,
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
to the north and east, and
Calabria Calabria (, , ; scn, label=Languages of Calabria, Calabrian, Calàbbria; el, script=Latn, label=Calabrian Greek, Calavría; el, Καλαβρία; aae, Kalavrì), known in classical antiquity, antiquity as Bruttium (), is a Regions of Italy, re ...

Calabria
to the south. It has two coastlines: a 30-km stretch on the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
between Campania and Calabria, and a longer coastline along the
Gulf of Taranto The Gulf of Taranto ( it, Golfo di Taranto; Tarantino: ; la, Sinus Tarentinus) is a gulf of the Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ) is an elongated bay of the Medi ...
between Calabria and Apulia. The region can be thought of as the "instep" of Italy, with Calabria functioning as the "toe" and Apulia the "heel". The region covers about . In 2010 the population was slightly under 600,000. The regional capital is
Potenza Potenza (, also , ; , Potentino dialect: ''Putenz'') is a city and ''comune'' in the Southern Italy, Italian region of Basilicata (former Lucania). Capital of the Province of Potenza and the Basilicata region, the city is the highest regional cap ...

Potenza
. The region is divided into two provinces:
Potenza Potenza (, also , ; , Potentino dialect: ''Putenz'') is a city and ''comune'' in the Southern Italy, Italian region of Basilicata (former Lucania). Capital of the Province of Potenza and the Basilicata region, the city is the highest regional cap ...
and
Matera Matera (, ; Materano: ) is a city in the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of th ...
. Its inhabitants are generally known as ''Lucanians'' ( it, Lucani), although this
ethnonym An ethnonym (from the el, ἔθνος 'nation' and 'name') is a name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given ...
should properly refer to ancient
Lucania Lucania ( grc-gre, Λευκανία, Leukanía, Lefkanía (Modern Greek)) was a historical region of Southern Italy. It was the land of the Lucanians, Lucani, an Oscan people. It extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. It borde ...

Lucania
's populations.


Etymology

The name probably derives from "'' basilikos''" ( el, βασιλικός), which refers to the ''
basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic quali ...
'', the
Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse ...
, who ruled the region for 200 years, from 536/552 to 571/590 and from 879 to 1059. Others argue that the name may refer to the Basilica of Acerenza, which held judicial power in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. During the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
Ages, Basilicata was known as
Lucania Lucania ( grc-gre, Λευκανία, Leukanía, Lefkanía (Modern Greek)) was a historical region of Southern Italy. It was the land of the Lucanians, Lucani, an Oscan people. It extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. It borde ...

Lucania
. This was possibly derived from "''leukos"'' (Greek: λευκός), meaning "white", from "''lykos''" (Greek: λύκος), meaning "
wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine Canine may refer to: Zoology * dog-like mammals (i.e. members of the canid subfamily Caninae) ** ''Canis'', a genus including dogs, wolves, coyotes, an ...

wolf
", or from Latin "''lūcus''", meaning " sacred wood".


Geography

Basilicata covers an extensive part of the southern
Apennine Mountains The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek or ) has the form of an adjective, which wou ...
, between the
Ofanto The Ofanto, known in ancient times as Aufidus or Canna, is a river in southern Italy that flows through the regions of Campania, Basilicata, and Apulia, into the Gulf of Manfredonia near Barletta. Geography The river's source is on the Irpinia P ...

Ofanto
river in the north and the
Pollino The Pollino (Italian: ''Massiccio del Pollino'') is a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, m ...
massif in the south. It is bordered on the east by a large part of the
Bradano The Bradano is a river in the Basilicata and Apulia regions of southern Italy. Its source is Castel Lagopesole, Lago Pesole (which is near Forenza and Filiano) in the province of Potenza. The river flows southeast near Monte Torretta, Acerenza, and ...

Bradano
river depression, which is traversed by numerous streams and declines to the southeastern coastal plains on the
Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ("our sea")) is an elongated bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such ...

Ionian Sea
. The region also has a short coastline to the southwest on the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
side of the peninsula. Basilicata is the most mountainous region in the south of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
, with 47% of its area of covered by mountains. Of the remaining area, 45% is hilly, and 8% is made up of plains. Notable mountains and ranges include the
Pollino The Pollino (Italian: ''Massiccio del Pollino'') is a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, m ...
massif, the
Dolomiti lucane
Dolomiti lucane
,
Monte Vulture
Monte Vulture
,
Monte Alpi
Monte Alpi
, Monte Carmine, Monti Li Foj and Toppa Pizzuta. Geological features of the region include the volcanic formations of
Monte Vulture
Monte Vulture
, and the seismic faults in the
Melfi Melfi (: ) is a town and ' in the of the , in the Southern Italian region of . Geographically, it is midway between and . In 2015 it had a population of 17,768. Geography On a hill at the foot of , Melfi is the most important town in Basilicat ...

