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Massylii
The Massylii or Maesulians were a Berber federation of tribes in eastern Numidia, which was formed by an amalgamation of smaller tribes during the 4th century BC.[1] They were ruled by a king. On their loosely defined western frontier were the powerful Masaesyli. To their east lay the territory of the rich and powerful Carthaginian Republic. Their relationship to Carthage resembled that of a protectorate.[1] Carthage maintained its dominance over the Massylii by skillful diplomatic manoeuvering, playing off local tribal and kingdom rivalries.[1] The principal towns of the Massylii were Cirta, Tébessa and Thugga. Role In The Second Punic War[edit] In 218 BC war broke out between the Carthaginians and the Romans
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Berbers And Islam
The Berbers
Berbers
(autonym: Imazighen) are an indigenous ethnic group of the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa. Following the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of the Maghreb, most Berber tribes eventually became Muslims, and today Arab-Berber
Arab-Berber
(of mixed Arab
Arab
and Berber ancestry) and Arabized Berbers ( Berbers
Berbers
who have assimilated into the Arab
Arab
population)[citation needed]. Presently, about one-sixth of the population of Maghreb speaks one of the Berber languages (mostly in Algeria and Morocco), but most of them also speak some form of Arabic.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Berbers
Berbers
in Al-Andalus 3 See also 4 ReferencesBackground[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources
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Iberian Peninsula
The Iberian Peninsula
Peninsula
/aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnɪnsjʊlə/,[a] also known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/,[b] is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal
Portugal
and Spain, comprising most of their territory. It also includes Andorra, and a small part of France
France
along the peninsula's northeastern edge, as well as Gibraltar
Gibraltar
on its south coast, a small peninsula that forms an overseas territory of the United Kingdom
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Jarawa (Berber Tribe)
Jarawa may refer to:Jarawas (Andaman Islands), one of the indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands Jarawa language (Andaman Islands) Jarawa (Berber tribe), a Berber tribal confederacy that flourished in northwest Africa during the seventh century Jarawa (Nigeria), an ethnic group in Plateau State, Nigeria
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Musulamii
The Musulamii
Musulamii
were a confederation of the Berber Gaetulian tribes,[1] who inhabited the desert regions of what is today known as Chotts Regions in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria, as well as the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis, which was annexed to the Roman empire in 44 AD
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Tifinagh
Tifinagh
Tifinagh
(Berber pronunciation: [tifinaɣ]; also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ; Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⵊⵉⵏⵗ or ⵜⵊⵏⵗ) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.[1] A modern alphabetical derivative of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was introduced in the 20th century
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Berber Latin Alphabet
The Berber Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
(Berber languages: Agemmay Amaziɣ Alatin) is the version of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
used to write the Berber languages. It was adopted in the 19th century, using varieties of letters
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Berber Jews
Berber Jews
Berber Jews
are the Jewish communities of the Atlas mountains
Atlas mountains
in Morocco, and previously in Algeria, which historically spoke Berber languages. Between 1950 and 1970 most emigrated to France, the United States, or Israel.[1]Contents1 History1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Islamic period 1.3 After the Arab–Israeli War2 Origin 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Antiquity[edit] Jews have settled in North Africa
North Africa
since Roman times and a Jewish community existed in the Roman province of Africa, which is modern Tunisia
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Dougga
Dougga
Dougga
or Thugga (Berber: Dugga, Tugga, Arabic: دڨة or دقة‎  Doggā) is a Romano-Berber city in northern Tunisia, included in a 65 hectare archaeological site.[1] UNESCO
UNESCO
qualified Dougga
Dougga
as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1997, believing that it represents “the best-preserved Roman small town in North Africa”. The site, which lies in the middle of the countryside, has been protected from the encroachment of modern urbanisation, in contrast, for example, to Carthage, which has been pillaged and rebuilt on numerous occasions. Thugga’s size, its well-preserved monuments and its rich Numidian-Berber, Punic, ancient Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
history make it exceptional
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Cirta
Cirta
Cirta
(from Berber: KRTN or Kirthan,[1] Phoenician: Tzirta) was the capital city of the Berber Kingdom of Numidia
Numidia
in northern Africa (modern Algeria). Its strategically important port city was Russicada. Although Numidia
Numidia
was a key ally of the ancient Roman Republic
Roman Republic
during the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
(264–146 BC), Cirta
Cirta
was subject to Roman invasions during the 1st and 2nd centuries BC. Eventually it went under Roman dominion during the rule of Julius Caesar
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Protectorate
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of
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Tébessa
Tébessa
Tébessa
(Berber languages: ⵜⴱⴻⵙⴰ Tbessa or Tibesti, Arabic: تبسة‎), is the capital city of Tébessa
Tébessa
Province, in the Shawi region of Algeria, 20 kilometers west from the border with Tunisia. Nearby is also a phosphate mine. The city is famous for the traditional Algerian carpets in the region, and is home to over 634,332 people (in 2007).Contents1 History1.1 Main sights2 Climate 3 Transportation 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] For the Ancient Greeks, Tébessa
Tébessa
was known as Theveste
Theveste
(Θεβέστη or Hekatompyle, Ἑκατομπύλη; meaning hundred gates). In 146 BCE, Tbessa it became part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
with the name Theveste. During the 1st century CE, the Legio III Augusta
Legio III Augusta
resided there before being transferred to Lambaesis
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Ancient Carthage
Carthage
Carthage
(Punic: Qart-ḥadašt, 𐤒𐤓𐤕•𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕‬, Qart-ḥadašt – "New City")[1] was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage
Carthage
and during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, including its wider sphere of influence, the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of North Africa
North Africa
as well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia
Iberia
and the islands of the western Mediterranean Sea.[2] Carthage
Carthage
was founded in 814 BC.[3][4] A dependency of the Phoenician state of Tyre at the time, Carthage
Carthage
gained independence around 650 BC and established its political hegemony over other Phoenician settlements throughout the western Mediterranean, this lasting until the end of the 3rd century BC
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Numidian Language
East Numidian, also known as Old Libyan, was the language of the Maesulians of the eastern part of ancient Numidia
Numidia
during the Pre-Roman era, in what is now Algeria.[citation needed] The language is scarcely attested and can be confidently identified only as belonging to the Afroasiatic family. As the Maesulians were ethnically Berber, it is supposed that East Numidian was therefore a Berber language. The Berber branch of Afro-Asiatic is sometimes called Lybico-Berber since it is not certain whether East Numidian would fall within the modern Berber languages
Berber languages
or form a sister branch to them. Indeed, it is widely supposed that it constitutes a group of its own, as there is no trace of the noun-case system shared by the modern Berber languages
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Traditional Berber Religion
The traditional Berber religion is the ancient and native set of beliefs and deities adhered to by the Berber autochthones of North Africa. Many ancient Berber beliefs were developed locally, whereas others were influenced over time through contact with other traditional African religions (such as the Ancient Egyptian religion), or borrowed during antiquity from the Punic religion, Judaism, Iberian mythology, and the Hellenistic religion. The most recent influence came from Islam
Islam
and pre-Islamic Arab religion during the medieval period. Some of the ancient Berber beliefs still exist today subtly within the Berber popular culture and tradition
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