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Abu ʾl-Qasim Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi[1] (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet[2] and the author of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
(" Book
Book
of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
is celebrated as the most influential figure in Persian literature
Persian literature
and one of the greatest in the history of literature. He was called "the Lord of the Word" and "the Savior of the Persian Language".[3]

Contents

1 Name 2 Life

2.1 Family 2.2 Background 2.3 Life as a poet 2.4 Tomb

3 Legend 4 Works 5 Gallery 6 Influence 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Name[edit] Except for his kunya (ابوالقاسم‬ - Abu'l-Qāsim) and his laqab (فِردَوسی‬ - Ferdowsī, meaning 'paradisic'), nothing is known with any certainty about his full name. From an early period on, he has been referred to by different additional names and titles, the most common one being حکیم / Ḥakīm ("philosopher").[4] Based on this, his full name is given in Persian sources as حکیم ابوالقاسم فردوسی توسی‬ / Ḥakīm Abu'l-Qāsim Firdowsī Țusī. Due to the non-standardized transliteration from Persian into English, different spellings of his name are used in English works, including Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi, etc. The Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
uses the spelling Firdawsī, based on the standardized transliteration method of the German Oriental Society.[1] The Encyclopædia Iranica, which uses a modified version of the same method (with a stronger emphasis on Persian intonations), gives the spelling Ferdowsī.[4] In both cases, the -ow and -aw are to be pronounced as a diphthong ([aʊ̯]), reflecting the original Arabic and the early New Persian
New Persian
pronunciation of the name. The modern Tajik transliteration of his name in Cyrillic script is Ҳаким Абулқосим Фирдавсӣ Тӯсӣ. Life[edit] Family[edit] Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
was born into a family of Iranian landowners (dehqans) in 940 in the village of Paj, near the city of Tus, in the Khorasan region of the Samanid Empire, which is located in the present-day Razavi Khorasan Province
Khorasan Province
of northeastern Iran.[5] Little is known about Ferdowsi's early life. The poet had a wife, who was probably literate and came from the same dehqan class. He had a son, who died at the age of 37, and was mourned by the poet in an elegy which he inserted into the Shahnameh.[4] Background[edit] Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
belonged to the class of dehqans. These were landowning Iranian aristocrats who had flourished under the Sassanid dynasty (the last pre-Islamic dynasty to rule Iran) and whose power, though diminished, had survived into the Islamic era which followed the Islamic conquests of the 7th century. The dehqans were attached to the pre-Islamic literary heritage, as their status was associated with it (so much so that dehqan is sometimes used as a synonym for "Iranian" in the Shahnameh). Thus they saw it as their task to preserve the pre-Islamic cultural traditions, including tales of legendary kings.[4][5] The Islamic conquests of the 7th century brought gradual linguistic and cultural changes to the Iranian Plateau. By the late 9th century, as the power of the caliphate had weakened, several local dynasties emerged in Greater Iran.[5] Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
grew up in Tus, a city under the control of one of these dynasties, the Samanids, who claimed descent from the Sassanid general Bahram Chobin[citation needed](whose story Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
recounts in one of the later sections of the Shahnameh).[6] The Samanid bureaucracy used the New Persian
New Persian
language, which had been used to bring Islam to the Eastern regions of the Iranian world and supplanted local languages, and commissioned translations of Pahlavi (Middle Persian) texts into New Persian. Abu Mansur Muhammad, a dehqan and governor of Tus, had ordered his minister Abu Mansur Mamari to invite several local scholars to compile a prose Shahnameh
Shahnameh
(" Book
Book
of Kings"), which was completed in 1010.[7] Although it no longer survives, Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
used it as one of the sources of his epic. Samanid rulers were patrons of such important Persian poets as Rudaki
Rudaki
and Daqiqi, and Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
followed in the footsteps of these writers.[8] Details about Ferdowsi's education are lacking. Judging by the Shahnameh, there is no evidence he knew either Arabic or Pahlavi.[4] Life as a poet[edit]

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
and the three Ghaznavid court poets