Melfi
and
Potenza Potenza (, also , ; , Potentino dialect: ''Putenz'') is a city and ''comune'' in the Southern Italy, Italian region of Basilicata (former Lucania). Capital of the Province of Potenza and the Basilicata region, the city is the highest regional cap ...

Potenza
areas in the north, and around Pollino in the south. Much of the region was devastated in the
1857 Basilicata earthquake The 1857 Basilicata earthquake (also known as the Great Neapolitan earthquake) occurred on December 16 in the Basilicata it, Lucano (man) it, Lucana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = ...
. More recently, the
1980 Irpinia earthquake The 1980 Irpinia earthquake ( it, Terremoto dell'Irpinia) took place in Italy on November 23 with a moment magnitude scale, moment magnitude of 6.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity scale, Mercalli intensity of X (''Extreme''). It left at least 2, ...
destroyed many towns in the northwest of the region. The mountainous terrain combined with weak rock and soil types makes
landslide Landslides, also known as landslips, are several forms of mass wasting Mass wasting, also known as mass movement, is a general term for the movement of rock (geology), rock or soil down slopes under the force of gravity. It differs from othe ...

landslide
s prevalent. The lithological structure of the substratum and its chaotic tectonic deformation predispose the slope to landslides, and this problem is compounded by the lack of forested land. In common with many another Mediterranean region, Basilicata was once rich in forests, but they were largely felled and made barren during the time of Roman rule. The variable climate is influenced by three coastlines (
Adriatic The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...

Adriatic
, Ionian and Tyrrhenian) and the complexity of the region's physical features. In general, the climate is continental in the mountains and Mediterranean along the coasts.


History


Prehistory

The first traces of human presence in Basilicata date to the late
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...
, with findings of ''
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread s ...

Homo erectus
''. Late
Cenozoic The Cenozoic ( ; ) is Earth's current geological era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the ge ...

Cenozoic
fossils, found at
Venosa Venosa (Lucano: ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a North ...

Venosa
and other locations, include elephants, rhinoceros and species now extinct such as a
saber-toothed cat A saber-tooth (alternatively spelled sabre-tooth) is any member of various extinct groups of predatory Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "stud ...
of the
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
''
Machairodus
Machairodus
''. Examples of
rock art In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural surfaces, typically vertical stone surfaces. A high proportion of surviving historic and prehistoric rock art is found in caves or partly enclosed rock shelters; this type also ma ...
from the
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
have been discovered near
Filiano Filiano (Neapolitan language, Lucano: ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Potenza, in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata. It is bounded by the comuni (Municipality, Municipalities,) of Atella, Basilicata, Atella, Avigliano, Basilica ...
. From the fifth millennium, people stopped living in caves and built settlements of huts up to the rivers leading to the interior ( Tolve,
Tricarico Tricarico ( nap, label=Neapolitan language, Lucano, Trëcàrëchë ; ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Matera, Basilicata, southern Italy. It is home to one of the best preserved medieval historical centres in Lucania. Etymology The ...

Tricarico
,
Aliano Aliano is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, cont ...

Aliano
,
Melfi Melfi (: ) is a town and ' in the of the , in the Southern Italian region of . Geographically, it is midway between and . In 2015 it had a population of 17,768. Geography On a hill at the foot of , Melfi is the most important town in Basilicat ...

Melfi
,
Metaponto Metaponto is a small town of about 1,000 people in the province of Matera, Basilicata it, Lucano (man) it, Lucana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , d ...

Metaponto
). In this period,
anatomically modern humans Early modern human (EMH) or anatomically modern human (AMH) are terms used to distinguish ''Homo sapiens'' (the only extant Hominina species) that are Human anatomy, anatomically consistent with the Human variability, range of phenotypes seen i ...
lived by cultivating cereals and animal husbandry (
Bovinae The biological subfamily In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: ', plural ') is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family (biology), family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily ...
and
Caprinae The subfamily Caprinae is part of the ruminant Ruminants ( Ruminantia) are large herbivorous grazing or browsing s that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by it in a specialized prior to digestion, principally through mic ...
).
Chalcolithic The Chalcolithic (),The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) , p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective ''Archaeology'' of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BC, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, ...

