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Mashhad
Mashhad
Mashhad
(Persian: مشهد‎, Mašhad IPA: [mæʃˈhæd] ( listen)), also spelled Mashad
Mashad
or Meshad[3][4][5], is the second most populous city in Iran
Iran
and capital of Razavi Khorasan
Razavi Khorasan
Province. It is located in the northeast of the country, near the borders with Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Afghanistan. It has a population of 3,001,184 inhabitants (2016 census), which includes the areas of Mashhad
Mashhad
Taman and Torqabeh.[6] It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road
Silk Road
connecting with Merv
Merv
to the East. The city is named after Imam Reza, the eighth Shia Imam. The Imam was buried in a village in Khorasan, which afterwards gained the name Mashhad, meaning the place of martyrdom
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Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(/ˈʃɑːrləmeɪn/) or Charles
Charles
the Great[a] (2 April 742[1][b] – 28 January 814), numbered Charles
Charles
I, was King of the Franks
Franks
from 768, King of the Lombards
Lombards
from 774 and Holy Roman Emperor from 800. He united much of western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
three centuries earlier.[2] The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire
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Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 40°N 60°E / 40°N 60°E / 40; 60Turkmenistan Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)FlagEmblemAnthem:  Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni (English: "State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan")Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)Capital and largest city Ashgabat 37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333Official languages Turkmen[1]Inter-ethnic languages RussianEthnic groups (2003)85% Turkmen 5% Uzbek 4% Russian 6% others[2]Demonym TurkmenGovernment Unitary authoritarian presidential republic• PresidentGurbanguly Berdimuhamedow• Chairman of the MejlisAkja NurberdiýewaLegislature MejlisFormation• 
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Iran Standard Time
Iran
Iran
Standard Time (IRST) or Iran
Iran
Time (IT) is the time zone used in Iran. Iran
Iran
uses a UTC offset UTC+03:30. IRST is defined by the 52.5 degrees east meridian, the same meridian which defines the Iranian calendar and is the official meridian of Iran. Between 2005 and 2008, by decree of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Iran
Iran
did not observe daylight saving time (called Iran
Iran
Daylight Time or IRDT).[1][2] It was reintroduced from 21 March 2008.Contents1 Daylight Saving Transitions Dates 2 Time zone
Time zone
changes 3 IANA time zone database 4 See also 5 ReferencesDaylight Saving Transitions Dates[edit] Iran
Iran
is unusual in that the dates of DST transitions aren't based on a rule such as the third Monday in September
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UTC+03
UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03. In areas using this time offset, the time is three hours later than the Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC). Following the ISO 8601 standard, a time with this offset would be written as, for example, 2018-04-07T14:46:21+03:00 (boldface only here to be clear). Some areas in the world use UTC+03:00 all year, other areas only part of the year.Contents1 As standard time (all year round)1.1 Europe 1.2 Asia1.2.1 Arabia Standard Time1.3 Africa2 As daylight saving time (Northern Hemisphere summer only)2.1 Europe 2.2 Western Asia3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesAs standard time (all year round)[edit] Principal cities: Istanbul, Moscow, Baghdad Europe[edit] Main articles: Further-eastern European Time, Moscow
Moscow
Time, and Time in Turkey Most of European Russia, including Moscow, St
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Daylight Saving Time
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
(abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in US, Canadian and Australian speech,[1][2] and known as British Summer Time
British Summer Time
(BST) in the UK and just summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time.[3] George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895.[4] The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916
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UTC+04
UTC+04:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +04. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2018-04-06T02:17:58+04:00
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BSk
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.Regions with semi-arid climates   BSh   BSkContents1 Defining attributes of semi-arid climates 2 Hot semi-arid climates 3 Cold semi-arid climates 4 Regions of varying classification 5 Charts of selected cities 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDefining attributes of semi-arid climates[edit] A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates (BSk and BSh) as intermediates between desert climates (BW) and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Afghanistan
Coordinates: 33°N 65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65Islamic Republic of Afghanistanد افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت‬ (Pashto) Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان‬ (Dari) Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh AfġānestānFlagCoat of armsMotto: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله‬ "Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh" "There is no God but Allah; Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of Allah. (Shahada)Anthem: Millī Surūd ملي سرود‬ (English: "National Anthem")Capital and larg
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Demonym
A demonym (/ˈdɛmənɪm/; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.[1] It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously gentilic was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary.[2][3][4] Examples of demonyms include Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast and Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Silk Road
The Silk
Silk
Road was an ancient network of trade routes connecting the East and West which for centuries was central to cultural interaction between them.[1][2][3] The Silk
Silk
Road refers to both the terrestrial and the maritime routes connecting Asia with the Middle East
Middle East
and southern Europe. The Silk
Silk
Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(207 BCE–220 CE)
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Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Turkic Peoples
Islam (Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja'fari) Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Christianity) Judaism (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites) Irreligion (Agnosticism · Atheism) Buddhism, Animism, Tengrism, Shamanism, ManiThe Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia
Western Asia
as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. They speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family.[27] As racial purity has never been a Turkic membership criterion, many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
through language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion in a process called Turkification
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Afghan
Afghan (also referred to as Afghanistani) (Pashto/Persian: افغان‎; see etymology) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country.[1][2] Prior to the rise of the nation as Afghanistan, it was used by Persian speakers and those influenced by the Persian language
Persian language
to denote the Pashtun people
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Tribe
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically, and/or historically, as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states. A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. It is perhaps the term most readily understood and used by the general public to describe such communities
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