It is possible that Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
wrote some early poems which have not survived. He began work on the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
around 977, intending it as a continuation of the work of his fellow poet Daqiqi, who had been assassinated by a slave. Like Daqiqi, Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
employed the prose Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of ʿAbd-al-Razzāq as a source. He received generous patronage from the Samanid prince Mansur and completed the first version of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
in 994.[4] When the Turkic Ghaznavids overthrew the Samanids
Samanids
in the late 990s, Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
continued to work on the poem, rewriting sections to praise the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud. Mahmud's attitude to Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
and how well he rewarded the poet are matters which have long been subject to dispute and have formed the basis of legends about the poet and his patron (see below). The Turkic Mahmud may have been less interested in tales from Iranian history than the Samanids.[5] The later sections of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
have passages which reveal Ferdowsi's fluctuating moods: in some he complains about old age, poverty, illness and the death of his son; in others, he appears happier. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
finally completed his epic on 8 March 1010. Virtually nothing is known with any certainty about the last decade of his life.[4] Tomb[edit]

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
tomb

Main article: Tomb of Ferdowsi Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
was buried in his own garden, burial in the cemetery of Tus having been forbidden by a local cleric. A Ghaznavid governor of Khorasan constructed a mausoleum over the grave and it became a revered site. The tomb, which had fallen into decay, was rebuilt between 1928 and 1934 by the Society for the National Heritage of Iran on the orders of Rezā Shāh, and has now become the equivalent of a national shrine.[9] Legend[edit] According to legend, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
offered Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
a gold piece for every couplet of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
he wrote. The poet agreed to receive the money as a lump sum when he had completed the epic. He planned to use it to rebuild the dykes in his native Tus. After thirty years of work, Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
finished his masterpiece. The sultan prepared to give him 60,000 gold pieces, one for every couplet, as agreed. However, the courtier whom Mahmud had entrusted with the money despised Ferdowsi, regarding him as a heretic, and he replaced the gold coins with silver. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
was in the bath house when he received the reward. Finding it was silver and not gold, he gave the money away to the bathkeeper, a refreshment seller, and the slave who had carried the coins. When the courtier told the sultan about Ferdowsi's behaviour, he was furious and threatened to execute him. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
fled Khorasan, having first written a satire on Mahmud, and spent most of the remainder of his life in exile. Mahmud eventually learned the truth about the courtier's deception and had him either banished or executed. By this time, the aged Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
had returned to Tus. The sultan sent him a new gift of 60,000 gold pieces, but just as the caravan bearing the money entered the gates of Tus, a funeral procession exited the gates on the opposite side: the poet had died from a heart attack.[10] Works[edit] Main article: Shahnameh

Scenes from the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
carved into reliefs at Ferdowsi's mausoleum in Tus, Iran

Ferdowsi's Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is the most popular and influential national epic in Iran
Iran
and other Persian-speaking nations. The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is the only surviving work by Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
regarded as indisputably genuine. He may have written poems earlier in his life but they no longer exist. A narrative poem, Yūsof o Zolaykā (Joseph and Zuleika), was once attributed to him, but scholarly consensus now rejects the idea it is his.[4] There has also been speculation about the satire Ferdowsi allegedly wrote about Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
after the sultan failed to reward him sufficiently. Nezami Aruzi, Ferdowsi's early biographer, claimed that all but six lines had been destroyed by a well-wisher who had paid Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
a thousand dirhams for the poem. Introductions to some manuscripts of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
include verses purporting to be the satire. Some scholars have viewed them as fabricated; others are more inclined to believe in their authenticity.[11] Gallery[edit]

The Sasanian King Khusraw and Courtiers in a Garden, page from a manuscript of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
( Book
Book
of Kings), late 15th–early 16th century, Brooklyn Museum

Scene from the Shahnameh: the Akvan Div throws the sleeping Rostam into the sea

Bath scene

The Simurgh, a mythical bird from the Shahnameh, relief from Ferdowsi's mausoleum

A scene from the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
depicting the Parthian king Artaban facing the Sassanid king Ardashir I

Influence[edit]

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Mausoleum of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
in Tus, Iran

One of Ferdowsi's poems: "Think for your lord's gratification – be intellectual and truthful", written on the wall of a school in Iran

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
is one of the undisputed giants of Persian literature. After Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, a number of other works similar in nature surfaced over the centuries within the cultural sphere of the Persian language. Without exception, all such works were based in style and method on Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, but none of them could quite achieve the same degree of fame and popularity as Ferdowsi's masterpiece.[citation needed] Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
has a unique place in Persian history because of the strides he made in reviving and regenerating the Persian language
Persian language
and cultural traditions. His works are cited as a crucial component in the persistence of the Persian language, as those works allowed much of the tongue to remain codified and intact. In this respect, Ferdowsi surpasses Nizami, Khayyám, Asadi Tusi and other seminal Persian literary figures in his impact on Persian culture and language.[citation needed] Many modern Iranians see him as the father of the modern Persian language. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
in fact was a motivation behind many future Persian figures. One such notable figure was Rezā Shāh
Rezā Shāh
Pahlavi, who established an Academy of Persian Language and Literature, in order to attempt to remove Arabic and French words from the Persian language, replacing them with suitable Persian alternatives. In 1934, Rezā Shāh
Rezā Shāh
set up a ceremony in Mashhad, Khorasan, celebrating a thousand years of Persian literature since the time of Ferdowsi, titled " Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Millennial Celebration", inviting notable European as well as Iranian scholars.[12] Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad
Mashhad
is a university established in 1949 that also takes its name from Ferdowsi. Ferdowsi's influence in the Persian culture is explained by the Encyclopædia Britannica:[13]

