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Coordinates: 40°30′N 16°30′E / 40.5°N 16.5°E / 40.5; 16.5

Basilicata

Region of Italy

Flag

Coat of arms

Country Italy

Capital Potenza

Government

 • President Marcello Pittella (PD)

Area

 • Total 9,995 km2 (3,859 sq mi)

Population (3 October 2012)

 • Total 575,902

 • Density 58/km2 (150/sq mi)

Demonym(s) Lucano (sing.), Lucani (pl.)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

GDP/ Nominal €11.4[1] billion (2008)

GDP per capita €19,100[2] (2008)

NUTS Region ITF

Website www.regione.basilicata.it

Basilicata
Basilicata
(Italian pronunciation: [basiliˈkaːta] or [baziliˈkaːta]), also known as Lucania, is a region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania
Campania
to the west, Apulia
Apulia
(Puglia) to the north and east, and Calabria
Calabria
to the south. It also has two coastlines, one on the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
between Campania
Campania
and Calabria, and a longer coastline along the Gulf of Taranto
Gulf of Taranto
between Calabria
Calabria
and Apulia. The region can be thought of as the "instep" of Italy, with Calabria functioning as the "toe" and Apulia
Apulia
the "heel". The region covers about 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) and in 2010 had a population slightly under 600,000. The regional capital is Potenza. The region is divided into two provinces: Potenza
Potenza
and Matera. The New York Times
The New York Times
ranked Basilicata
Basilicata
number 3 in its list of "52 Places to Go in 2018", defining it "Italy’s best-kept secret".[3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 History

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Ancient history 3.3 Middle Ages 3.4 Modern and contemporary ages

4 Economy 5 Demographics 6 Government and politics 7 Administrative divisions 8 Notable people 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] The name derives from "basilikos" (Greek: βασιλικός), which refers to the basileus, the Byzantine emperor, who ruled the region in the 9th–11th centuries. Others argue that the name may refer to the Basilica of Acerenza which held judicial power in the Middle Ages. During the Greek and Roman Ages, Basilicata
Basilicata
was known as Lucania, named after the tribes which populated the region in the Iron Age. Geography[edit]

Basilicata
Basilicata
. Landscape near Craco, Matera

A view of the Vulture region

Basilicata
Basilicata
covers an extensive part of the southern Apennine Mountains between Ofanto
Ofanto
in the north and the Pollino
Pollino
massif in the south. It is bordered on the east by a large part of the Bradano
Bradano
river depression which is traversed by numerous streams and declines to the southeastern coastal plains on the Ionian Sea. The region also has a short coastline to the southwest on the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
side of the peninsula. Basilicata
Basilicata
is the most mountainous region in the south of Italy, with 47% of its area of 9,992 km2 (3,858 sq mi) covered by mountains. Of the remaining area, 45% is hilly, and 8% is made up of plains. Notable mountains and ranges include Monte Alpi, Monte Carmine, Dolomiti lucane, Monti Li Foj, Pollino, Toppa Pizzuta and Monte Vulture. Geological features of the region include the volcanic Monte Vulture and the seismic faults in the Melfi
Melfi
and Potenza
Potenza
areas in the north and around Pollino
Pollino
in the south. Much of the region was devastated in the 1857 Basilicata
Basilicata
earthquake. More recently, there was another major earthquake in 1980. The combination of the mountainous terrain combined with the rock and soil types makes landslides prevalent. While the lithological structure of the substratum and its chaotic tectonic deformation contribute to the cause of landslides, this problem is compounded by the lack of forested land. This area, similar to others in the Mediterranean region, while originally abundant with dense forests, was stripped and made barren during the time of Roman rule. The variable climate is influenced by three coastlines (Adriatic, Ionian and Tyrrhenian) and the complexity of the region's physical features. The climate is continental in the mountains and Mediterranean along the coasts. History[edit] Prehistory[edit]

