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Algeria portalvte Numidia
Numidia
(202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria
Algeria
and a smaller part of Tunisia
Tunisia
, Libya
Libya
and Morocco
Morocco
in the Berber world. The polity was originally divided between Massylii in the east and Masaesyli in the west. During the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
(218–201 BC), Massinissa, king of the Massylii, defeated Syphax
Syphax
of the Masaesyli to unify Numidia into one kingdom. The kingdom began as a sovereign state and later alternated between being a Roman province
Roman province
and a Roman client state. It was bordered by Atlantic ocean
Atlantic ocean
to the west, Africa Proconsularis (modern-day Tunisia) to the east, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, and the Sahara Desert
Sahara Desert
to the south. It is considered to be one of the first major states in the history of Algeria
Algeria
and the Berber world.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Independence 1.2 War with Rome 1.3 Divided kingdom 1.4 Roman provinces

2 Major cities 3 Episcopal sees 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit] Independence[edit] The Numidian mauseoleum of El-Khroub
El-Khroub
photographed AD 2000 The Greek historians referred to these peoples as "Νομάδες" (i.e. Nomads), which by Latin interpretation became "Numidae" (but cf. also the correct use of Nomades).[2] Historian Gabriel Camps, however, disputes this claim, favoring instead an African origin for the term.[3] The name appears first in Polybius
Polybius
(second century BC) to indicate the peoples and territory west of Carthage
Carthage
including the entire north of Algeria
Algeria
as far as the river Mulucha (Muluya), about 160 kilometres (100 mi) west of Oran.[4] The Numidians
Numidians
were composed of two great tribal groups: the Massylii in eastern Numidia, and the Masaesyli in the west. During the first part of the Second Punic War, the eastern Massylii, under their king Gala, were allied with Carthage
Carthage
(a 'Punic', i.e. Phoenician, Semitic, mercantile sea empire called after its capital in present Tunisia), while the western Masaesyli, under king Syphax, were allied with Rome. However, in 206 BC, the new king of the eastern Massylii, Masinissa, allied himself with Rome, and Syphax
Syphax
of the Masaesyli switched his allegiance to the Carthaginian side. At the end of the war, the victorious Romans gave all of Numidia
Numidia
to Masinissa
Masinissa
of the Massylii.[4] At the time of his death in 148 BC, Masinissa's territory extended from Mauretania
Mauretania
to the boundary of the Carthaginian territory, and also southeast as far as Cyrenaica, so that Numidia
Numidia
entirely surrounded Carthage
Carthage
(Appian, Punica, 106) except towards the sea. After the death of the long-lived Masinissa
Masinissa
around 148 BC, he was succeeded by his son Micipsa. When Micipsa died in 118 BC, he was succeeded jointly by his two sons Hiempsal I and Adherbal and Masinissa's illegitimate grandson, Jugurtha, of Ancient Libyan origin, who was very popular among the Numidians. Hiempsal and Jugurtha quarrelled immediately after the death of Micipsa. Jugurtha
Jugurtha
had Hiempsal killed, which led to open war with Adherbal.[citation needed]

War with Rome[edit] Main article: Jugurthine War By 112 BC, Jugurtha
Jugurtha
resumed his war with Adherbal. He incurred the wrath of Rome in the process by killing some Roman businessmen who were aiding Adherbal. After a brief war with Rome, Jugurtha surrendered and received a highly favourable peace treaty, which raised suspicions of bribery once more. The local Roman commander was summoned to Rome to face corruption charges brought by his political rival Gaius Memmius. Jugurtha
Jugurtha
was also forced to come to Rome to testify against the Roman commander, where he[which?] was completely discredited once his violent and ruthless past became widely known, and after he had been suspected of murdering a Numidian rival. War broke out between Numidia
Numidia
and the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and several legions were dispatched to North Africa under the command of the Consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus. The war dragged out into a long and seemingly endless campaign as the Romans tried to defeat Jugurtha
Jugurtha
decisively. Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Metellus' lieutenant Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
returned to Rome to seek election as Consul. Marius was elected, and then returned to Numidia
Numidia
to take control of the war. He sent his Quaestor Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
to neighbouring Mauretania
Mauretania
in order to eliminate their support for Jugurtha. With the help of Bocchus I
Bocchus I
of Mauretania, Sulla captured Jugurtha
Jugurtha
and brought the war to a conclusive end. Jugurtha
Jugurtha
was brought to Rome in chains and was placed in the Tullianum.[citation needed] Jugurtha
Jugurtha
was executed by the Romans in 104 BC, after being paraded through the streets in Gaius Marius' Triumph.[citation needed]