Chalcolithic
sites include the grottoes of Latronico and the funerary findings of the Cervaro grotto near
Lagonegro Lagonegro (Neapolitan language, Lucano: ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Potenza, in the Southern Italy, Italian region of Basilicata. It is part of the Valle del Noce and has (2017) a population of 5,471. Geography The municipality, ...
. The first known stable market center of the
Apennine culture Apennine may refer to: *The Apennine Mountains The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek ...
on the sea, consisting of huts on the promontory of , near to
Maratea Maratea (; nap, Marathia, label= Marateota ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provide ...

Maratea
, dates to the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
. The first indigenous
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
communities lived in large villages in plateaus located at the borders of the plains and the rivers, in places fitting their breeding and agricultural activities. Such settlements include that of
Anglona
Anglona
, located between the fertile valleys of Agri and Sinni, of
Siris Siris may refer to: Geography *Siris (Magna Graecia), an ancient city in southern Italy *Serres, a city in Macedonia called Siris by the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus *Siris, Sardinia, an Italian commune *Sinni (river) (Siris in Latin), Italy * ...
and, on the coast of the
Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ("our sea")) is an elongated bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such ...

Ionian Sea
, of Incoronata-San Teodoro. The first presence of Greek colonists, coming from the Greek islands and
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
, date from the late eighth century BC. There are virtually no traces of survival of the 11th–8th century BC archaeological sites of the settlements (aside from a necropolis at Castelluccio on the coast of the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
): this was perhaps caused by the increasing presence of Greek colonies, which changed the balance of the trades.


Ancient history

In ancient historical times the region was originally known as
Lucania Lucania ( grc-gre, Λευκανία, Leukanía, Lefkanía (Modern Greek)) was a historical region of Southern Italy. It was the land of the Lucanians, Lucani, an Oscan people. It extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. It borde ...

Lucania
, named for the Lucani, an Oscan-speaking population from
central Italy Central Italy ( it, Italia centrale or just ) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula d ...
. Their name might be derived from Greek ''leukos'' meaning "white", ''lykos'' ("
gray wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine Canine may refer to: Zoology * dog-like mammals (i.e. members of the canid subfamily Caninae) ** ''Canis'', a genus including dogs, wolves, coyotes, a ...

gray wolf
"), or Latin ''lucus'' ("
sacred grove A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove Grove may refer to: * Grove (nature), a small group of trees Places England *Grove, Buckinghamshire, a village *Grove, Dorset *Grove, Herefordshire *Grove, Kent *Grove, Nottinghamshire, a villa ...
"). Or more probably
Lucania Lucania ( grc-gre, Λευκανία, Leukanía, Lefkanía (Modern Greek)) was a historical region of Southern Italy. It was the land of the Lucanians, Lucani, an Oscan people. It extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. It borde ...

Lucania
, as much as the
Lucius Lucius ( el, Λούκιος ''Loukios''; ett, Luvcie) is a male given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a quoted in that identifies a person, potentially with a as well, and differentiates that pe ...
forename (''
praenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use of proper names. An ''wikt:orthonym, orthonym'' is the proper nam ...
'') derives from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
word ''Lux'' (gen. ''lucis''), meaning "
light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nan ...

light
" (<
PIE A pie is a baked Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is grad ...
''*leuk-'' "brightness", Latin verb ''lucere'' "to shine"), and is a
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
of name
Lucas Lucas or LUCAS may refer to: People * Lucas (surname) * Lucas (given name) Arts and entertainment * Luca Family Singers, also known as "The Lucas" * Lucas (album), ''Lucas'' (album) (2007), an album by Skeletons and the Kings of All Cities * Lucas ...
. Another etymology proposed is a derivation from
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
''Lauchum'' (or ''Lauchme'') meaning "
king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...

king
", which however was transferred into Latin as ''Lucumo''. Starting from the late eighth century BC, the Greeks established a settlement first at
Siris Siris may refer to: Geography *Siris (Magna Graecia), an ancient city in southern Italy *Serres, a city in Macedonia called Siris by the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus *Siris, Sardinia, an Italian commune *Sinni (river) (Siris in Latin), Italy * ...
, founded by fugitives from
Colophon Colophon may refer to: * Colophon (city) in ancient Greece, located in modern Turkey * Colophon (beetle), ''Colophon'' (beetle), a genus of stag beetle Books and Publishing * Colophon (publishing), a brief description of the manuscript or book t ...
. Then with the foundation of
Metaponto Metaponto is a small town of about 1,000 people in the province of Matera, Basilicata it, Lucano (man) it, Lucana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , d ...