Venosa, fossil elephant skeleton

The first traces of human presence in Basilicata
Basilicata
date to the late Paleolithic, with findings of Homo erectus. Late Cenozoic
Cenozoic
fossils, found at Venosa
Venosa
and other locations, include elephants, rhinoceros and species now extinct such as a saber-toothed cat of the genus Machairodus. Examples of rock art from the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
have been discovered near Filiano. From the fifth millennium, people stopped living in caves and built settlements of huts up to the rivers leading to the interior (Tolve, Tricarico, Aliano, Melfi, Metaponto). In this period, anatomically modern humans lived by cultivating cereals and animal husbandry ( Bovinae
Bovinae
and Caprinae). Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
sites include the grottoes of Latronico
Latronico
and the funerary findings of the Cervaro grotto near Lagonegro. The first known stable market center of the Apennine culture on the sea, consisting of huts on the promontory of Capo la Timpa, near to Maratea, dates to the Bronze Age. The first indigenous Iron Age
Iron Age
communities lived in large villages in plateaus located at the borders of the plains and the rivers, in places fitting their breeding and agricultural activities. Such settlements include that of Anglona, located between the fertile valleys of Agri and Sinni, of Siris and, on the coast of the Ionian Sea, of Incoronata-San Teodoro. The first presence of Greek colonists, coming from the Greek islands and Anatolia, date from the late eighth century BC. There are virtually no traces of survival of the 11th-8th century BC archaeological sites of the settlements (aside from a necropolis at Castelluccio on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea: this was perhaps caused by the increasing presence of Greek colonies, which changed the balance of the trades. Ancient history[edit]

Metaponto, the Temple of Hera

In ancient historical times the region was originally known as Lucania, named for the Lucani, an Oscan-speaking population from central Italy. Their name might be derived from Greek leukos meaning "white", lykos ("gray wolf"), or Latin
Latin
lucus ("sacred grove"). Or more probably Lucania, as much as the Lucius
Lucius
forename (praenomen) derives from the Latin
Latin
word Lux (gen. lucis), meaning "light" (< PIE
PIE
*leuk- "brightness", Latin
Latin
verb lucere "to shine"), and is a cognate of name Lucas. Another etymology proposed is a derivation from Etruscan Lauchum (or Lauchme) meaning "king", which however was transferred into Latin
Latin
as Lucumo.[4] Starting from the late eighth century BC, the Greeks established a settlement first at Siris, founded by fugitives from Colophon. Then with the foundation of Metaponto
Metaponto
from Achaean colonists, they started the conquest of the whole Ionian coast. There were also indigenous Oenotrian foundations on the coast, which exploited the nearby presence of Greek settlements, such as Velia
Velia
and Pyxous, for their maritime trades.

The Castle of Melfi

The first contacts between the Lucanians and the Romans date from the latter half of the fourth century BC. After the conquest of Taranto
Taranto
in 272, Roman rule was extended to the whole region: the Appian Way reached Brindisi
Brindisi
and the colonies of Potentia (modern Potenza) and Grumentum
Grumentum
were founded. Middle Ages[edit] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Basilicata
Basilicata
fell to Germanic rule, which ended in the mid-6th century when the Byzantines reconquered it from the Ostrogoths. The region, deeply Christianized since as early as the 5th century, became part of the Lombard Duchy of Benevento in 568. In the following centuries, Saracen
Saracen
raids led part of the population to move from the plain and coastal settlements to more protected centers located on hills. The towns of Tricarico
Tricarico
and Tursi
Tursi
were under Muslim rule for a short period: later the "Saracen" population would be expelled.[5] The region was conquered once more for Byzantium from the Saracens and the Lombards
Lombards
in the late 9th century, with the campaigns of Nikephoros Phokas the Elder
Nikephoros Phokas the Elder
and his successors, and became part of the theme of Longobardia. In 968 the theme of Lucania
Lucania
was established, with the capital at Tursikon (Tursi). In 1059, Basilicata, together with the rest of southern Italy, was conquered by the Italo-Normans. Later, it was inherited by the Hohenstaufen, who were ousted in the 13th century by the Capetian House of Anjou. Modern and contemporary ages[edit]