The Persians regard Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
as the greatest of their poets. For nearly a thousand years they have continued to read and to listen to recitations from his masterwork, the Shah-nameh, in which the Persian national epic found its final and enduring form. Though written about 1,000 years ago, this work is as intelligible to the average, modern Iranian as the King James Version of the Bible is to a modern English-speaker. The language, based as the poem is on a Dari original, is pure Persian with only the slightest admixture of Arabic.

See also[edit]

Poetry portal

Iranian Studies Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
millennial celebration Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad List of Persian poets and authors Persian literature Sassanid Empire List of mausoleums Jerry Clinton Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(1934 film)

Notes[edit]

^ a b Huart/Massé/Ménage: Firdawsī. In: Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. Brill, Leiden. CD-Version (2011) ^ Britannica "Ferdowsī, also spelled Firdawsī, Firdusi, or Firdousi, pseudonym of Abū al-Qasem Manṣūr, (born c. 935, near Ṭūs, Iran—died c. 1020–26, Ṭūs), Persian poet, author of the Shāh-nāmeh (“ Book
Book
of Kings”), the Persian national epic, to which he gave a final and enduring form, although he based his poem mainly on an earlier prose version." ^ Hamid Dabashi (2012). The World of Persian Literary Humanism. Harvard University Press.  ^ a b c d e f g h Shahbazi, A. Shahpur (26 January 2012). "Ferdowsi". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 1 February 2016.  ^ a b c d Davis 2006, p. xviii ^ Frye 1975, p. 200 ^ "Abu Mansur". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Frye 1975, p. 202 ^ Shahbazi, A. Shahpur (26 January 2012). "Mausoleum". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 1 February 2016.  ^ Donna Rosenberg (1997). Folklore, myths, and legends: a world perspective. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 99–101.  ^ Shahbazi, A. Shahpur (26 January 2012). "Hajw-nāma". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 1 February 2016.  ^ Cyrus Ghani, Sirus Ghani (2001). Iran
Iran
and the rise of Reza Shah: from Qajar collapse to Pahlavi rule. I.B.Tauris. p. 400.  ^ "Ferdowsi". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2007. 

References[edit]

Davis, Dick (2006). Introduction. Shahnameh: the Persian book of kings. By Ferdowsi, Abolqasem. Viking. ISBN 0-670-03485-1.  Frye, Richard N. (1975). The Golden Age of Persia. Weidenfield.  Browne, E.G. (1998). Literary History of Persia. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X.  Rypka, Jan (1968). History of Iranian Literature. Reidel. ISBN 90-277-0143-1. OCLC 460598.  Aghaee, Shirzad (1997). Imazh-ha-ye mehr va mah dar Shahnameh-ye Ferdousi (Sun and Moon in the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdousi. Spånga, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-5369-1.  Aghaee, Shirzad (1993). Nam-e kasan va ja'i-ha dar Shahnameh-ye Ferdousi (Personalities and Places in the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdousi. Nyköping, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-1959-0.  Wiesehöfer, Josef. Ancient Persia. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-675-1.  Shahbazi, A. Shapur (1991). Ferdowsi: a critical biography. Harvard University, Center for Middle Eastern Studies. ISBN 0-939214-83-0.  Mackey, Sandra; Harrop, W. Scott (2008). The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the soul of a nation. University of Michigan. ISBN 0-525-94005-7.  Chopra, R. M. (2014). Great Poets of Classical Persian. Kolkata: Sparrow. ISBN 978-81-89140-75-5.  Waghmar, Burzine and Sharma, Sunil (2016). Firdawsi: a Scholium. In Sunil Sharma and Burzine Waghmar, eds. Firdawsii Millennium Indicum: Proceedings of the Shahnama Millenary Seminar, K R Cama Oriental Institute, Mumbai, 8-9 January, 2011, pp 7-18. Mumbai: K. R. Cama Oriental Institute, ISBN 978-93-81324-10-3.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ferdowsi.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Ferdowsi