Metaponto
from Achaean colonists, they started the conquest of the whole Ionian coast. There were also indigenous Oenotrian foundations on the coast, which exploited the nearby presence of Greek settlements, such as
Velia , alternate_name = Hyele, Ele, Elea , image = Velia Excavation and Tower.jpg , alt = , caption = View of the excavations and the tower at Velia , map_type = Italy , map_alt = , map_size = , relief = , coordinates = , location = Vel ...

Velia
and Pyxous, for their maritime trades. The first contacts between the Lucanians and the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
date from the latter half of the fourth century BC. After the conquest of
Taranto Taranto (, also ; ; nap, label=Tarantino Quentin Jerome Tarantino (; born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear narrative, nonlinear storylines, dark humo ...

Taranto
in 272, Roman rule was extended to the whole region: the
Appian Way The Appian Way (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...

Appian Way
reached
Brindisi Brindisi ( , ; scn, label= Brindisino, Brìnnisi; la, Brundisium; grc, Βρεντέσιον, translit=Brentésion; cms, Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , ...

Brindisi
and the colonies of Potentia (modern
Potenza Potenza (, also , ; , Potentino dialect: ''Putenz'') is a city and ''comune'' in the Southern Italy, Italian region of Basilicata (former Lucania). Capital of the Province of Potenza and the Basilicata region, the city is the highest regional cap ...

Potenza
) and
Grumentum Grumentum ( grc, Γρούμεντον) was an ancient Ancient Rome, Roman city in the centre of Lucania, in what is now the ''comune'' of Grumento Nova, c. south of Potenza by the direct road through Anxia, and by the ''Via Herculia'', at the poi ...

Grumentum
were founded.


Middle Ages

After the fall of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
in 476, Basilicata fell to Germanic rule, which ended in the mid-6th century when the
Byzantines
Byzantines
reconquered it from the
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mention ...
between 536 and 552 during the apocalyptic Byzantine-Gothic war under the leadership of Byzantine generals Belisarius and Narses. The region, deeply Christianized since as early as the 5th century, became part of the
Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 ...
Duchy of Benevento The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population ...
founded by the invading Lombards between 571 and 590. In the following centuries,
Saracen file:Erhard Reuwich Sarazenen 1486.png, upright 1.5, Late 15th century German woodcut depicting Saracens Saracens () were primarily Arab Muslims, but also Turkish people, Turks, Persian people, Persians or other Muslims as referred to by Christian ...
raids led part of the population to move from the plain and coastal settlements to more protected centers located on hills. The towns of
Tricarico Tricarico ( nap, label=Neapolitan language, Lucano, Trëcàrëchë ; ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Matera, Basilicata, southern Italy. It is home to one of the best preserved medieval historical centres in Lucania. Etymology The ...

Tricarico
and
TursiTursi ( Tursitano: ; grc, Θυρσοί, translit=Thursoí; la, Tursium) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance ...
were under Muslim rule for a short period: later the "Saracen" population would be expelled. The region was conquered once more for Byzantium from the Saracens and the Lombards in the late 9th century, with the campaigns of
Nikephoros Phokas the Elder Nikephoros Phokas ( gr, Νικηφόρος Φωκᾶς, Nikēphoros Phōkas; died 895/6 or ), usually surnamed the Elder to distinguish him from his grandson, Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas, was one of the most prominent Byzantine The Byzanti ...
and his successors, and became part of the theme of
Longobardia Longobardia ( el, Λογγοβαρδία, also variously Λογγιβαρδία, ''Longibardia'' and Λαγουβαρδία, ''Lagoubardia'') was a Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, ...
. In 968 the ''
theme Theme or themes may refer to: * Theme (arts) In contemporary literary studies Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated eleme ...
'' of
Lucania Lucania ( grc-gre, Λευκανία, Leukanía, Lefkanía (Modern Greek)) was a historical region of Southern Italy. It was the land of the Lucanians, Lucani, an Oscan people. It extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. It borde ...

Lucania
was established, with the capital at Tursikon (Tursi). In the XI century, Basilicata, together with the rest of much of
southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivis ...
, was conquered by the
Normans The Normans (Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of N ...

