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MAMLUK (Arabic : مملوك _mamlūk_ (singular), مماليك _mamālīk_ (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as _mamlouk_, _mamluq_, _mamluke_, _mameluk_, _mameluke_, _mamaluke_ or _marmeluke_) is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most commonly used to refer to Muslim slave soldiers and Muslim rulers of slave origin. An Egyptian mamluk warrior in full armor and armed with lance, shield, Mameluke sword and pistols Ottoman mamluk heavy cavalry armour, circa 1550

More specifically, it refers to:

* Ghaznavids of Greater Khorasan (977-1186) * Khwarazmian dynasty in Transoxiana (1077–1231) * Mamluk Dynasty (Delhi) (1206–1290)

* Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) (1250–1517)

* Bahri dynasty (1250−1382) * Burji dynasty (1382−1517)

* Mamluk Dynasty (Iraq) (1704–1831)

The most enduring Mamluk
Mamluk
realm was the knightly military caste in Egypt
Egypt
in the Middle Ages , which developed from the ranks of slave soldiers. These were mostly enslaved Turkic peoples , Egyptian Copts , Circassians , Abkhazians , and Georgians . Many Mamluks were also of Balkan origin ( Albanians , Greeks
Greeks
, and South Slavs ). The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior class, was of great political importance; for one thing, it endured for nearly 1000 years, from the ninth to the nineteenth centuries.

Over time, the mamluks became a powerful military knightly caste in various societies that were controlled by Muslim rulers. Particularly in Egypt
Egypt
, but also in the Levant
Levant
, Mesopotamia , and India
India
, mamluks held political and military power. In some cases, they attained the rank of sultan , while in others they held regional power as emirs or beys . Most notably, mamluk factions seized the sultanate centered on Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
, and controlled it as the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate (1250–1517). The Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate famously defeated the Ilkhanate at the Battle of Ain Jalut . They had earlier fought the western European Christian Crusaders in 1154-1169 and 1213-1221, effectively driving them out of Egypt
Egypt
and the Levant. In 1302 the mamluks formally expelled the last Crusaders from the Levant, ending the era of the Crusades.

While mamluks were purchased as property, their status was above ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. In places such as Egypt, from the Ayyubid dynasty to the time of Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Egypt
, mamluks were considered to be “true lords" and "true warriors," with social status above the general population in Egypt
Egypt
and the Levant
Levant
. In a sense they were like enslaved mercenaries.

In the Middle Ages, the Mamlukes took up the practice of furusiyya "chivalry" although Mamluk
Mamluk
knights were slaves until their service ended. The Arabic term for a knight was _fāris_ (plural _fursān_), The _faris_ and the notion of _furusiyya_ originated in pre-Muslim Persian brotherhoods . Within the Muslim world , the _fursān_ became prized as ideal warriors.

The _fursān_ — whether free like Usama ibn Munqidh or enslaved professional warriors such as the ghilman and mamluks — were trained in the use of various weapons such as the sword, spear , lance , javelin , mace , bow and arrow , and tabarzin or "saddle ax." (The Mamluk
Mamluk
bodyguards known as the _tabardariyyah._) They were also trained in wrestling, and their martial skills were honed first on foot as _piéton_ and then perfected when as mounted warriors. They were popularly used as heavy knightly cavalry by a number of different Islamic kingdoms and empires, including the Ayyubid dynasty and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 Organization * 3 Relations with homelands and families

* 4 Egypt
Egypt

* 4.1 Early Mamluks in Egypt
Egypt
* 4.2 French attack and Mamluk
Mamluk
takeover * 4.3 Mamluks and the Mongols * 4.4 Burji dynasty * 4.5 Portuguese- Mamluk
Mamluk
Wars * 4.6 Ottomans and the end of the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate

* 4.7 Mamluk
Mamluk
independence from the Ottomans

* 4.7.1 Napoleon
Napoleon
invades

* 4.8 After Napoleon
Napoleon
* 4.9 End of Mamluk
Mamluk
power in Egypt
Egypt

* 5 Other Mamluk
Mamluk
regimes

* 5.1 South Asia * 5.2 Iraq
Iraq

* 6 Mamluk
Mamluk
rulers

* 6.1 In Egypt
Egypt

* 6.1.1 Bahri Dynasty * 6.1.2 Burji Dynasty

* 6.2 In India
India
* 6.3 In Iraq
Iraq
* 6.4 In Acre * 6.5 "Mamluk" as derogatory term

* 7 Office titles and terminology * 8 Gallery * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

OVERVIEW

Mamluk
Mamluk
lancers, early 16th century (etching by Daniel Hopfer ) A Mamluk
Mamluk
nobleman from Aleppo
Aleppo
, 19th century

The origins of the mamluk system are disputed. Historians agree that an entrenched military caste such as the mamluks appeared to develop in Islamic societies beginning with the ninth-century Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad
Baghdad
. When in the ninth century has not been determined. Up until the 1990s, it was widely believed that the earliest mamluks were known as _ghilman _ (another term for slaves, and broadly synonymous ) and were bought by the Abbasid caliphs, especially al-Mu\'tasim (833-842).

By the end of the 9th century, such warrior slaves had become the dominant element in the military. Conflict between these ghilman and the population of Baghdad
Baghdad
prompted the caliph al-Mu\'tasim to move his capital to the city of Samarra , but this did not succeed in calming tensions. The caliph al-Mutawakkil was assassinated by some of these slave-soldiers in 861 (see Anarchy at Samarra ).

