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Kibbutz
A kibbutz (Hebrew: קִבּוּץ‬ / קיבוץ‬, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim קִבּוּצִים‬ / קיבוצים‬) is a collective community in Israel
Israel
that was traditionally based on agriculture. The first kibbutz, established in 1909, was Degania.[1] Today, farming has been partly supplanted by other economic branches, including industrial plants and high-tech enterprises.[2] Kibbutzim began as utopian communities, a combination of socialism and Zionism.[3] In recent decades, some kibbutzim have been privatized and changes have been made in the communal lifestyle. A member of a kibbutz is called a kibbutznik (Hebrew: קִבּוּצְנִיק‬ / קיבוצניק‬; plural kibbutznikim or kibbutzniks). In 2010, there were 270 kibbutzim in Israel
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Kibbitz (other)
Kibitzer is a Yiddish term for a person who offers (often unwanted) advice or commentary, especially a spectator of mind sports The terms may refer to:The Kibitzer, a 1930 American comedy film Bernie Kibbitz, from list of All That characters, portrayed by Josh Server Sid Kibbitz, from list of Doonesbury charactersThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Kibitzer. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Bilu
Bilu
Bilu
(Hebrew: ביל"ו‬); also Palestine Pioneers[1]), was a movement whose goal was the agricultural settlement of the Land of Israel. Its members were known as Bilu'im.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] "Bilu" is an acronym based on a verse from the Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah
(2:5) "בית יעקב לכו ונלכה‬" Beit Ya'akov Lekhu Venelkha ("House of Jacob, let us go [up]"). History[edit] The wave of pogroms of 1881–1884 and anti-Semitic May Laws of 1882 introduced by Tsar Alexander III of Russia
Alexander III of Russia
prompted mass emigration of Jews from the Russian Empire. On 6 July 1882, the first group of Bilu pioneers arrived in Ottoman Palestine
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Russian Revolution
The Russian Revolution
Revolution
was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets') which contended for authority
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Betar
The Betar
Betar
Movement (Hebrew: בית"ר‬, also spelled Beitar) is a Revisionist Zionist youth movement founded in 1923 in Riga, Latvia, by Vladimir (Ze'ev) Jabotinsky. Chapters sprang up across Europe, even during World War II. After the war and during the settlement of what became Israel, Betar
Betar
was traditionally linked to the original Herut and then Likud
Likud
political parties of Jewish pioneers. It was closely affiliated with the pre- Israel
Israel
Revisionist Zionist splinter group Irgun
Irgun
Zevai Leumi
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Pogrom
The term pogrom has multiple meanings,[1] ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.[2] The term is usually applied to anti- Jewish
Jewish
violence in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries according to Encyclopædia Britannica[2]. It has been extended to include any attacks against Jews
Jews
and physical destruction of Jewish
Jewish
property, as well as looting of Jewish
Jewish
homes and businesses, throughout history.[1][3][4] The characteristics of a pogrom vary widely depending on the specific incidents, at times leading to, or culminating in massacres
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Jezreel Valley
The Jezreel Valley
Jezreel Valley
(Hebrew: עמק יזרעאל‬, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Arabic: مرج إبن عامر‎, translit. Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee
Galilee
region in Israel. The Samarian
Samarian
highlands and Mount Gilboa border the valley from the south and to the north lie the Israeli cities Afula
Afula
and Tiberias
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Cereal
Cereal
Cereal
is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal
Cereal
grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop[1] and are therefore staple crops. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat (Polygonaceae), quinoa (Amaranthaceae) and chia (Lamiaceae), are referred to as pseudocereals. In their natural form (as in whole grain), cereals are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate. In some developing countries, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance
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Jewish National Fund
The Jewish National Fund
Jewish National Fund
(Hebrew: קרן קיימת לישראל‎, Keren Kayemet LeYisrael previously הפונד הלאומי, Ha Fund HaLeumi) was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine (later the British Mandate for Palestine, and subsequently Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian territories) for Jewish settlement.[2] The JNF is a non-profit organization.[3][4] By 2007, it owned 13% of the total land in Israel.[5] Since its inception, the JNF says it has planted over 240 million trees in Israel
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Bedouin
The Bedouin
Bedouin
(/ˈbɛdu.ɪn/;[10] Arabic: بَدَوِي badawī) is a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the Levant.[11] The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic
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Cholera
Cholera
Cholera
is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[3][2] Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe.[2] The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days.[1] Vomiting
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Typhus
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.[1] Common symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash.[1] Typically these begin one to two weeks after exposure.[2] The diseases are caused by specific types of bacterial infection.[1] Epidemic typhus
Epidemic typhus
is due to Rickettsia prowazekii spread by body lice, scrub typhus is due to
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Judaean Mountains
The Judaean Mountains, or Judaean Hills (Hebrew: הרי יהודה‬ Harei Yehuda, Arabic: جبال الخليل‎ Jibal Al Khalil), is a mountain range in Israel
Israel
and the West Bank
West Bank
where Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and several other biblical cities are located. The mountains reach a height of 1,026 metres (3,366 ft).[1] The Judean Mountains can be separated to a number of sub-regions, including the Mount Hebron
Mount Hebron
ridge, the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
ridge and the Judean slopes. These mountains formed the heartland of the Kingdom of Judah, where the earliest Jewish settlements emerged.Contents1 Geography 2 Geology and history 3 Transportation 4 Gallery 5 References 6 External linksGeography[edit] The range runs in a north south direction from Galilee
Galilee
to the Negev with an average height of 900 metres (2,953 ft)
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