Normans
.
Melfi Melfi (: ) is a town and ' in the of the , in the Southern Italian region of . Geographically, it is midway between and . In 2015 it had a population of 17,768. Geography On a hill at the foot of , Melfi is the most important town in Basilicat ...

Melfi
became the first capital of the County of Apulia (later
County of Apulia and Calabria The County of Apulia and Calabria, later the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria, was a Norman state founded by William of Hauteville in 1042 in the territories of Gargano, Capitanata, Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , populatio ...
) in 1043, where
Robert Guiscard Robert Guiscard (; Modern ; – 17 July 1085) was a Normans, Norman adventurer remembered for the Norman conquest of southern Italy, conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy, went on to become ...

Robert Guiscard
was named "Duke" by
Pope Nicholas II Pope Nicholas II ( la, Nicholaus II; c. 990/995 – 27 July 1061), otherwise known as Gerard of Burgundy, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 January 1059 until his death. At the time of his election, he was ...

Pope Nicholas II
. Inherited by the
Hohenstaufen The Hohenstaufen (, , ), also called Staufer, was a noble dynasty of unclear origin that rose to rule the Duchy of Swabia The Duchy of Swabia ( German: ''Herzogtum Schwaben'') was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German Kingdom. I ...

Hohenstaufen
,
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...

Frederick II
reorganized the administrative structure of his predecessors and the Justiciarate of Basilicata, whose borders coincided almost entirely with the actual region, was created. In Melfi, the Emperor promulgated the ''Liber Augustalis'' (commonly known as ''Constitutions of Melfi''), code of laws for the Kingdom of Sicily. The Swabians were ousted in the 13th century by the Capetian House of Anjou. Since then, Basilicata began to lose importance and was marked by an irreversible socio-political decline.


Modern and contemporary ages

In 1485, Basilicata was the seat of plotters against King Ferdinand I of Naples, the so-called ''conspiracy of the Barons'', which included the Sanseverino of Tricarico, the House of Caracciolo, Caracciolo of
Melfi Melfi (: ) is a town and ' in the of the , in the Southern Italian region of . Geographically, it is midway between and . In 2015 it had a population of 17,768. Geography On a hill at the foot of , Melfi is the most important town in Basilicat ...

Melfi
, the Gesualdo of Caggiano, the of Altamura and
Venosa Venosa (Lucano: ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a North ...

Venosa
and other anti-Aragonese families. Later, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V stripped most of the barons of their lands, replacing them with the House of Carafa, Carafa, Revertera, House of Pignatelli, Pignatelli and Colonna family, Colonna among others. After the formation of the Neapolitan Republic (1647), Basilicata also rebelled, but the revolt was suppressed. In 1663 a new province was created in Basilicata with its capital in Matera. The region came under the dominion of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, House of Bourbon in 1735. Basilicata autonomously declared its annexation to the Kingdom of Italy on August 18, 1860 with the Potenza insurrection. It was during this period that the State confiscated and sold off vast tracts of Basilicata's territory formerly owned by the Catholic Church. As the new owners were a handful of wealthy aristocratic families, the average citizen did not see any immediate economic and social improvements after unification, and poverty continued unabated. This gave rise to the phenomenon of Brigandage in Southern Italy after 1861, brigandage, which actually turned into a civil war in the form of a guerrilla fighting, whereby the Bourbon in exile and the Church encouraged the peasants to rise up against the Kingdom of Italy. This strong opposition movement continued for many years. The revolt in Basilicata was led by Carmine Crocco was the most important chief in the region and the most impressive band leader in southern Italy. It was only really after World War II that things slowly began to improve thanks to land reform. In 1952, the inhabitants of the Sassi di Matera were rehoused by the State, but many of Basilicata's population had emigrated or were in the process of emigrating, which led to a demographic crisis from which it is still recovering.


Demographics

Although Basilicata has never had a large population, there have nevertheless been quite considerable fluctuations in the demographic pattern of the region. In 1881, there were 539,258 inhabitants but by 1911 the population had decreased by 11% to 485,911, mainly as a result of emigration overseas. There was a slow increase in the population until World War II, after which there was a resurgence of emigration to other countries in Europe, which continued until 1971 and the start of another period of steady increase until 1993 (611,000 inhabitants). However, in recent years the population has decreased as a result of a new wave of migration, both towards northern Italy and to other countries in Europe, and a reduction in the birth rate. The population density is very low compared to that of Italy as a whole: 59.1 inhabitants per km2 compared to 200.4 nationwide in 2010. There is not a great difference between the population densities of the provinces of Matera and Potenza.