Since the early 21st century, historians suggest that there was a distinction between a ghilman system, in Samarra, which did not have specialized training and was based on pre-existing Central Asian hierarchies. Adult slaves and freemen both served as warriros. The mamluk system developed later, after the return of the caliphate to Baghdad
Baghdad
in the 870's. It included the systematic training of young slaves in military and martial skills. . The Mamluk
Mamluk
system is considered to have been a small-scale experiment of al-Muwaffaq , to combine the slaves' efficiency as warriors with improved reliability. This recent interpretation seems to have been accepted.

After the fragmentation of the Abbasid Empire, military slaves, known as either mamluks or ghilman, were used throughout the Islamic world as the basis of military power. The Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
of Egypt
Egypt
had forcibly taken adolescent male Armenians, Turks, Sudanese, and Copts from their families in order to be trained as slave soldiers. They formed the bulk of their military, and the rulers selected prized slaves to serve in their administration. The powerful vizier Badr al-Jamali , for example, was a mamluk from Armenia. In Iran and Iraq, the Buyid dynasty used Turkic slaves throughout their empire. The rebel al-Basasiri was a mamluk who eventually ushered in Seljuq dynastic rule in Baghdad
Baghdad
after attempting a failed rebellion. When the later Abbasids regained military control over Iraq, they also relied on the ghilman as their warriors.

Under Saladin
Saladin
and the Ayyubids of Egypt, the power of the mamluks increased and they claimed the sultanate in 1250, ruling as the Mamluk Sultanate . Throughout the Islamic world, rulers continued to use enslaved warriors until the 19th century. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
's devşirme , or "gathering" of young slaves for the Janissaries , lasted until the 17th century. Regimes based on mamluk power thrived in such Ottoman provinces as the Levant
Levant
and Egypt
Egypt
until the 19th century.

ORGANIZATION

Under the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate of Cairo, Mamluks were purchased while still young males. They were raised in the barracks of the Citadel
Citadel
of Cairo. Because of their isolated social status (no social ties or political affiliations) and their austere military training, they were trusted to be loyal to their rulers. When their training was completed, they were discharged, but remained attached to the patron who had purchased them. Mamluks relied on the help of their patron for career advancement, and likewise the patron’s reputation and power depended on his recruits. A Mamluk
Mamluk
was "bound by a strong esprit de corps to his peers in the same household."

Mamluks lived within their garrisons and mainly spent their time with each other. Their entertainments included sporting events such as archery competitions and presentations of mounted combat skills at least once a week. The intensive and rigorous training of each new recruit helped ensure continuity of Mamluk
Mamluk
practices.

Sultans owned the largest number of mamluks, but lesser amirs also owned their own troops. Many Mamluks were appointed or promoted to high positions throughout the empire, including army command. At first their status was non-hereditary. Sons of Mamluks were prevented from following their father's role of life. However, over time, in places such as Egypt, the Mamluk
Mamluk
forces became linked to existing power structures and gained significant amounts of influence on those powers.

RELATIONS WITH HOMELANDS AND FAMILIES

In Egypt, studies have shown that mamluks from Georgia retained their native language , were aware of the politics of the Caucasus
Caucasus
region , and received frequent visits from their parents or other relatives. In addition, they sent gifts to family members or gave money to build useful structures (a defensive tower, or even a church) in their native villages.

EGYPT

Main article: Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)

EARLY MAMLUKS IN EGYPT

_ The battle of Wadi al-Khazandar , 1299. depicting Mongol archers and Mamluk
Mamluk
cavalry (14th-century illustration from a manuscript of the History of the Tatars _) Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan
Sultan
Hassan (left) along with the later Al-Rifa\'i Mosque (right) and two Ottoman mosques (foreground) – Cairo
Cairo

Throughout the past centuries, Egypt
Egypt
was controlled by the rulers notably the Ikhshidids , Fatimids and Ayyubids . Throughout these dynasties, thousands of mamluk servants and guards continued to be employed, and even took high offices. This increasing level of influence among the mamluk worried the Ayyubids in particular. Eventually a Mamluk
Mamluk
rose to become sultan. According to Fabri, a historian had asserted that mamluks of Egyptian origin were enslaved Christians. He believed that after they were taken from their families, they became renegades. Because Egyptian mamluks were enslaved Christians, Islamic rulers did not believe they were true believers of Islam.

By 1200 Saladin's brother Al-Adil succeeded in securing control over the whole empire by defeating and killing or imprisoning his brothers and nephews in turn. With each victory Al-Adil incorporated the defeated mamluk retinue into his own. This process was repeated at Al-Adil's death in 1218, and at his son Al-Kamil's death in 1238. The Ayyubids became increasingly surrounded by the mamluks, who acted semi-autonomously as regional atabegs . The mamluks increasingly became involved in the internal court politics of the kingdom itself as various factions used them as allies.

FRENCH ATTACK AND MAMLUK TAKEOVER

Main article: Bahri Mamluks

In June 1249, the Seventh Crusade under Louis IX of France landed in Egypt
Egypt
and took Damietta . After the Egyptian troops retreated at first, the sultan had more than 50 commanders hanged as deserters .

When the Egyptian sultan as-Salih Ayyub died, the power passed briefly to his son al-Muazzam Turanshah and then his favorite wife, the Armenian Shajar al-Durr . She took control with mamluk support and launched a counterattack against the French. Troops of the Bahri commander Baibars defeated Louis's troops. The king delayed his retreat too long and was captured by the Mamluks in March 1250. He agreed to pay a ransom of 400,000 _livres tournois_ to gain release (150,000 livres were never paid).

Because of political pressure for a male leader, Shajar married the Mamluk
Mamluk
commander, Aybak
Aybak
. He was assassinated in his bath. In the ensuing power struggle that ensued, viceregent Qutuz , also a mamluk, took over. He formally founded the Mamluke Sultanate and the Bahri mamluk dynasty .