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ferdowsi

Works by Firdawsi at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
at Internet Archive Khosrow Nāghed, In the Workshop of Thought and Imagination of the Master of Tūs (Dar Kargāh-e Andisheh va Khiāl-e Ostād-e Tūs), in Persian, Radio Zamāneh, 5 August 2008. Ferdowsi: Poems Ferdowsi's poems in English Iraj Bashiri, The Shahname of Firdowsi Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Museum photos Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Tomb photos A king's book of kings: the Shah-nameh of Shah Tahmasp, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF) Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Quotes

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University of Mashhad Tomb of Ferdowsi

Lands

Ghazni List of places in Shahnameh Turan Tus Zabulistan

Organizations

Firdeusi Institute

People

Abolhassan Sadighi Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Asadi Tusi Bondari Esfahani Hooshang Seyhoun Julius von Mohl Keikhosrow Shahrokh Mir Jalaleddin Kazzazi Mohammad-Ali Eslami Nodooshan Mohammad-Amin Riahi

Memorial

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
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Ferdowsi millennial celebration
in Berlin Firdousi (crater)

Depictions in others' Works

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(film) A New Prologue to the Shahnameh

Related topics

Abu-Mansuri Shahnameh Bizhan Nama Borzu Nama Derafsh Kaviani Kurdish Shahnameh Persian art Persian mythology Persians and I Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab
Sohrab
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Category Book Template

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Shahnameh
of Ferdowsi

Characters

Pishdadian

Keyumars Hushang Tahmuras Jamshid Fereydun Iraj Manuchehr Nowzar Zaav Garshasp

Kayanian

Kay Kawād Kay Kāvus Kay Khosrow Kay Lohrasp Goshtāsb Kay Bahman Homai Kay Darab Dara

Characters

Siamak Mardas Zahhak Shahrasp Abtin Kayanoush Kāve Arash Salm Tur Qobád Qaren Tous Gostaham Nariman Sām Zāl Rostam Sohrab Esfandiyār Pashotan Faramarz Fariborz Siyâvash Farud Zangay-i Shavaran Kashvad Goudarz Rohham Hojir Bahram Giv Bizhan Japasp Garshasp Gorgin Mehrab Kaboli Zavara Shaghad Rostam
Rostam
Farrokhzād

Women

Faranak Arnavāz Shahrnāz Sindukht Rudaba Sudabeh Tahmina Gordafarid Farangis Manizheh Katāyoun

Turanian

Zadashm Pashang Aghrirat Garsivaz Afrasiab Shideh Arjasp Viseh Nastihan Piran Viseh Houman Barman Biderafsh

Clans and families

Kashvadian House of Goudarz House of Viseh House of Nowzar House of Sasan House of Sām

Creatures & animals

Akvan Div Khazawran-i Div Arzhang Div Div-e Sepid Koulad-Ghandi Huma bird Simurgh Rakhsh Shabdiz Shabrang

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Iran Turan Zabulistan Sistan Kabul Balkh Ctesiphon Estakhr Mazandaran Alborzkouh Mount Damavand Tammisha Kasa-Roud ...

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Gonbadan Castle Dez-i Roein White Castle Bahman Castle Dez-i Alanan Kang-dez

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See also

Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Abu-Mansuri Shahnameh Derafsh Kaviani Babr-e Bayan Zal and Rudabeh Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab Rostam's Seven Labours Davazdah Rokh Khosrow and Shirin Bijan and Manijeh Persian mythology

Category Book

v t e

Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab
Sohrab
from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh

Characters

Rostam Sohrab

Operas

Rustam and Zohrab
Rustam and Zohrab
(1910 Hajibeyov) Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab
Sohrab
(1963 Tjeknavorian)

Other

Rustom O Sohrab (play) Sohrab
Sohrab
and Rustum (epic poem) Battle of the Kings: Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab
Sohrab
(film) Farsala Trilogy (novels)

v t e

Persian literature

Old

Behistun Inscription Old Persian inscriptions Ganjnameh Inscription of Xerxes the Great in Van Fortress Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg Island

Middle

Ayadgar-i Zariran Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan Dēnkard Book
Book
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Book
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Shabuhragan
of Mani Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr Bundahishn Menog-i Khrad Jamasp Namag Dadestan-i Denig Anthology of Zadspram Warshtmansr Zand-i Wahman yasn Drakht-i Asurig Shikand-gumanig Vizar