Government and politics


Administrative divisions

Basilicata is divided into two provinces:


Economy

Cultivation consists mainly of sowables (especially wheat), which represent 46% of the total land. Potatoes and maize are produced in the mountain areas. Olives and vine production is relatively small with about under cultivation. The terrain is mountainous and hilly with poor transportation routes that hinders harvesting. Most oils are sold unbranded and only 3% is exported. The main olive cultivars are Ogliarola del Vulture, Ogliarola del Bradano, Majatica di Ferrandina and Farasana with only Ogliarola del Vulture having the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). Other varieties are the Arnasca, Ascolana, Augellina, Cellina, Frantoio, Leccino, Majatica, Nostrale, Ogliarola (Ogliarola Barese), Palmarola or Fasolina, Rapolese di Lavello, and Sargano (Sargano di Fermo and Sargano di San Benedetto). Among industrial activities, the manufacturing sector contributes to the gross value added of the secondary sector with 64% of the total, while the building sector contributes 24%. Within the services sector, the main activities in terms of gross value added are business activities, distributive trade, education and public administration. In the last few years, new productive sectors have developed: manufacturing, automotive, and especially Extraction of petroleum, oil extraction. In 2009, Eni employed 230 people in this area (of whom over 50% were from Basilicata), and about 1,800 were employed in activities directly generated by Eni's operations, distributed in 80 companies of which over 50% were from Basilicata. The region produced about , meeting 11 percent of Italy's domestic oil demand. The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the region was 12.6 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 0.7% of Italy's economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 22,200 euros or 74% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 95% of the EU average.


Tourism

Difficult accessibility and lack of extended promotion make Basilicata one of the most remote and least visited regions of Italy. However, tourism is slowly growing since the early 2000s. Matera, once dubbed "national disgrace" by prime minister Alcide De Gasperi who urged to take strict development measures due to its extreme poverty, is now Basilicata's main attraction and has gained fame worldwide for its historical center, the Sassi di Matera, Sassi, designated in 1993 as a World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2019, Matera was designated as the European Capital of Culture. Seaside tourism is mainly concentrated in
Maratea Maratea (; nap, Marathia, label= Marateota ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provide ...

Maratea
, nicknamed "The Pearl of Tyrrhenian Sea", but also the Ionian sea, Ionian coast (Policoro, Pisticci, Bernalda, Nova Siri) is fairly developed. Naturalistic attractions include
Pollino The Pollino (Italian: ''Massiccio del Pollino'') is a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, m ...
, that hosts the Pollino National Park, largest national park in Italy, and Monte Vulture, Vulture. ''The New York Times'' ranked Basilicata third in its list of "52 Places to Go in 2018", describing it as "Italy’s best-kept secret".


Archeological sites

Basilicata has a variety of archeological sites containing traces of Prehistoric, Greek, Roman and Jewish heritage: *Civita,
Tricarico Tricarico ( nap, label=Neapolitan language, Lucano, Trëcàrëchë ; ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Matera, Basilicata, southern Italy. It is home to one of the best preserved medieval historical centres in Lucania. Etymology The ...

Tricarico
*
Grumentum Grumentum ( grc, Γρούμεντον) was an ancient Ancient Rome, Roman city in the centre of Lucania, in what is now the ''comune'' of Grumento Nova, c. south of Potenza by the direct road through Anxia, and by the ''Via Herculia'', at the poi ...

Grumentum
*Heraclea Lucania, Heraclea *Metapontum *Jewish catacombs of Venosa *Notarchirico *Petre de la Mola *Serra di Vaglio Basilicata, Vaglio *Venusia


Religious buildings

Basilicata hosts a series of religious structures. The abbey of Santissima Trinità, Venosa, Abbey of Santissima Trinità, Venosa, is one of the most representative, which includes marks of Roman, early Christian, Romanesque, Lombard and Norman origin. It was chosen by Robert Guiscard as the Hauteville family's burial (and he himself will be later buried there too). Other relevant religious buildings are: *Acerenza Cathedral *Irsina Cathedral *Matera Cathedral *Melfi Cathedral *Pierno Abbey, San Fele *Potenza Cathedral *Rapolla Cathedral *San Michele Abbey, Monticchio, San Michele Abbey, Monticchio *San Pietro Caveoso, San Pietro Caveoso Church, Matera *Sanctuary of Anglona,
TursiTursi ( Tursitano: ; grc, Θυρσοί, translit=Thursoí; la, Tursium) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance ...
*Tricarico Cathedral *Venosa Cathedral