The first Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty was named Bahri after the name of one of the regiments , the _Bahriyyah_ or River Island regiment. Its name referred to their center on Rhoda Island in the Nile
Nile
. The regiment consisted mainly of Kipchaks
Kipchaks
and Cumans
Cumans
. Mamluk-Syrian glassware vessels from the 14th century; in the course of trade, the middle vase shown ended up in Yemen
Yemen
and then China
China
.

MAMLUKS AND THE MONGOLS

When the Mongol
Mongol
Empire 's troops of Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan
sacked Baghdad
Baghdad
in 1258 and advanced towards Syria, the Mamluk
Mamluk
emir Baibars left Damascus for Cairo. There he was welcomed by Sultan
Sultan
Qutuz. After taking Damascus, Hulagu demanded that Qutuz surrender Egypt. Qutuz had Hulagu's envoys killed and, with Baibars' help, mobilized his troops.

When the great Möngke Khan died in action against the Southern Song , Hulagu pulled the majority of his forces out of Syria
Syria
to attend the kurultai (funeral ceremony). He left his lieutenant, the Christian Kitbuqa , in charge with a token force of about 18,000 men as a garrison. Qutuz drew the Ilkhanate army into an ambush near the Orontes River , routed them at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, and captured and executed Kitbuqa (see Qutuz ).

After this great triumph, Qutuz was assassinated by conspiring Mamluks. It was widely said that Baibars, who seized power, had been involved in the assassination plot. In the following centuries, the mamluks ruled discontinuously, with an average span of seven years.

The Mamluks defeated the Ilkhanates a second time in the First Battle of Homs and began to drive them back east. In the process they consolidated their power over Syria, fortified the area, and formed mail routes and diplomatic connections among the local princes. Baibars' troops attacked Acre in 1263, captured Caesarea
Caesarea
in 1265, and took Antioch
Antioch
in 1268. Mamluks attacking at the Fall of Tripoli in 1289

Mamluks also defeated new Ilkhanate attacks in Syria
Syria
in 1271 and 1281 (the Second Battle of Homs ). They were defeated by the Ilkhanates and their Christian allies at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in 1299. Soon after that the Mamluks defeated the Ilkhanate again in 1303/1304 and 1312. Finally, the Ilkhanates and the Mamluks signed a treaty of peace in 1323.

BURJI DYNASTY

Main article: Burji dynasty

By the late fourteenth century, the majority of the Mamluk
Mamluk
ranks were made up of Circassians from the North Caucasus
Caucasus
region, whose young males had been frequently captured for slavery. In 1382 the Burji dynasty took over when Barquq was proclaimed sultan. The name "Burji" referred to their center at the citadel of Cairo
Cairo
. The dynasty officials were composed mostly of Circassians .

Barkuk became an enemy of Timur
Timur
, who threatened to invade Syria. Timur
Timur
invaded Syria, defeating the Mamluk
Mamluk
army, and he sacked Aleppo and captured Damascus. The Ottoman sultan, Bayezid I , then invaded Syria. After Timur's death in 1405, the Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan an-Nasir Faraj regained control of Syria. Frequently facing rebellions by local emirs , he was forced to abdicate in 1412. In 1421, Egypt
Egypt
was attacked by the Kingdom of Cyprus , but the Egyptians forced the Cypriotes to acknowledge the suzerainty of the Egyptian sultan Barsbay . During Barsbay's reign, Egypt's population became greatly reduced from what it had been a few centuries before; it had one-fifth the number of towns.

Al-Ashraf came to power in 1453. He had friendly relations with the Ottoman Empire, which captured Constantinople
Constantinople
later that year, causing great rejoicings in Muslim Egypt. However, under the reign of Khoshqadam , Egypt
Egypt
began the struggle between the Egyptian and the Ottoman sultanates. In 1467 sultan Qaitbay offended the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II , whose brother was poisoned. Bayezid II seized Adana , Tarsus and other places within Egyptian territory, but was eventually defeated. Qaitbay also tried to help the Muslims in Spain , who were suffering after the Catholic Reconquista
Reconquista
, by threatening the Christians in Syria, but he had little effect in Spain. He died in 1496, several hundred thousand ducats in debt to the great trading families of the {Kingdom} Republic of Venice
Venice
, an eastern Mediterranean state, now a port in present-day Italy.

PORTUGUESE-MAMLUK WARS

Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
in 1497 sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and pushed his way west across the Indian Ocean to the shores of Malabar and Kozhikode
Kozhikode
. There he attacked the fleets that carried freight and Muslim pilgrims from India
India
to the Red Sea
Red Sea
, and struck terror into the potentates all around. Various engagements took place. Cairo's Mamluk sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri was affronted at the attacks around the Red Sea, the loss of tolls and traffic, the indignities to which Mecca
Mecca
and its port were subjected, and above all for losing one of his ships. He vowed vengeance upon Portugal, first sending monks from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
as envoys, he threatened Pope Julius II that if he did not check Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I of Portugal
in his depredations on the Indian Sea, he would destroy all Christian holy places.

The rulers of Gujarat
Gujarat
in India
India
and Yemen
Yemen
also turned for help to the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt. They wanted a fleet to be armed in the Red Sea that could protect their important trading sea routes from Portuguese attack. Jeddah
Jeddah
was soon fortified as a harbor of refuge so Arabia
Arabia
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
were protected. But the fleets in the Indian Ocean were still at the mercy of the enemy.

The last Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan, _Al-Ghawri,_ fitted out a fleet of 50 vessels. As Mamluks had little expertise in naval warfare, he sought help from the Ottomans to develop this naval enterprise. In 1508 at the Battle of Chaul , the Mamluk
Mamluk
fleet defeated the Portuguese viceroy's son Lourenço de Almeida .