Divided kingdom[edit] After the death of Jugurtha, the far west of Numidia
Numidia
was added to the lands of Bocchus I, king of Mauretania.[4] A rump kingdom continued to be governed by native princes.[4] It appears that on the death of King Gauda in 88 BC, the kingdom was divided into a larger eastern kingdom and a smaller western kingdom (roughly the Petite Kabylie). The kings of the east minted coins, while no known coins of the western kings survive. The western kings may have been vassals of the eastern.[5][6] The civil war between Caesar and Pompey brought an end to independent Numidia
Numidia
in 46 BC.[4] The western kingdom between the Sava (Oued Soummam) and Ampsaga (Oued-el-Kebir) rivers passed to Bocchus II, while the eastern kingdom became a Roman province. The remainder of the western kingdom plus the city of Cirta, which may have belonged to either kingdom, became briefly an autonomous principality under Publius Sittius. Between 44 and 40 BC, the old western kingdom was once again under a Numidian king, Arabio, who killed Sittius and took his place. He involved himself in Rome's civil wars and was himself killed.[6]

Roman provinces[edit] Main article: Numidia
Numidia
(Roman province) Northern Africa under Roman rule After the death of Arabio, Numidia
Numidia
became the Roman province
Roman province
of Africa Nova except for a brief period when Augustus restored Juba II
Juba II
(son of Juba I) as a client king (29–27 BC). Eastern Numidia
Numidia
was annexed in 46 BC to create a new Roman province, Africa Nova. Western Numidia
Numidia
was also annexed after the death of its last king, Arabio, in 40 BC, and the two provinces were united with Tripolitana by Emperor Augustus, to create Africa Proconsularis. In AD 40, the western portion of Africa Proconsularis, including its legionary garrison, was placed under an imperial legatus, and in effect became a separate province of Numidia, though the legatus of Numidia
Numidia
remained nominally subordinate to the proconsul of Africa until AD 203.[7] Under Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
(193 AD), Numidia
Numidia
was separated from Africa Proconsularis, and governed by an imperial procurator.[4] Under the new organization of the empire by Diocletian, Numidia
Numidia
was divided in two provinces: the north became Numidia
Numidia
Cirtensis, with capital at Cirta, while the south, which included the Aurès Mountains
Aurès Mountains
and was threatened by raids, became Numidia
Numidia
Militiana, "Military Numidia", with capital at the legionary base of Lambaesis. Subsequently, however, Emperor Constantine the Great reunited the two provinces in a single one, administered from Cirta, which was now renamed Constantina (modern Constantine) in his honour. Its governor was raised to the rank of consularis in 320, and the province remained one of the seven provinces of the diocese of Africa until the invasion of the Vandals in 428 AD, which began its slow decay,[4] accompanied by desertification. It was restored to Roman rule after the Vandalic War, when it became part of the new praetorian prefecture of Africa.[citation needed]

Major cities[edit] Numidia
Numidia
became highly romanized and was studded with numerous towns.[4] The chief towns of Roman Numidia
Numidia
were: in the north, Cirta
Cirta
or modern Constantine, the capital, with its port Russicada (Modern Skikda); and Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
(near Bône), well known as the see of St. Augustine. To the south in the interior military roads led to Theveste
Theveste
(Tebessa) and Lambaesis
Lambaesis
(Lambessa) with extensive Roman remains, connected by military roads with Cirta
Cirta
and Hippo, respectively.[4][8] Lambaesis
Lambaesis
was the seat of the Legio III Augusta, and the most important strategic centre.[4] It commanded the passes of the Aurès Mountains
Aurès Mountains
(Mons Aurasius), a mountain block that separated Numidia
Numidia
from the Gaetuli
Gaetuli
Berber tribes of the desert, and which was gradually occupied in its whole extent by the Romans under the Empire. Including these towns, there were altogether twenty that are known to have received at one time or another the title and status of Roman colonies; and in the 5th century, the Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
enumerates no fewer than 123 sees whose bishops assembled at Carthage
Carthage
in 479.[4]