Classical

900s

Rudaki Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(Shahnameh) Abu Shakur Balkhi Abu Tahir Khosrovani Shahid Balkhi Bal'ami Rabia Balkhi Abusaeid Abolkheir
Abusaeid Abolkheir
(967–1049) Avicenna
Avicenna
(980–1037) Unsuri Asjadi Kisai Marvazi Ayyuqi

1000s

Bābā Tāher Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
(1004–1088) Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111) Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
(1006–1088) Asadi Tusi Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072) Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
(1018–1092) Masud Sa'd Salman (1046–1121) Moezi Neyshapuri Omar Khayyām (1048–1131) Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani Ahmad Ghazali Hujwiri Manuchehri Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131) Uthman Mukhtari Abu-al-Faraj Runi Sanai Banu Goshasp Borzu-Nama Afdal al-Din Kashani Abu'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami Mu'izzi Mahsati
Mahsati
Ganjavi

1100s

Hakim Iranshah Suzani Samarqandi Hassan Ghaznavi Faramarz
Faramarz
Nama Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
(1155–1191) Adib Sabir Falaki Shirvani Am'aq Najm al-Din Razi Attār (1142–c.1220) Khaghani
Khaghani
(1120–1190) Anvari (1126–1189) Faramarz-e Khodadad Nizami Ganjavi
Nizami Ganjavi
(1141–1209) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Kamal al-din Esfahani Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
(d.1248)

1200s

Abu Tahir Tarsusi Awhadi Maraghai Shams al-Din Qays Razi Sultan Walad Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī Afdal al-Din Kashani Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi Mahmud Shabistari
Mahmud Shabistari
(1288–1320s) Abu'l Majd Tabrizi Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325) Saadi (Bustan / Golestān) Bahram-e-Pazhdo Pur-Baha Jami Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo Rumi Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314) Nozhat al-Majales Khwaju Kermani Sultan Walad

1300s

Ibn Yamin Shah Ni'matullah Wali Hafez Abu Ali Qalandar Fazlallah Astarabadi Nasimi Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani

1400s

Ubayd Zakani Salman Sawaji Hatefi Jami Kamal Khujandi Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535) Fuzûlî
Fuzûlî
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(1487–1524) Baba Faghani Shirzani

1500s

Faizi (1547–1595) Abu'l-Fazl (1551–1602) Vahshi Bafqi (1523–1583) 'Orfi Shirazi

1600s

Taleb Amoli Saib Tabrizi (1607–1670) Kalim Kashani Hazin Lāhiji (1692–1766) Saba Kashani Bēdil Dehlavi (1642–1720) Naw'i Khabushani

1700s

Neshat Esfahani Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)

1800s

Ghalib
Ghalib
(1797–1869) Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)

Contemporary

Poetry

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Screenplays

Saeed Aghighi Rakhshan Bani-E'temad Bahram Beyzai Hajir Darioush Pouran Derakhshandeh Asghar Farhadi Bahman Farmanara Farrokh Ghaffari Behrouz Gharibpour Bahman Ghobadi Fereydun
Fereydun
Gole Ebrahim Golestan Ali Hatami Abolfazl Jalili Ebrahim Hatamikia Abdolreza Kahani Varuzh Karim-Masihi Samuel Khachikian Abbas Kiarostami David Mahmoudieh Majid Majidi Mohsen Makhmalbaf Dariush Mehrjui Reza Mirkarimi Rasoul Mollagholipour Amir Naderi Jafar Panahi Kambuzia Partovi Rasul Sadr Ameli Mohammad Sadri Parviz Shahbazi Sohrab
Sohrab
Shahid-Saless

Translators

Amrollah Abjadian Jaleh Amouzgar Najaf Daryabandari Behzad Ghaderi Sohi Mohammad Ghazi Lili Golestan Sadegh Hedayat Saleh Hosseini Ahmad Kamyabi Mask Mohammad Moin Ebrahim Pourdavoud Hamid Samandarian Jalal Sattari Jafar Shahidi Ahmad Shamlou Ahmad Tafazzoli Abbas Zaryab

Essayists

Aydin Aghdashloo Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi Ehsan Yarshater

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 101359236 LCCN: n79094717 ISNI: 0000 0001 2145 689X GND: 118532499 SELIBR: 53397 SUDOC: 073635219 BNF: cb11902551m (data) BIBSYS: 90078852 NDL: 00439558 NKC: jn20000720073 ICCU: ITICCUSBLV291755 BNE: XX1378

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