But, in the following year, the Portuguese won the Battle of Diu and wrested the port city of Diu from the Gujarat
Gujarat
Sultanate . Some years after, Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
attacked Aden
Aden
, and Egyptian troops suffered disaster from the Portuguese in Yemen. Al-Ghawri fitted out a new fleet to punish the enemy and protect the Indian trade. Before it could exert much power, Egypt
Egypt
had lost its sovereignty. The Ottoman Empire took over Egypt
Egypt
and the Red Sea, together with Mecca
Mecca
and all its Arabian interests.

OTTOMANS AND THE END OF THE MAMLUK SULTANATE

The Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Bayezid II was engaged in warfare in southern Europe when a new era of hostility with Egypt
Egypt
began in 1501. It arose out of the relations with the Safavid dynasty in Persia
Persia
. Shah Ismail I sent an embassy to the Republic of Venice
Venice
via Syria, inviting Venice to ally with Persia
Persia
and recover its territory taken by the Ottomans. Mameluk Egyptian sultan Al-Ghawri was charged by Selim I
Selim I
with giving the Persian envoys passage through Syria
Syria
on their way to Venice
Venice
and harboring refugees. To appease him, Al-Ghawri placed in confinement the Venetian merchants then in Syria
Syria
and Egypt, but after a year released them.

After the Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
in 1514, Selim attacked the bey of Dulkadirids , as Egypt's vassal had stood aloof, and sent his head to Al-Ghawri. Now secure against Persia, in 1516 he formed a great army for the conquest of Egypt, but gave out that he intended further attacks on Persia.

In 1515, Selim began the war which led to the conquest Egypt
Egypt
and its dependencies. Mamluk
Mamluk
cavalry proved no match for the Ottoman artillery and Janissary infantry . On 24 August 1516, at the Battle of Marj Dabiq , Sultan
Sultan
Al-Ghawri was killed. Syria
Syria
passed into Turkish possession, an event welcomed in many places as it was seen as deliverance from the Mamelukes.

The Mamluke Sultanate survived in Egypt
Egypt
until 1517, when Selim captured Cairo
Cairo
on 20 January. Although not in the same form as under the Sultanate, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class and the Mamluks and the Burji family succeeded in regaining much of their influence, but as vassals of the Ottomans.

MAMLUK INDEPENDENCE FROM THE OTTOMANS

Main article: History of Ottoman Egypt
Egypt
Charge of the Mamluk cavalry by Carle Vernet

In 1768, Sultan
Sultan
Ali Bey
Bey
Al-Kabir declared independence from the Ottomans. However, the Ottomans crushed the movement and retained their position after his defeat. By this time new slave recruits were introduced from Georgia in the Caucasus.

Napoleon
Napoleon
Invades

Main article: French campaign in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
Charge of the Mamluks during the Battle of the Pyramids by Felician Myrbach . An elite body of cavalry whom the French encountered during their campaign in Egypt
Egypt
in 1798 , the Mamluks could trace their lineage of service to the Ottomans back to the mid-13th century.

In 1798, the ruling Directory of the Republic of France authorised a campaign in "The Orient" to protect French trade interests and undermine Britain's access to India. To this end, Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte led an Armée d\'Orient to Egypt.

The French defeated a Mamluk
Mamluk
army in the Battle of the Pyramids and drove the survivors out to Upper Egypt
Egypt
. The Mamluks relied on massed cavalry charges, changed only by the addition of musket . The French infantry formed square and held firm. Despite multiple victories and an initially successful expedition into Syria, mounting conflict in Europe and the earlier defeat of the supporting French fleet by the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
at the Battle of the Nile
Nile
decided the issue.

On 14 September 1799 General Jean Baptiste Kléber established a mounted company of Mamluk
Mamluk
auxiliaries and Syrian Janissaries from Turkish troops captured at the siege of Acre . Menou reorganized the company on 7 July 1800, forming 3 companies of 100 men each and renaming it the "Mamluks de la République". In 1801 General Jean Rapp was sent to Marseille to organize a squadron of 250 Mamluks. On 7 January 1802 the previous order was canceled and the squadron reduced to 150 men. The list of effectives on 21 April 1802 reveals 3 officers and 155 other ranks. By decree of 25 December 1803 the Mamluks were organized into a company attached to the Chasseurs-à-Cheval of the Imperial Guard (see Mamelukes of the Imperial Guard ).

Napoleon
Napoleon
left with his personal guard in late 1799. His successor in Egypt, General Jean Baptiste Kléber , was assassinated on 14 June 1800. Command of the Army in Egypt
Egypt
fell to Jacques-François Menou . Isolated and out of supplies, Menou surrendered to the British in 1801.

AFTER NAPOLEON

After the departure of French troops in 1801 the Mamluks continued their struggle for independence; this time against the Ottoman Empire and Great Britain. In 1803, Mamluk
Mamluk
leaders Ibrahim Bey
Bey
and Osman Bey al-Bardisi wrote to the Russian consul-general, asking him to mediate with the Sultan
Sultan
to allow them to negotiate for a cease-fire, and a return to their homeland Georgia. The Russian ambassador in Constantinople
Constantinople
refused however to intervene, because of nationalist unrest in Georgia that might have been encouraged by a Mamluk
Mamluk
return.

In 1805, the population of Cairo
Cairo
rebelled. This provided a chance for the Mamluks to seize power, but internal friction prevented them from exploiting this opportunity. In 1806, the Mamluks defeated the Turkish forces in several clashes. in June the rival parties concluded an agreement by which Muhammad Ali , (appointed as governor of Egypt
Egypt
on 26 March 1806), was to be removed and authority returned to the Mamluks. However, they were again unable to capitalize on this opportunity due to discord between factions. Muhammad Ali retained his authority.