The Sassi di Matera

In 1485, Basilicata
Basilicata
was the seat of plotters against King
King
Ferdinand I of Naples, the so-called "Conspiracy of the Barons", which included the Sanseverino of Tricarico, the Caracciolo of Melfi, the Gesualdo of Caggiano, the Orsini Del Balzo of Altamura
Altamura
and Venosa
Venosa
and other anti-Aragonese families. Later, Charles V stripped most of the barons of their lands, replacing them with the Carafa, Revertera, Pignatelli and Colonna among others. After the formation of the Neapolitan Republic (1647), Basilicata
Basilicata
also rebelled, but the revolt was suppressed. In 1663 a new province was created in Basilicata
Basilicata
with its capital in Matera. The region became part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
in 1735. Basilicata
Basilicata
autonomously declared its annexation to the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
on August 18, 1860 with the Potenza
Potenza
insurrection. It was during this period that the State confiscated and sold off vast tracts of Basilicata's territory formerly owned by the Catholic Church. As the new owners were a handful of wealthy aristocratic families, the average citizen did not see any immediate economic and social improvements after unification, and poverty continued unabated. This gave rise to the phenomenon of Brigandage in Southern Italy
Italy
after 1861, whereby the Church encouraged the local people to rise up against the nobility and the new Italian state. This strong opposition movement continued for many years. Carmine Crocco
Carmine Crocco
from Rionero in Vulture was the most important chief in the region and the most impressive leader in southern Italy.[6] It was only really after World War II
World War II
that things slowly began to improve thanks to land reform. In 1952, the inhabitants of the Sassi di Matera
Matera
were rehoused by the State, but many of Basilicata’s population had emigrated or were in the process of emigrating, which led to a demographic crisis from which it is still recovering. At the beginning of 1994, UNESCO
UNESCO
declared Sassi di Matera
Sassi di Matera
a World Heritage Site. Meanwhile, Fiat Automobiles
Fiat Automobiles
established a huge factory in Melfi, leading to jobs and an upsurge in the economy. In the same year the Pollino
Pollino
National Park was established. Economy[edit]

FIAT
FIAT
plant in Melfi

Cultivation consists mainly of sowables (especially wheat), which represent 46% of the total land. Potatoes and maize are produced in the mountain areas. Olives and vines are also commonly found. A quality wine called "Aglianico del Vulture" is produced around Rionero. According to the latest Census of Agriculture, there are large herds of cattle (77,711 head in 2000).[7] Among industrial activities, the manufacturing sector contributes to the gross value added of the secondary sector with 64% of the total, while the building sector contributes 24%. Within the services sector, the main activities in terms of gross value added are business activities, distributive trade, education and public administration. In the last few years, new productive sectors have developed: manufacturing, automotive, and especially oil extraction. In 2009, Eni employed 230 people in this area (of whom over 50% were from Basilicata), and about 1,800 were employed in activities directly generated by Eni’s operations, distributed in 80 companies of which over 50% were from Basilicata.[8] The region produced about 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d), meeting 11 percent of Italy's domestic oil demand.[9] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1861 509,000 —    

1871 524,000 +2.9%

1881 539,000 +2.9%

1901 492,000 −8.7%

1911 486,000 −1.2%

1921 492,000 +1.2%

1931 514,000 +4.5%

1936 543,000 +5.6%

1951 628,000 +15.7%

1961 644,000 +2.5%

1971 603,000 −6.4%

1981 610,000 +1.2%

1991 611,000 +0.2%

2001 598,000 −2.1%

2010 (estimate) 587,000 −1.8%

2017 570,365 −2.8%

Source: ISTAT, 2001

Although Basilicata
Basilicata
has never had a large population, there have nevertheless been quite considerable fluctuations in the demographic pattern of the region. In 1881, there were 539,258 inhabitants but by 1911 the population had decreased by 11% to 485,911, mainly as a result of emigration overseas. There was a slow increase in the population until World War II, after which there was a resurgence of emigration to other countries in Europe, which continued until 1971 and the start of another period of steady increase until 1993 (611,000 inhabitants). However, in recent years the population has decreased as a result of migration and a reduction in the birth rate.[10] The population density is very low compared to that of Italy
Italy
as a whole: 59.1 inhabitants per km² compared to 200.4 nationally in 2010. There is not a great difference between the population densities of the provinces of Matera
Matera
and Potenza.[10] Government and politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Basilicata Administrative divisions[edit] Basilicata
Basilicata
is divided into two provinces:

Province Area (km2) Population Density (inh./km2)