Episcopal sees[edit] Ancient episcopal sees of Numidia
Numidia
listed in the Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
as titular sees:[9]

Alba (in the region of Qarentina) Ampora Aquae (Henchir-El-Hammam) Aquae Novae Aquae Thibilitanae (Hammam-Meskhoutine) Arae Arsacal (Goulia) Augurus (ruins of Sidi-Tahar and Sidi-Embarec?) Ausuccura (Ascours?) Azura Babra, Numidia
Babra, Numidia
(ruins in the territory of Babar) Badiae (Badès) Bagai (Ksar-Bagaï) Baia, Numidia (Henchir Settara? Henchir-El-Hammam?) Bamaccora Barica Belesasa Betagbara Bocconia Buffada Burca Caesarea (Youks-les-Bains, Henchir-El-Hammam) Caesariana (ruins of Kessaria) Calama Capsus, Numidia
Numidia
(Aïn-Guigba) Casae Calanae Casae (El Madher) Casae Medianae (Henchir-El-Taouil?) Casae Nigrae (near Negrine) Castellum (Henchir-Gastal) Castellum Titulianum Castra Galbae (Ksar-Galaba?) Cataquas (near Annaba) Cediae (Oum-Kif) Celerina (Guebeur-Bou-Aoun) Cemerianus Centenaria (Henchir-El-Harmel? Henchir-Cheddi?) Centuria (ruins of Aïn-Hadjar-Allah? Fedj-Deriasse?) Centuriones (ruins of El-Kentour) Ceramussa (Gueramoussa?) Chullu
Chullu
(Collo) Coeliana (Ain Tine) Cuicul
Cuicul
(Djémila) Diana (Numidia)
Diana (Numidia)
(Aïn Zana) Dusa Fata Fesseë Forma (ruins of Kherbet-Fraim?) Fussala Gadiaufala
Gadiaufala
(Ksar Sbehi) Garba (ruins of Aïn-Garb) Gaudiaba Gauriana (Henchir-Gouraï?) Gemellae Germania (ruins of Ksar-El-Kelb?) Gibba (Henchir-Dibba) Gilba Giru Marcelli Girus (in the region of Djemila?) Girus Tarasii Guzabeta (ruins at Henchir-Zerdan?) Hospita Idassa (has namesakes) (near Merkeb-Talha) Idicra (Aïn-Aziz-Bin-Tellis) Iucundiana Iziriana Irzidzada Lambaesis
Lambaesis
(in the territory of Batna) Lambiridi (Kherbet-Ouled-Arif) Lamiggiga
Lamiggiga
(Seriana) Lamphua (Aïn-Foua) Lamsorti (Henchir-Mâfouna) Lamzella
Lamzella
(Henchir-Resdis) Leges (in the territory of Mila or Annaba) Legia Legis Volumni Liberalia (oasis of Lioua?) Limata (in the territory of Mila) Lugura (Aïn-Laoura?) Macomades (Merkeb-Talha) Macomades Rusticiana (Canrobert, Oum-El-Bouaghi?) Madaurus Mades Magarmel (Aïn-Moughmel?) Mascula
Mascula
(Khenchela) Mathara Maximiana (ruins of Mexmeia?) Mazaca Merouana
Merouana
(Lamasba) Mesarfelta Meta Midila (Mdila?) Milevum Mons (near Mdila) Moxori Mulia (ruins of El-Milia?) Municipa Musti Mutugenna
Mutugenna
(ruins of Aïn-Tebla?) Naratcata Nasai (Aïn Zoul?) Nebbi (in the territory of Tobma) Nicives (N'Gaous) Nigizubi Nigrae Maiores (Besseriani) Nova Barbara (ruins of Beni-Barbar?, Henchir-Barbar?) Nova Caesaris Nova Germania (near Khamissa) Nova Petra (ruins of Encedda?) Nova Sinna Nova Soarsa Octava Pauzera Pudentiana Regiana (Henchir-Tacoucht?) Respecta Ressiana (in the territory of Mila) Rotaria (Henchir-Loulou, Renier?) Rusicade
Rusicade
(Skikda) Rusticiana Seleuciana Sigus Sila (Bordj-El-Ksar) Silli Sinitis (near Annaba) Sistroniana Sitifis
Sitifis
(Setif) Suava Summa (ruins of Zemma?) Tabuda
Tabuda
(Thouda) Tacarata (in the territory of Mila or in that of Annaba) Tarasa (Henchir-Tarsa?) Teglata Thagaste Thagora Thamugadi Theveste Thiava (near Annaba
Annaba
or Souk-Ahras) Thibaris Thibilis
Thibilis
(Announa) Thinisa Thubunae Thubursicum
Thubursicum
(Khemissa) Thucca (Henchir-El-Abiodh) Tiddi Tigillava (Mechta-Djillaoua) Tigisis (Aïn el-Bordj) Tipasa in Numidia Tisedi (near Aziz-Ben-Tellis) Tituli in Numidia
Numidia
(ruins of Aïn-Nemeur? ruins of Aïn-Merdja?) Tullia (near Annaba) Turres (in the territory of Annaba) Turres Ammeniae Turres Concordiae Tubusuptu (Tiklat) Turris Rotunda Ubaza (Terrebaza) Vaga (modern day Béja) Vadesi Vagada (ruins of El-Aria?) Vageata Vagrauta Vatarba Vegesela in Numidia (ruins of Ksar-Bou-Saïd? of Ksar-El-Kelb? Henchir-El-Abiodh?) Velefi
Velefi
(ruins of Fedj-Es-Soyoud?) Verrona (Henchir-El-Hatba) Vescera (Biskra) Vicus Caesaris Vicus Pacati (Aïn-Mechara?) Villa regis (near Tobna) Zaba (ruins of Tolga in the territory of Zab?) Zaraï Zattara (Bouchegouf District) Zerta (near Merkeb-Talha)