Castles

Of many castles that existed in the region, mostly isolated towers and ruins have survived. The Melfi castle is perhaps the most iconic, where important events from the Middle Age took place, such as the five councils between the Normans and the Catholic Church and the constitutions of Melfi promulgated by Frederick II. The Malconsiglio castle, Miglionico, hosted the conspiracy of the Barons against Ferrante of Aragon. Among the other best preserved castles of the region are: *Bernalda castle *Lagopesole castle *Laurenzana castle *Castle of Muro Lucano, Muro Lucano castle *Castello Tramontano, Tramontano Castle *Venosa castle


Other sights

Basilicata has many small and pictoresque villages, seven of them have been selected by the The most beautiful villages in Italy association. However, they have to face depopulation problems, while others such as Craco and Campomaggiore saw their old sites abandoned due to natural disasters. Nonetheless filmakers, writers and musicians have given a boost to the rebirth of Craco, making it one of the most popular ghost towns in the world. Other historical and distinctive villages are: *Accettura *Acerenza *
Aliano Aliano is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, cont ...

Aliano
*Castelmezzano *Guardia Perticara *Pietrapertosa *Rivello *Rotondella *Satriano di Lucania *Valsinni *Viggianello


Culture


Art

Cave paintings were found in the Tuppo dei Sassi site (or Ranaldi shelter, after its discoverer Francesco Ranaldi, archaeologist and museum director), a prehistoric site in the
Filiano Filiano (Neapolitan language, Lucano: ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Potenza, in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata. It is bounded by the comuni (Municipality, Municipalities,) of Atella, Basilicata, Atella, Avigliano, Basilica ...
territory, considered the oldest artistic trace in Basilicata. During the Greek colonisation era, artists like the Pisticci Painter and the Amykos Painter operated in the area of
Metaponto Metaponto is a small town of about 1,000 people in the province of Matera, Basilicata it, Lucano (man) it, Lucana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , d ...

Metaponto
around the 5th century BC. Metaponto is one of the largest and earliest Greek centres of vase painting in Italy; the Lucanian vase painting began around 430 BC, with the works of the Pisticci Painter. In the Armento area the Kritonios Crown and the Armento Rider were found, now exposed in Munich and London respectively. The Jewish catacombs of Venosa are cited among the most significant signs of the Jewish presence in southern Italy. Around the 7th century, basilian monks settled in Basilicata, leaving a high concentration of rupestrian art, rupestrian churches (155 ascertained today), in Matera, Pollino and the Agri and Sinni Valleys. Frescoes from the Angevin Empire, Angevin period can be found in the Abbey of the Santissima Trinità (Venosa), Abbey of the Santissima Trinità of Venosa, the Rupestrian churches of S. Mary of the Valley in Matera, S. Antuono in Oppido Lucano, S. Lucia in Rapolla and S. Margherita in
Melfi Melfi (: ) is a town and ' in the of the , in the Southern Italian region of . Geographically, it is midway between and . In 2015 it had a population of 17,768. Geography On a hill at the foot of , Melfi is the most important town in Basilicat ...

Melfi
. The stone Nativity scene by Altobello Persio (1534) in the Matera Cathedral is an early example of Renaissance art in the region. Later Basilicata saw the imported and imitated art phenomenon with artists such as Giovanni Bellini and Cima da Conegliano, and Flemish painting by Dirck Hendricksz, Guglielmo Borremans, Aert Mijtens among the others. Local painters such as Pietrafesa (painter), Giovanni De Gregorio, Andrea Miglionico and Carlo Sellitto had a Neapolitan school background. An Lucan portrait of Leonardo da Vinci, alleged portrait of Leonardo da Vinci, dating back to the 1500s, was discovered in 2008, today exhibited in the Museo delle Antiche genti di Lucania, Vaglio Basilicata, Vaglio. Some artists from the 19th century include Vincenzo Marinelli, Giacomo Di Chirico and Michele Tedesco. Several contemporary artists gained fame outside Italy, among them are worth to mention Marino Di Teana, Eugenio Santoro and Joseph Stella, sometimes cited as the first Futurism, futurist painter in America. During his exile under the fascist regime, Carlo Levi, a painting passionate, left many works, today exposed in Matera.