Province of Matera 3,447 203,837 59.1

Province of Potenza 6,545 387,107 59.1

Notable people[edit] Notable people linked to Basilicata
Basilicata
include:

Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BC): Greek philosopher Hippasus of Metapontum
Hippasus of Metapontum
(fl. 5th century BC): philosopher Zeuxis
Zeuxis
(fl. 5th century BC): painter Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Marcus Claudius Marcellus
(c. 268–208 BC), Roman consul and general Horace
Horace
(65 BC–8 BC): Roman poet Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
(c. 1015–1085): Norman mercenary Obadiah the Proselyte
Obadiah the Proselyte
(fl. 12th century): Byzantine Jew composer Frederick II (1194–1250): Holy Roman Emperor Manfred (1232–1266): King
King
of Sicily Roger of Lauria
Roger of Lauria
(c. 1245–1305): admiral Joanna I (1328–1382): Queen of Naples Isabella di Morra
Isabella di Morra
(c. 1520–1545/1546): poet Carlo Gesualdo
Carlo Gesualdo
(1566–1613): composer and murderer Egidio Romualdo Duni
Egidio Romualdo Duni
(1708–1775): composer Gerard Majella
Gerard Majella
(1726–1755), friar and Catholic Saint Francesco Mario Pagano
Francesco Mario Pagano
(1748–1799): jurist and philosopher Joseph Forlenze
Joseph Forlenze
(1757–1833): Italian French surgeon Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina
Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina
(1815-1890): journalist and patriot Carmine Crocco
Carmine Crocco
(1830–1905): brigand Giovanni Passannante
Giovanni Passannante
(1849–1910): anarchist Francesco Saverio Nitti
Francesco Saverio Nitti
(1868–1953): economist and politician, Prime Minister of Italy Leonardo De Lorenzo (1875–1962): flautist and music educator Joseph Stella
Joseph Stella
(1877–1946): Italian American painter Robert G. Vignola
Robert G. Vignola
(1882–1953): Italian American actor and film director Johnny Torrio
Johnny Torrio
(1882–1957): Italian American mobster Carlo Levi
Carlo Levi
(1902–1975): writer, painter and anti-fascist Young Corbett III
Young Corbett III
(1905–1993): Italian American boxer Anthony J. Celebrezze
Anthony J. Celebrezze
(1910–1998): Italian American politician Lina Wertmüller
Lina Wertmüller
(1928): film director and screenwriter Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1931–2005): American actress Ron Galella
Ron Galella
(1931): American photographer, known as a paparazzo Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1939): American film director and screenwriter Ruggero Deodato
Ruggero Deodato
(1939): film director and screenwriter Danny DeVito
Danny DeVito
(1944): American actor Mango (1954–2014): singer-songwriter Gerardo Martino
Gerardo Martino
(1962): Argentine football manager Arisa
Arisa
(1982): singer and actress Simone Zaza
Simone Zaza
(1991): footballer

References[edit]

^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "EUROPA - Press Releases - Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London". Europa.eu. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "52 Places to Go in 2018". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ Bonfante G., Bonfante L, The Etruscan Language: An Introduction, 1983, p. 59. ^ Archivio storico per le province napoletane. Società napoletana di storia patria. 1876.  ^ Eric Hobsbawm, Bandits, Penguin, 1985, p. 25. ^ "Eurostat". Circa.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ [1] Archived 11 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Oil Exploration in Basilicata, Italy". Fossilfreeeib.org. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011.  ^ a b "Eurostat". Circa.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Basilicata.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Basilicata.

"Life is Beautiful - a travel music video Official website Map of Basilicata Pollino
Pollino
Walking Into The Wild Side of Basilicata Basilicata
Basilicata
autentica Basilicata
Basilicata
Tourist Office Palazzo Rinaldi Artists' Residences in Basilicata Basilicata
Basilicata
Tourist Office (in Northern Sami) Documentary Film about the Sassi in Matera, Roba Forestiera, 44 min., 2004 Sassi di Matera
Sassi di Matera
PHOTO Tour Basilicata's typical products Video introduction to Basilicata History, visit and spots of interest of art cities and villages of Basilicata Photo gallery made by the UNESCO
UNESCO
photographer of Matera

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