END OF MAMLUK POWER IN EGYPT

Massacre of the Mamelukes at the Cairo
Cairo
citadel, 1811

Muhammad Ali knew that he would have to deal with the Mamluks if he wanted to control Egypt. They were still the feudal owners of Egypt and their land was still the source of wealth and power. However, the economic strain of sustaining the military manpower necessary to defend the Mamluks's system from the Europeans and Turks would eventually weaken them to the point of collapse.

On 1 March 1811, Muhammad Ali invited all of the leading Mamluks to his palace to celebrate the declaration of war against the Wahhabis in Arabia. Between 600 and 700 Mamluks paraded for this purpose in Cairo . Muhammad Ali's forces killed almost all of these near the Al-Azab gates in a narrow road down from Mukatam Hill. This ambush came to be known as the Massacre of the Citadel
Citadel
. According to contemporary reports, only one Mamluk, whose name is given variously as Amim (also Amyn), or Heshjukur (a Besleney), survived when he forced his horse to leap from the walls of the citadel.

During the following week an estimated 3,000 Mamluks and their relatives were killed throughout Egypt, by Muhammad's regular troops. In the citadel of Cairo
Cairo
alone more than 1,000 Mamluks died.

Despite Muhammad Ali's destruction of the Mamluks in Egypt, a party of them escaped and fled south into what is now Sudan
Sudan
. In 1811, these Mamluks established a state at Dunqulah in the Sennar as a base for their slave trading. In 1820, the sultan of Sennar informed Muhammad Ali that he was unable to comply with a demand to expel the Mamluks. In response, the pasha sent 4,000 troops to invade Sudan, clear it of Mamluks, and reclaim it for Egypt. The pasha 's forces received the submission of the Kashif, dispersed the Dunqulah Mamluks, conquered Kordofan , and accepted Sennar's surrender from the last Funj sultan, Badi VII .

OTHER MAMLUK REGIMES

There were various places in which mamluks gained political or military power as a self-replicating military community.

SOUTH ASIA

Main article: Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi)

In 1206, the Mamluk
Mamluk
commander of the Muslim forces in the Indian subcontinent, Qutb al-Din Aibak , proclaimed himself Sultan, becoming in effect the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate in Dehli , which lasted until 1290. Further information: Delhi Sultanate

IRAQ

Main article: Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty of Iraq
Iraq

Mamluk
Mamluk
corps were first introduced in Iraq
Iraq
by Hasan Pasha
Pasha
of Baghdad in 1702. From 1747 to 1831 Iraq
Iraq
was ruled, with short intermissions, by Mamluk
Mamluk
officers of Georgian origin who succeeded in asserting autonomy from the Sublime Porte , suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order, and introduced a program of modernization of the economy and the military. In 1831 the Ottomans overthrew Dawud Pasha
Pasha
, the last Mamluk
Mamluk
ruler, and imposed direct control over Iraq.

MAMLUK RULERS

IN EGYPT

Main article: List of Mamluk sultans
List of Mamluk sultans

Bahri Dynasty

* 1250 Shajar al-Durr (al-Salih Ayyub 's Widow de facto ruler of Egypt) * 1250 Aybak
Aybak
* 1257 Al-Mansur Ali * 1259 Qutuz * 1260 Baibars * 1277 Al-Said Barakah * 1280 Solamish * 1280 Qalawun
Qalawun
* 1290 al-Ashraf Salah-ad-Din Khalil * 1294 al-Nasir Muhammad _first reign_ * 1295 al-Adil Kitbugha * 1297 Lajin * 1299 al-Nasir Muhammad _second reign_ * 1309 al-Muzaffar Rukn-ad-Din Baybars II al-Jashankir * 1310 al-Nasir Muhammad _third reign_ * 1340 Saif ad-Din Abu-Bakr * 1341 Kujuk * 1342 An-Nasir Ahmad, Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt
Egypt
* 1342 As-Salih Ismail, Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt
Egypt
* 1345 Al-Kamil Sha\'ban * 1346 Al-Muzaffar Hajji * 1347 al-Nasir Badr-ad-Din Abu al-Ma\'aly al-Hassan _first reign_ * 1351 al-Salih Salah-ad-Din Ibn Muhammad * 1354 al-Nasir Badr-ad-Din Abu al-Ma\'aly al-Hassan _second reign_ * 1361 al-Mansur Salah-ad-Din Mohamed Ibn Hajji * 1363 al-Ashraf Zein al-Din Abu al-Ma\'ali ibn Shaban * 1376 al-Mansur Ala-ad-Din Ali Ibn al-Ashraf Shaban * 1382 al-Salih Salah Zein al-Din Hajji II _first reign_

A Mamluk
Mamluk
on horseback, with a Piéton or foot-soldier mamluk and a Bedouin soldier, 1804