Music

Although Basilicata hosted classical composers such as Carlo Gesualdo and Egidio Romualdo Duni, the region is primarily identified in popular music, which reflects the humble living conditions of its inhabitants. The ''arpa viggianese'' (commonly known as ''arpicedda'') is a typical harp from Viggiano of average size, with a thin and light structure that make it easier to carry; it was the distinctive instrument of street musicians from the Val d'Agri area in the past centuries, who wandered around the world and many of whom were admitted to symphony orchestras. Today, Viggiano is remembered as the "City of Harp and Music". Other traditional instruments are cupa cupa, zampogna and Piffero, ciaramella. During the emigration wave of the late 19th century, some composers gained recognition in North America: Leonardo De Lorenzo, flautist of several American philharmonic orchestras and professor at the Eastman School of Music, regarded as one of the most eminent flute pedagogues of the 1900s; Carlo Curti, who helped to popularize the mandolin in the United States and Mexico, and founder of the ''Orquestra Típica Mexicana'', considered the "predecessor of the Mariachi bands." Comedy duo Lyons and Yosco became popular for their million-selling ragtime piece "Spaghetti Rag". Modern pop artists such as Mango (singer), Mango and Arisa achieved great success in the Italian music scene. Since the mid 1990s, Basilicata hosts the Agglutination Metal Festival, one of the most long-lived heavy metal music, heavy metal events in Europe.


Cinema

Since the post–World War II era, Basilicata has become a set for many national and international film productions. Matera is the most coveted film location, especially for biblical-themed movies, being often compared with the ancient Jerusalem. Other locations include the ghost town of Craco,
Melfi Melfi (: ) is a town and ' in the of the , in the Southern Italian region of . Geographically, it is midway between and . In 2015 it had a population of 17,768. Geography On a hill at the foot of , Melfi is the most important town in Basilicat ...

Melfi
and
Maratea Maratea (; nap, Marathia, label= Marateota ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provide ...

Maratea
. The region hosted, among the others, the filming of ''The Gospel According to St. Matthew (film), The Gospel According to St. Matthew'' (1964), ''Christ Stopped at Eboli (film), Christ Stopped at Eboli'' (1979), ''I'm Not Scared'' (2003), ''The Passion of the Christ'' (2004), ''The Omen (2006 film), The Omen'' (2006), ''Quantum of Solace'' (2008), ''Wonder Woman (2017 film), Wonder Woman'' (2017), ''No Time to Die'' (2021). Some film directors are from Basilicata, most notably Robert G. Vignola, a prominent figure of the silent era, Pasquale Festa Campanile, associated with the ''commedia all'italiana'' genre, and Ruggero Deodato, known for his horror films such as the controversial ''Cannibal Holocaust''.


Cuisine

The local cuisine is mostly based on pork and sheep meat, legumes, cereals, vegetables and tubers. It is commonly referred to as "cucina povera" (peasant food), deeply anchored in peasant traditions. Bread crumb is considered a poor-man's cheese substitute, sprinkled over pasta dishes and used as a seasoning for meat and vegetables. Horseradish is often used as a spice and condiment, which is referred to as "poor man’s truffle". The peperone crusco (Prodotto agroalimentare tradizionale, PAT) is a specialty of the regional cuisine, sometimes labeled as "the red gold of Basilicata". It is the dried form of the peperone di Senise (Protected Geographical Status, PGI), one of the most popular Italian pepper varieties. Traditional recipes include pasta dishes like pasta con i peperoni cruschi and tumacë me tulë, and main courses such as rafanata, acquasale and U' pastizz 'rtunnar, pastizz. Basilicata is best known for the Lucanica di Picerno (PGI) pork sausage that derives from lucanica, an ancient recipe originated before the Roman empire. Pane di Matera (PGI) is a type of bread recognizable for its intense flavour and conical shape, as well as long preservation. Other principal products are cheeses like pecorino di Filiano (Protected Geographical Status, PDO), canestrato di Moliterno (PGI), padraccio (PAT) and treccia dura (PAT); vegetables like melanzana rossa di Rotonda (PDO); and legumes like fagiolo di Sarconi (PGI) and fagiolo bianco di Rotonda (PDO). The region is also known for its naturally sparkling mineral water that springs from the streams of Mount Vulture. Alcoholic beverages include Aglianico del Vulture, considered one of Italy's top red wines, and Amaro Lucano liqueur.


References


External links

*
Basilicata Tourist OfficeMatera – European Capital of Culture 2019Photo gallery made by a UNESCO photographer
{{Authority control Basilicata, Regions of Italy NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union Wine regions of Italy