See also[edit] List of Kings of Numidia Numidians Numidian cavalry Roman Libya Africa (Roman province) Shawiya language References[edit]

^ Jongeling. Karel & Kerr, Robert M. (2005). Late Punic epigraphy: an introduction to the study of Neo-Punic and Latino-Punic inscriptions. Mohr Siebeck. p. 4. ISBN 3-16-148728-1..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Numida and Nomas

^ Camps, Gabriel. "Les Numides et la civilisation punique". Antiquités africaines (in French). 14 (1): 43–53. doi:10.3406/antaf.1979.1016.

^ a b c d e f g h i j k  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Numidia" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 868–869.

^ Duane W. Roller (2003), The World of Juba II
Juba II
and Kleopatra Selene: Royal Scholarship on Rome's African Frontier, New York: Routledge, p. 25.

^ a b Gabriel Camps (1989) [published online 2012], "Arabion", Encyclopédie berbère, 6: Antilopes–Arzuges, Aix-en-Provence: Edisud, pp. 831–34, retrieved 13 February 2017.

^ J. D. Fage; Roland Anthony Oliver (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-521-21592-3.

^ Detailed map of Roman Numidia

^ Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819–1013

Further reading[edit] Daho, Keltoum Kitouni; Filah, Mohamed El Mostéfa (2003). L'Algérie au temps des royaumes numides [" Algeria
Algeria
at the time of the Numidian kingdoms"] (in French). Somogy Editions d'Art. ISBN 2850566527. Horn, Heinz Günter; Rüger, Christoph B. (1979). Die Numider. Reiter und Könige nördlich der Sahara ["The Numidians. Horsemen and kings north of the Sahara"] (in German). Rheinland. ISBN 3792704986. Kuttner, Ann (2013). "Representing Hellenistic Numidia, in Africa and at Rome". In Jonathan R. W. Prag, Josephine Crawley Quinn (ed.). The Hellenistic West. Rethinking the Ancient Mediterranean. Cambridge University. pp. 216–272. ISBN 1107032423. Quinn, Josephine Crawley (2013). "Monumental power: 'Numidian Royal Architecture' in context". In Jonathan R. W. Prag, Josephine Crawley Quinn (ed.). The Hellenistic West. Rethinking the Ancient Mediterranean (PDF). Cambridge University. pp. 179–215. ISBN 1107032423. External links[edit] Numidia.startkabel.nl (Links in Dutch and English) Authority control VIAF: 138467229 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via

.