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Later Roman Empire
The causes and mechanisms of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Fall of the Western Roman Empire
are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
in his 1776 book The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He started an ongoing historiographical discussion about what caused the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, and the reduced power of the remaining Eastern Empire, in the 4th–5th centuries. Gibbon was not the first to speculate on why the Empire collapsed, but he was the first to give a well-researched and well-referenced account. Many theories of causality have been explored
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Fall Of The Western Roman Empire
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
(also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities. The Roman Empire lost the strengths that had allowed it to exercise effective control over the West; modern historians mention factors including the effectiveness and numbers of the army, the health and numbers of the Roman population, the strength of the economy, the competence of the Emperors, the internal struggles for power, the religious changes of the period, and the efficiency of the civil administration. Increasing pressure from barbarians outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse
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Constantius III
Constantius III
Constantius III
(Latin: Flavius Constantius Augustus), was Western Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
in 421, from 8 February 421 to 2 September 421. He served as a general under Honorius, achieving the rank of Magister militum by 411. Also in 411, he was sent to suppress the revolt of Constantine III. Constantius led his army to Arles, and defeated Gerontius, a general rebelling against Constantine, before himself besieging Arles. After defeating a relief force led by Edobichus, Constantius convinced Constantine to surrender, offering a safe retirement to a monastery. However, once Constantine had surrendered Constantius had him imprisoned and then beheaded. Constantius then went on to lead campaigns against various barbarian groups in Hispania and Gaul, recovering much of both for the Western Roman Empire. Constantius was proclaimed Western Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
by Honorius on 8 February 421
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Ancient Era
Ancient history
Ancient history
is the aggregate of past events[1] from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Post-classical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform
Cuneiform
script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.[2] The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World
Old World
from the beginning of recorded Greek history
Greek history
in 776 BC (First Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece
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Late Antiquity
Late antiquity
Late antiquity
is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
(c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
in the mid-7th century
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Goths
The Goths
Goths
were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths
Visigoths
and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the emergence of Medieval Europe. The Goths
Goths
dominated a vast area,[1] which at its peak under the Germanic king Ermanaric and his sub-king Athanaric possibly extended all the way from the Danube
Danube
to the Don, and from the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the Baltic Sea.[2] The Goths
Goths
spoke the Gothic language, one of the extinct East Germanic languages
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Barbarians
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is usually applied as generalization based on a popular stereotype; barbarians can be any member of a nation judged by some to be less civilized or orderly (such as a tribal society), but may also be part of a certain "primitive" cultural group (such as nomads) or social class (such as bandits) both within and outside one's own nation. Alternatively, they may instead be admired and romanticised as noble savages
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Battle Of Adrianople
15,000–20,000[1] or 25,000–30,000[2]12,000–15,000[3] or 80,000–100,000[4]Casualties and losses10,000–15,000[5] or 20,000[6] (roughly two-thirds of the Roman force)[7] Unknownv t eGothic War (376–382)Marcianople Willows Dibaltum Adrianople Adrianople (Siege) Constantinople Thessalonicav t eFall of the Western Roman EmpireAdrianople Pollentia Verona Florence Faesulae Moguntiacum The Rhine Rome (410) Nervasos Mountains Narbonne Catalaunian Plains (Chalons) Aquileia Rome (455) Arelate Cartagena Orleans Cap Bon RavennaThe Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between an Eastern Roman army led by the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern
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Theodosius I
Theodosius I
Theodosius I
(Latin: Flavius Theodosius Augustus;[1] Greek: Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths
Goths
and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. He failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War, they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders
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Crossing Of The Rhine
The crossing of the Rhine
Rhine
by a mixed group of barbarians that included Vandals, Alans
Alans
and Suebi
Suebi
is traditionally considered to have occurred on 31 December 406. The crossing transgressed one of the Late Roman Empire's most secure limites or boundaries and so it was a climactic moment in the decline of the Empire. It initiated a wave of destruction of Roman cities and the collapse of Roman civic order in northern Gaul. That, in turn, occasioned the rise of three usurpers in succession in the province of Britannia
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Germanic Peoples
The Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
(also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.[1] They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[2] The term "Germanic" originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower, Upper, and Greater Germania
Germania
were referred to using this label by Roman scribes. The Roman use of the term "Germanic" was not necessarily based upon language, but referred to the tribal groups and alliances that lived in the regions of modern-day Luxembourg, Belgium, Northern France, Alsace, Poland, Austria, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany, and which were considered less civilized and more physically hardened than the Celtic Gauls
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Stilicho
Flavius Stilicho
Stilicho
(/ˈstɪlɪkoʊ/; occasionally written as Stilico; c. 359 – 22 August 408) was a high-ranking general (magister militum) in the Roman army who became, for a time, the most powerful man in the Western Roman Empire.[2] He was half Vandal and married to the niece of Emperor
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Sack Of Rome (410)
The Sack of Rome
Rome
occurred on August 24, 410. The city was attacked by the Visigoths
Visigoths
led by King Alaric. At that time, Rome
Rome
was no longer the capital of the Western Roman Empire, having been replaced in that position first by Mediolanum
Mediolanum
in 286 and then by Ravenna
Ravenna
in 402. Nevertheless, the city of Rome
Rome
retained a paramount position as "the eternal city" and a spiritual center of the Empire. The sack was a major shock to contemporaries, friends and foes of the Empire alike. This was the first time in almost 800 years that Rome
Rome
had fallen to a foreign enemy. The previous sack of Rome
Rome
had been accomplished by the Gauls
Gauls
under their leader Brennus in 390 or 387/6 BC
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Flavius Aetius
Flavius Aetius
Flavius Aetius
(/ˈfleɪviəs eɪˈiːʃiəs/; Latin: Flavius Aetius [flaːwius a.etius];[3] 391–454), dux et patricius, commonly called simply Aetius or Aëtius, was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. He was an able military commander and the most influential man in the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
for two decades (433–454). He managed policy in regard to the attacks of barbarian federates settled throughout the Western Roman Empire. Notably, he mustered a large Roman and allied (foederati) army to stop the Huns
Huns
in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, ending the devastating Hunnic invasion of Attila
Attila
in 451. He has often been called "the last of the Romans"
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Bread And Circuses
"Bread and circuses" (or bread and games; from Latin: panem et circenses) is a figure of speech, specifically referring to a superficial means of appeasement
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Sack Of Rome (455)
The sack of 455 was the second of three ancient sacks of Rome; it was conducted by the Vandals, who were then at war with the usurping Western Roman Emperor
Western Roman Emperor
Petronius Maximus.Contents1 Background 2 The sack 3 Aftermath 4 Interpretation 5 Notes 6 References 7 See alsoBackground[edit] In the 440s, the Vandal king Genseric
Genseric
and the Roman Emperor Valentinian III, had betrothed their children, Huneric
Huneric
and Eudocia,[1] to strengthen their alliance, reached in 442 with a peace treaty (the marriage was delayed as Eudocia was too young). In 455 Valentinian was killed, and Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
rose to the throne. Petronius married Valentinian's widow, Licinia Eudoxia, and had his son Palladius marry Eudocia; in this way Petronius was to strengthen his bond with the Theodosian dynasty
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