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Mamluk
Mamluk
Mamluk
(Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎ ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic. It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
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Copts
The Copts (Coptic: ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ, Niremenkīmi Enkhristianos; Arabic: أقباط‎, Aqbat) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa[22] who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country. Copts are also the largest Christian adherent group in Sudan and Libya. Historically, they spoke the Coptic language, a direct descendant of the Demotic Egyptian that was spoken in late antiquity
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Al-Muwaffaq
Abu Ahmad Talha ibn Ja'far (Arabic: أبو أحمد طلحة بن جعفر‎) (842 – June 2, 891), better known by his laqab as al-Muwaffaq bi-Allah (Arabic: الموفق بالله‎, "Blessed of God"[2]), was an Abbasid prince and military leader, who acted as the virtual regent of the Abbasid Caliphate for most of the reign of his brother, Caliph al-Mu'tamid. His stabilization of the internal political scene after the decade-long "Anarchy at Samarra", his successful defence of Iraq against the Saffarids and the suppression of the Zanj Rebellion restored a measure of the Caliphate's former power and began a period of recovery, which culminated in the reign of al-Muwaffaq's own son, the Caliph al-Mu'tadid.Contents1 Early life 2 Regent of the Caliphate2.1 Campaigns3 References 4 SourcesEarly life[edit]Family tree of the Abbasid dynasty in the middle and late 9th centuryTalha, commonly known by the teknonym Abu Ahmad, was the son of the Caliph Ja'far al-Mutawakkil (r
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Anarchy At Samarra
The term "Anarchy at Samarra" refers to the period 861–870 in the history of the Abbasid Caliphate, which was marked by extreme internal instability and the violent succession of four caliphs, who became puppets in the hands of powerful rival military groups. The term derives from the then capital and seat of the caliphal court, Samarra. The "anarchy" began in 861, with the murder of Caliph al-Mutawakkil by his Turkish guards. His successor, al-Muntasir, ruled for six months before his death, possibly poisoned by the Turkish military chiefs. He was succeeded by al-Musta'in. Divisions within the Turkish military leadership enabled Musta'in to flee to Baghdad in 865 with the support of some Turkish chiefs (Bugha the Younger and Wasif) and the Tahirids, but the rest of the Turkish army chose a new caliph in the person of al-Mu'tazz and besieged Baghdad, forcing the city's capitulation in 866. Musta'in was exiled and executed
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Ghulam
Ghulam (Arabic: غلام‎) is an Arabic word meaning servant, boy, youth. It is used to describe young servants in paradise. It is also used to refer to slave-soldiers in the Abbasid, Ottoman, Safavid and to a lesser extent, Mughal empires, as described in the article Ghilman, which is the plural form of the word. It can be used as the first element of a Muslim male given name, meaning servant of ..
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Daniel Hopfer
Daniel Hopfer (circa 1470 in Kaufbeuren – 1536 in Augsburg) was a German artist who is widely believed to have been the first to use etching in printmaking, at the end of the fifteenth century. He also worked in woodcut. decorated steedarmor of Daniel Hopfer Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] The son of Bartholomäus Hopfer, a painter, and his wife Anna Sendlerin, Daniel moved to Augsburg early in his life, and acquired citizenship there in 1493. In 1497 he married Justina Grimm, sister of the Augsburg publisher, physician and druggist Sigismund Grimm. The couple had three sons, Jörg, Hieronymus and Lambert, the last two of whom carried on their father's profession of etching, Hieronymus in Nuremberg and Lambert in Augsburg
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Bey
“Bey” (Ottoman Turkish: بك‎ “Beik”, Albanian: bej, Bosnian: beg, Arabic: بيه‎ “Beyeh”, Persian: بیگ‎ “Beyg” or Persian: بگ‎ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire. The feminine equivalent title was Begum. The regions or provinces where "beys" ruled or which they administered were called beylik, roughly meaning "khanate", "emirate" or "principality" in the first case and "province" or "governorate" in the second (the equivalent of duchy in other parts of Europe). Today, the word is still used formally as a social title for men
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "King". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1] Contents1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit]Emir of Kano, Sanusi Lamido SanusiHRH Crown Prince Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk IAmir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic root a-m-r, "command"
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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David Ayalon
David Ayalon (1914 – 25 June 1998) was an Israeli historian of Islam and the Middle East, specializing in the Mamluk dynasties of Egypt. Within Israel he was best known for the Arabic-Hebrew dictionary he co-compiled in 1947.Life[edit] Born David Neustadt in Haifa, he grew up in Zichron Ya'akov and Rosh Pinah. After completing secondary school in Haifa, Ayalon went in 1933 to study at the recently founded Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Despite service in the British Army during World War II, he gained his PhD in 1946 under the supervision of Leo Aryeh Mayer. In the late 1940s he changed his name to David Ayalon.[1] Ayalon founded the department of modern Middle East studies there in 1949, and was its head until 1956
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Arabic Transliteration
The romanization of Arabic
Arabic
writes written and spoken Arabic
Arabic
in the Latin script
Latin script
in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic
Arabic
is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language
Arabic language
works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic
Arabic
script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists
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Greeks
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield LusatianSouth-AsiaBMAC Yaz Gandhara graveIron AgeSteppeChernolesEuropeThraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt JastorfCaucasusColchianIndiaPainted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished WarePeoples and societiesBronze AgeAnatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Ir
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Albanians
Islam (majority) Sunni · Bektashi · Sufism Christianity (minority) Roman Catholicism · Italo-Albanian Catholic Church · Albanian Orthodox · Protestantism Irreligion1 502,546 Albanian citizens, an additional 43,751 Kosovo Albanians and 260,000 Arbëreshë people[17][18][36] 2 Albanians are not recognized as a minority in Turkey. However approximately 500,000 people are reported to profess an Albanian identity
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Balkans
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe
Europe
with various and disputed definitions.[1][2] The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
that stretch from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea. The Balkan Peninsula
Peninsula
is bordered by the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
on the northwest, the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
on the southwest, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined
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