Burji Dynasty

* 1382 Barquq , _first reign_ * 1389 Hajji II _second reign_ (with honorific title al-Muzaffar or al-Mansur) – Temporary Bahri rule * 1390 Barquq , _Second reign_ – Burji rule re-established * 1399 An-Nasir Naseer ad-Din Faraj * 1405 Al-Mansoor Azzaddin Abdal Aziz * 1405 An-Nasir Naseer ad-Din Faraj (second time) * 1412 al-Musta\'in ( Abbasid Caliph , proclaimed as Sultan) * 1412 Al-Muayad Sayf ad-Din Shaykh * 1421 Al-Muzaffar Ahmad * 1421 Az-Zahir Saif ad-Din Tatar * 1421 As-Salih Nasir ad-Din Muhammad * 1422 Barsbay * 1438 Al-Aziz Djamal ad-Din Yusuf * 1438 Jaqmaq * 1453 Al-Mansoor Fahr ad-Din Osman * 1453 Al-Ashraf Sayf ad-Din Enal * 1461 Al-Muayad Shihab ad-Din Ahmad * 1461 Az-Zahir Sayf ad-Din Khushkadam * 1467 Az-Zahir Sayf ad-Din Belbay * 1468 Az-Zahir Temurbougha * 1468 Qaitbay * 1496 al-Nasir Abu al-Sa\'adat Muhammad bin Qait Bay _first reign_ * 1497 Qansuh Al-Burji * 1497 al-Nasir Abu al-Sa\'adat Muhammad bin Qait Bay _second reign_ * 1498 Qansuh Al-Ashrafi * 1500 Al-Bilal Ayub * 1500 Janbalat * 1501 Tuman bay I * 1501 Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri * 1517 Tuman bay II

IN INDIA

The mausoleum of Qutb al-Din Aibak in Anarkali , Lahore
Lahore
, Pakistan
Pakistan
.

* 1206 Qutb-ud-din Aybak
Aybak
, founded Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate, Delhi * 1210 Aram Shah * 1211 Shams ud din Iltutmish . Son-in-law of Qutb-ud-din Aybak. * 1236 Rukn ud din Firuz . Son of Iltutmish. * 1236 Razia Sultana . Daughter of Iltutmish. * 1240 Muiz ud din Bahram . Son of Iltutmish. * 1242 Ala ud din Masud . Son of Rukn ud din. * 1246 Nasir ud din Mahmud . Son of Iltutmish. * 1266 Ghiyas ud din Balban . Ex-slave, son-in-law of Iltutmish. * 1286 Muiz ud din Qaiqabad . Grandson of Balban and Nasir ud din. * 1290 Kayumars . Son of Muiz ud din.

IN IRAQ

* 1704 Hasan Pasha
Pasha
* 1723 Ahmad Pasha
Pasha
, son of Hasan * 1749 Sulayman Abu Layla Pasha
Pasha
, son-in-law of Ahmad * 1762 Omar Pasha
Pasha
, son of Ahmad * 1780 Sulayman Pasha
Pasha
the Great , son of Omar * 1802 Ali Pasha
Pasha
, son of Omar * 1807 Sulayman Pasha
Pasha
the Little , son of Sulayman Great * 1813 Said Pasha
Pasha
, son of Sulayman Great * 1816 Dawud Pasha
Pasha
(1816–1831)

IN ACRE

* 1805 Sulayman Pasha
Pasha
al-Adil , _mamluk_ of Jezzar Pasha
Pasha
* 1819 Abdullah Pasha
Pasha
ibn Ali (1819-1831)

"MAMLUK" AS DEROGATORY TERM

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The term Mamluk
Mamluk
became known throughout Europe following the Ottoman conquests of Egypt
Egypt
and the Levant
Levant
in 1516–1517. It was used as a derogatory term in Geneva
Geneva
, just prior to the overthrow of Savoy
Savoy
rule in 1526 by the supporters of Philibert Berthelier , to describe the faction in the state council that advocated the continued rule of the Savoy
Savoy
dynasty. As Mamluk
Mamluk
means "slaves of the king", the republican faction in Geneva
Geneva
used it to suggest that the supporters of Savoy
Savoy
rule were the enemies of freedom.

OFFICE TITLES AND TERMINOLOGY

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The following terms originally come from either Turkish or Ottoman Turkish language (the latter composed of Turkish, Arabic, and Persian words and grammar structures).

ENGLISH ARABIC NOTES

_Alama Sultaniya_ علامة سلطانية The mark or signature of the Sultan
Sultan
put on his decrees, letters and documents.

_Al-Nafir al-Am_ النفير العام General emergency declared during war

_Amir_ أمير Prince

_ Amir
Amir
Akhur_ أمير آخور supervisor of the royal stable (from Persian آخور meaning stable)

_ Amir
Amir
Majlis_ أمير مجلس Guard of Sultan's seat and bed

_Atabek_ أتابك Commander in chief (literally "father-lord," originally meaning an appointed step-father for a non- Mamluk
Mamluk
minor prince)

_Astadar_ أستادار Chief of the royal servants

_Barid Jawi_ بريد جوى Airmail (mail sent by carrier-pigeons, amplified by Sultan
Sultan
Baibars )

_Bayt al-Mal_ بيت المال treasury

_Cheshmeh_ ششمه A pool of water, or fountain (literally "eye"), from Persian چشمه

_Dawadar_ دوادار Holder of Sultan's ink bottle (from Persian دوات‌دار meaning bearer of the ink bottle)

_Fondok_ فندق Hotel (some famous hotels in Cairo
Cairo
during the Mamluk
Mamluk
era were _Dar al-Tofah, Fondok Bilal_ and _Fondok al-Salih_)

_Hajib_ حاجب Doorkeeper of sultan's court

_Iqta_ إقطاع Revenue from land allotment

_Jamkiya_ جامكية Salary paid to a Mamluk

_Jashnakir_ جاشنكير Food taster of the sultan (to assure his beer was not poisoned)

_Jomdar_ جمدار An official at the department of the Sultan's clothing (from Persian جامه‌دار, meaning keeper of cloths)

_Kafel al-mamalek al-sharifah al-islamiya al-amir al-amri_ كافل الممالك الشريفة الاسلامية الأمير الأمرى Title of the Vice-sultan (Guardian of the Prince of Command of the Dignified Islamic Kingdoms)

_Khan_ خان A store that specialized in selling a certain commodity

_Khaskiya_ خاصكية Courtiers of the sultan and most trusted royal mamluks who functioned as the Sultan's bodyguards/ A privileged group around a prominent Amir
Amir
(from Persian خاصگیان, meaning close associates)

_Khastakhaneh_ خاصتاخانة Hospital (from Ottoman Turkish خسته‌خانه, from Persian)

_Khond_ خند Wife of the sultan

_Khushdashiya_ خشداشية Mamluks belonging to the same Amir
Amir
or Sultan.

_Mahkamat al-Mazalim_ محكمة المظالم Court of complaint. A court that heard cases of complaints of people against state officials. This court was headed by the sultan himself.

_Mamalik Kitabeya_ مماليك كتابية Mamluks still attending training classes and who still live at the Tebaq (campus)

_Mamalik Sultaneya_ مماليك سلطانية Mamluks of the sultan;to distinguish from the Mamluks of the Amirs (princes)

_Modwarat al-Sultan_ مدورة السلطان Sultan's tent which he used during travel.

_Mohtaseb_ محتسب Controller of markets, public works and local affairs.

_Morqadar_ مرقدار Works in the Royal Kitchen (from Persian مرغ‌دار meaning one responsible for the fowl)

_Mushrif_ مشرف Supervisor of the Royal Kitchen

_Na'ib Al-Sultan_ نائب السلطان Vice-sultan

_Qa'at al-insha'a_ قاعة الإنشاء Chancery hall

_Qadi al-Qoda_ قاضى القضاة Chief justice

_Qalat al-Jabal_ قلعة الجبل Citadel
Citadel
of the Mountain (the abode and court of the sultan in Cairo)

_Qaranisa_ قرانصة Mamluks who moved to the service of a new Sultan
Sultan
or from the service of an Amir
Amir
to a sultan.

_Qussad_ قصاد Secret couriers and agents who kept the sultan informed

_Ostaz_ أستاذ Benefactor of Mamluks (the Sultan
Sultan
or the Emir) (from Persian استاد)

_Rank_ رنك An emblem that distinguished the rank and position of a Mamluk (probably from Persian رنگ meaning color)

_Sanjaqi_ سنجاقى A standard-bearer of the Sultan.

_Sharabkhana_ شرابخانة Storehouse for drinks, medicines and glass-wares of the sultan. (from Persian شراب‌خانه meaning wine cellar)

_Silihdar_ سلحدار Arm-Bearer (from Arabic سلاح + Persian دار, meaning arm-bearer)

_Tabalkhana_ طبلخانه The amir responsible for the Mamluk
Mamluk
military band, from Persian طبل‌خانه

_Tashrif_ تشريف Head-covering worn by a Mamluk
Mamluk
during the ceremony of inauguration to the position of Amir.

_Tawashi_ طواشى A Eunuch responsible for serving the wives of the sultan and supervising new Mamluks.

_Tebaq_ طباق Campus of the Mamluks at the citadel of the mountain

_Tishtkhana_ طشتخانة Storehouse used for the laundry of the sultan (from Persian تشت‌خانه, meaning tub room)

_Wali_ والى viceroy

_Yuq_ يوق A large linen closet used in every mamluk home, which stored pillows and sheets. (Related to the present Crimean Tatar word Yuqa, "to sleep". In modern Turkish: Yüklük.)

GALLERY

*

Portrait of a Mamluk, 1779 *

A Mamluk
Mamluk
cavalryman, drawing by Carle Vernet , 1810 *

_The Second of May 1808: The Charge of the Mamluks _ by Francisco de Goya (1814) *

Armenian mamluk Roustam Raza was Napoleon
Napoleon
's personal bodyguard; portrait by Jacques-Nicolas Paillot de Montabert *

Soldiers of Napoleon's 62ème régiment de ligne and a Mameluk (historical reenactment ) *

Today's U.S. Marine Corps officers' Mameluke sword resembles those used by the Mamluks

SEE ALSO

* Bahri dynasty * Black Guard * Burji dynasty * Feudalism * Ghilman
Ghilman
* Janissaries * Jerusalem in the Mamluk period * Mameluco * Mameluke sword * Mamluk architecture * Saqaliba * Seventh Crusade * Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt
Egypt

REFERENCES

* ^ Isichei, Elizabeth (1997). _A History of African Societies to 1870_. Cambridge University Press. p. 192. Retrieved 8 November 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ Thomas Philipp & Ulrich Haarmann. _The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society_. * ^ _A_ _B_ McGregor, Andrew James (2006). _A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War_. Greenwood Publishing Group . p. 15. ISBN 9780275986018 . By the late fourteenth century Circassians from the north Caucasus
Caucasus
region had become the majority in the Mamluk
Mamluk
ranks. * ^ А.Ш.Кадырбаев, Сайф-ад-Дин Хайр-Бек - абхазский "король эмиров" Мамлюкского Египта (1517-1522), "Материалы первой международной научной конференции, посвященной 65-летию В.Г.Ардзинба". Сухум: АбИГИ, 2011, pp. 87-95 * ^ Thomas Philipp, Ulrich Haarmann (eds), _The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society._ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 115-116. * ^ Jane Hathaway, _The Politics of Households in Ottoman Egypt: The Rise of the Qazdaglis._ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 103-104. * ^ "Relations of the Georgian Mamluks of Egypt
Egypt
with Their Homeland in the Last Decades of the Eighteenth Century." Daniel Crecelius and Gotcha Djaparidze. _Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient_, Vol. 45, No. 3 (2002), pp. 320—341. ISSN 0022-4995. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Basra, the failed Gulf state: separatism and nationalism in southern Iraq_, p. 19, at Google Books By Reidar Visser * ^ Hathaway, Jane (February 1995). "The Military Household in Ottoman Egypt". _International Journal of Middle East Studies_. 27 (1): 39–52. doi :10.1017/s0020743800061572 . * ^ István Vásáry (2005) Cuman and Tatars, Cambridge University Press. * ^ T. Pavlidis, A Concise History of the Middle East, Chapter 11: Turks and Byzantine Decline, 2011 * ^ Ayalon, David (1979). _The Mamlūk military society_. Variorum Reprints. ISBN 978-0-86078-049-6 . * ^ Asbridge, Thomas. "The Crusades
Crusades
Episode 3". BBC. Retrieved 5 February 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. _ Cairo
Cairo
of the Mamluks: A History of Architecture and Its Culture_. New York: Macmillan, 2008. * ^ Nicolle, _Saracen Faris_, page 8-9. * ^ See D. Sourdel's "Ghulam" in the _Encyclopedia of Islam_ and David Ayalon's "Mamluk" in the _Encyclopedia of Islam_. Ayalon uses "mamluk" to refer to military slaves in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria, and "ghulam" (sing. of ghilman) to refer to military slaves elsewhere. * ^ D. Sourdel. "Ghulam" in the _Encyclopedia of Islam_. * ^ See E. de la Vaissière, _Samarcande et Samarra_, 2007, and also M. Gordon, _The Breaking of a Thousand Swords_, 2001. * ^ See for instance the review in _Der Islam_ 2012 of de la Vaissière's book by Christopher Melchert: 'Still, de la Vaissière’s dating of the Mamluk
Mamluk
phenomenon herewith becomes the conventional wisdom' * ^ Walker, Paul E. _Exploring an Islamic Empire: Fatimid History and its Sources_ (London, I. B. Tauris, 2002) * ^ Eric Hanne. _Putting the Caliph in His Place_.) * ^ "Relations of the Georgian Mamluks of Egypt
Egypt
with Their Homeland in the Last Decades of the Eighteenth Century." Daniel Crecelius and Gotcha Djaparidze. _Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient_, Vol. 45, No. 3 (2002), pp. 320-341. ISSN 0022-4995. * ^ David Nicole _The Mamluks 1250-1570_ * ^ Madden, Thomas F. _Crusades: The Illustrated History_. 1st ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press , 2005. 159 * ^ István Vásáry (2005), _ Cumans
Cumans
and Tatars_, Cambridge University Press * ^ Al-Maqrizi , p. 509/vol.1, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, Dar al-kotob, 1997. * ^ David Chambers, _The Devil's Horsemen_, Atheneum, 1979. p. 153-155 * ^ Palmira Johnson Brummett, "Ottoman seapower and Levantine diplomacy in the age of discovery", SUNY Press, 1994, ISBN 0-7914-1701-8 * ^ Andrew James McGregor, _A Military History of Modern Egypt: from the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War_, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006 ISBN 0-275-98601-2 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ James Waterson, "The Mamluks" * ^ Thomas Philipp, Ulrich Haarmann (1998). The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society * ^ Abu-Lughod, Janet L. _Before European Hegemony The World System A.D. 1250-1350_. New York: Oxford UP, USA, 1991. PP. 213 * ^ For the use of the name Amim, see Giovanni Finati, _Narrative of the Life and Adventure of Giovanni Finati native of Ferrara_, 1830; for Heshjukur, Mustafa Mahir, _Marks of the Caucasian Tribes and Some Stories and Notable Events Related to Their Leaders_, Boulaq, Cairo, 1892 * ^ _The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule: 1516-1800_. Jane Hathaway, Karl Barbir. Person Education Limited, 2008, p. 96. ISBN 978-0-582-41899-8 . * ^ "Iraq" _Encyclopædia Britannica_ Online. Retrieved 15 October 2007

FURTHER READING

* Janet L. Abu-Lughod (1 February 1991). _Before European hegemony: the world system A.D. 1250–1350_. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-506774-3 . * A. Allouche: _ Mamluk
Mamluk
Economics: A Study and Translation of Al-Maqrizi's Ighathat._ Salt Lake City, 1994 * Reuven Amitai-Preiss (1995). _Mongols and Mamluks: the Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260–1281_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46226-6 . Retrieved 20 June 2011. * Matthew Gordon, "The Breaking of a Thousand Swords: A History of the Turkish Military of Samarra (200-275 Ah/815-889 Ce)", SUNY Press, 2001. * Ulrich Haarmann: _Das Herrschaftssystem der Mamluken_, in: Halm / Haarmann (eds.): _Geschichte der arabischen Welt_. C.H. Beck (2004), ISBN 3-406-47486-1 * E. de la Vaissière, _Samarcande et Samarra. Elites d'Asie centrale dans l'empire Abbasside_, Peeters, 2007 Peeters-leuven.be (in French) * James Waterson, "The Mamluks" (_History Today_ March 2006) * Thomas Philipp, Ulrich Haarmann (1998). _The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society, Pg 1–101_. Cambridge University Press. * Stephan Conermann, Gül Şen (eds.) (2017). _The Mamluk-Ottoman Transition. Continuity and Change in Egypt
Egypt
and Bilād al-Shām in the Sixteenth Century_. Bonn University Press at V&R unipress. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to MAMLUKS _.

_ Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia _ article _MAMELUKES _.

* Mamluk
Mamluk
Studies Resources from the Chicago Online Bibliography of Mamluk
Mamluk
Studies and The Chicago Online Encyclopedia of Mamluk
Mamluk
Studies Review at the University of Chicago * The Mamluks at BBC's _In Our Time _ * Qur\'an Carpet Page; al-Fatihah from a 14th-century Mamluk
Mamluk
Qur'an at the World Digital Library
World Digital Library

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 30331952 * GND : 118730517

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